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Encyclopedia > Islamic Revolution
Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini.
Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Islamic Revolution was the 1979 revolution that transformed Iran from a pro-western constitutional monarchy, under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic, populist theocratic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The revolution has been divided into two stages: the first stage saw an alliance of liberal, leftist, and religious groups oust the Shah; the second stage, often named the Islamic Revolution, saw the Ayatollah's rise to power. Iranians revolt during the 1979 Islamic Revolution Photo courtesy of Vanderbilt University File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iranians revolt during the 1979 Islamic Revolution Photo courtesy of Vanderbilt University File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of the Persian Empire to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Shah is an Iranian term (Persian and Kurdish) for king, and has also been adopted in many other languages. ... Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... The term theocracy is used to describe a form of government in which a religion or faith plays the dominant role. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shia clerics. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the Islamic Republic of Iran Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (Persian: آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی Arabic: روح الله الخميني ) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia Muslim cleric and Marja, and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last...


The Shah had been in power since 1941, with a brief interruption in 1953; through the 1960s and 1970s he faced continued opposition, from religious figures as well as from urban middle classes, many of which supported a constitutional democracy with fewer powers resting with the Shah. The Shah enforced a strict regime, imprisoning hundreds of political activists, and enforcing censorship laws. At the same time, however, living conditions for the people improved significantly, and many basic human and democratic rights were established (e.g. extending suffrage to women), which were fiercely opposed by the islamic fundamentalists opposing the Shah. The Shah was denounced by many for being a puppet of the United States. For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The Constitutional democracy is Surinames political party. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ...


In 1978 a series of protests, triggered by a libelous story attacking Khomeini in the official press, created an escalating cycle of violence, until, on December 12, an estimated two million people filled the streets of Azadi Square (Then Shahyad Square) in Tehran to protest against the Shah. The army began to disintegrate, as conscripts refused to fire on demonstrators and began to switch sides. On January 16, 1979 the Shah and the empress left Iran on demands of prime minister Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar (a long time opposition leader himself), who sought to calm down the situation. He dissolved SAVAK and freed all political prisoners, allowed Khomeini to return to Iran after years of exile, asking him to create a Vatican-like state in Qom and called upon the opposition to help preserve the constitution, promising free elections. Khomeini rejected Dr. Bakhtiar's demands fiercely and appointed an interim government on his own. Shortly after, with the military announcing their impartiality in the conflict, the overthrow of monarchy was completed at the hands of the revolutionaries led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. 1978 (MCMLXXVIII in Roman) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... Azadi Tower in Azadi Square Azadi (Freedom) Square. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ... The Iranian Army is the national army of Iran. ... A demonstration is the public display of the common opinion of a activist group, often economically, political, or socially, by gathering in a crowd, usually at a symbolic place or date, associated with that opinion. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar (1915-August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and, although for only 37 days, Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... SAVAK (Persian: ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sazeman-i Ettelaat va Amniyat-i Keshvar, Organization for Intelligence and National Security) was the domestic security and intelligence service of Iran from 1957–1979. ... Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century. ...

Contents


Precursors to the revolution

History of Iran
edit

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was returned to power in Iran after he had fled the country in 1953. This was achieved by overthrowing the government of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh with the aid of a CIA covert operation, codenamed Operation Ajax. Pahlavi maintained good relations with the United States, but experienced conflict with traditional Iranian Muslim views on alcohol, gambling, and pre-marital sex, all of which he refused to ban. The regime was renowned for its corruption and its brutal practices that, in response, witnessed protests in Iran and elicited criticism from many parts of the international community. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The history of Iran covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilization on the Iranian plateau, Mannaeans civilization in Azerbaijan, Shahr-e Sookhteh (Burned City) in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft followed by the kingdom of Elam and the Achaemenid, the Parthian, the Sassanian and following Empires to the... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000-660 BC of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran and roughly the areas of present day Tehran,Hamedan,azarbaijan,north of Esfahan,zanjan,Kurdistan. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. Parthia, or known in their native Iranian language as Ashkâniân [2] (also called the Arsacid Empire) was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The famous Samanid mausoleum of Ismail of Samanid in Bukhara. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Mullahs in the royal presence. ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Covert operations are military or political activities that are not only clandestine (undertaken in a manner that disguises the identity of the perpetrators) but also covert, i. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-kukhÅ«l الكحول = the spirit, the chemical.) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... This article is primarily about religious attitudes to sexual morality. ... The term international community can refer to either: All the lands represented in United Nations. ...


Strong opposition arose in many sections of society during the Shah's reign. Of particular importance in this respect were the religious figures that had long grown to be an important voice of opposition in Iran. Since the 19th century Tobacco Protests, the Ulema had been steadily growing in political as well as religious influence. The dominant theology in Iran was one that closely linked religious and secular concerns with a strong history of social activism. These included opposition to government brutality and a commitment to fight poverty. This activism was matched by a strong conservatism toward the maintenance of Islamic values. As this opposition grew, the Shah struck hard on dissidents. In 1963, for example, he attacked theology students who tried to stop the opening of a liquor store. Opposition may refer to a number of topics: astronomical opposition political opposition parliamentary opposition Opposition to a patent, see for instance Opposition procedure before the European Patent Office This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tobacco Protest occurred in Iran in 1891. ... The Ulema are Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies, responsible for interpreting the Sharia. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ...

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi

Ayatollah Khomeini was a leader of the opposition, who claimed that the Shah's reign was a tyranny. Following the arrest of Khomeini, and his subsequent exile from Iran in 1964, rioting among the cleric's followers increased. The Shah frequently chose to answer the riots with violence, arresting and killing demonstrators. It is unknown how many lives were claimed in this campaign; the Pahlavi government claimed it to be 86, while Iranian exiles have estimated it in the thousands. Image File history File links Mohammadreza_Shah. ... Image File history File links Mohammadreza_Shah. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ...


During 1963 and 1967, the Iranian economy grew considerably, due to a rise in the value of oil, as well as steel exports. Inflation accelerated at the same time, however. 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Faced with growing opposition from the religious leaders, who were joined by small business leaders in 1975, the Shah launched a new effort to assert his control over Iranian society. This effort attempted to minimize the role of Islam in the life of the empire, lauding instead the achievements of pre-Islamic Persian civilization. Thus, in 1976, the beginning of the Iranian solar calendar was changed from the Islamic date to the ascension to throne by Cyrus the Great. Muslim and Marxist publications were also heavily censored. 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Common misspelling of Cyprus. ...


The Shah's program of reforms was known as the White Revolution. It also abolished the feudal system (causing consequences such as breaking up property owned by some Shia clergy - which reduced their income) and it gave suffrage to women (which was protested by the clergy as being a plot to disrupt the nuclear family unit). The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... A nuclear family (sometimes known in the British sociological term, cornflake family) is a household consisting of two married, heterosexual parents and their legal children (siblings), as distinct from the extended family. ...


Pre-revolutionary conditions inside Iran

The poorest section of the Iranian population tended to be the most religious and the most opposed to perceived foreign imperialism. The poor were largely rural, or inhabited slums outside the large cities, especially the capital Tehran. They wanted the basic Islamic lifestyle to return, in opposition to the Shah's efforts for modernism and progress, which they believed to be imperialism. They viewed the Shah's reforms as self-serving and his promise of providing "progress" to be false, based on the increased gap between rich and poor. In addition, many felt that much of the great wealth created by the oil industry was creating an increasing gap between the rich and the poor. Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ...


As the Iranian middle classes became more urbanised, educated, and exposed to progressive and modern philosophies, many came to see the regime as being part of the problem. In addition in the years following his restoration in 1953, the Shah's position became increasingly perilous. This was due in large measure to his close ties to the West, unpopular reforms enacted during the White Revolution, internal corruption, and the despotic nature of his regime, especially its secret police known as SAVAK. 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... SAVAK (Persian: ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sazeman-i Ettelaat va Amniyat-i Keshvar, Organization for Intelligence and National Security) was the domestic security and intelligence service of Iran from 1957–1979. ...


In the early 1970's, as the price of oil continued its upward climb, many became increasingly angered by the regime's cronyism, internal corruption, and repressive nature. The internal decadence is well illustrated by the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire. These celebrations consisted of a three-day party held at the site of Persepolis in October, 1971. Officially, the celebrations cost $40 million, but unofficial estimates were more in the range of $100-120 million.[1] The party included extravagances, such as over a ton of caviar, prepared by some of the two hundred chefs flown in from Paris. Meanwhile, many within Iran had insufficient food and shelter of their own. The Persian Empire refers to lands ruled by a number of Persian dynasties. ... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... A can of black Iranian caviar Russian salmon caviar on butterbrot Caviar is the processed, salted roe of various species of fish, most notably sturgeon. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


In the 1970s, as the rise in global crude oil prices increased the gulf between rich and poor in Iran, the pressure for a change in government policies became more acute. Even pro-Western elements in Iran became disturbed by the increasingly autocratic style of government and increased use of the secret police. Many fled Iran before the Revolution, and others began to organize. At the same time, a broader populist movement found its source of organization in mosques, and in sermons that denounced the wickedness of the West and Western indulgences. The collision between a young and growing population, and a social structure which offered neither advancement in a modern state, nor the stability of a traditional society, created the conditions which were ripe for revolution. A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ...


Early protests

In 1977, following human rights pressure from U.S. President Jimmy Carter (who threatened to cut arms shipments), more than 300 political prisoners were released, censorship was relaxed, and the court system reformed. This loosening of restrictions led to more campaigns from the opposition, where writers campaigned for freedom of thought, and people began to demonstrate. Also, the policy of land reform which the Shah implemented, and had also been caused by pressure from the Carter administration, infuriated the mullahs (who declared a holy war against the Shah), and contributed to the Shah's problems. For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience) is the freedom of an individual to hold a viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ...


This early opposition was led by Mehdi Bazargan and his Freedom Movement of Iran. It was a liberal, secularist group that was closely linked to Massadegh's movement of the 1950s. This group saw significant support in Iran and abroad in the West. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ...


More radical was Ali Shari'ati, who combined Marxism and Shia orthodoxy into a revolutionary movement inspired by the Cuban and Algerian revolutions. Shari'ati's alleged murder in London in 1977, which was blamed on SAVAK agents, greatly inflamed tensions. Dr Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شریعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his works in the field of sociology of religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Houses of Parliament and the clock tower containing Big Ben Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... SAVAK (Persian: ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات Ùˆ امنیت کشور Sazeman-i Ettelaat va Amniyat-i Keshvar, Organization for Intelligence and National Security) was the domestic security and intelligence service of Iran from 1957–1979. ...


The Ulema were divided, some allying with the liberal secularists, and others with the Marxists. Khomeini, who was in exile in Iraq, led a small faction that advocated the overthrow of the regime and the creation of a theocratic state. In late 1977, Khomeini's son Mostafa was found dead of unknown reasons; again the Shah security forces were blamed. The Ulema are Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies, responsible for interpreting the Sharia. ...


The various anti-establishment groups operated from outside Iran, mostly in London, Paris, Iraq, and Turkey. Speeches by the leaders of these groups were placed on audio cassettes to be smuggled into Iran. The speeches could then be listened to by the largely illiterate population. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ...


United States

Facing a revolution, the Shah of Iran sought help from the United States. Iran occupied a strategic place in U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East, acting as an island of stability, and a buffer against Soviet penetration into the region. He was pro-American, but domestically oppressive. The U.S. ambassador to Iran, William H. Sullivan, recalls that the U.S. national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski “repeatedly assured Pahlavi that the U.S. backed him fully," however these reassurances would not amount to substantive action on the part of the United States. On November 4th, 1978, Brzezinski called the Shah to tell him that the United States would "back him to the hilt." At the same time, certain high-level officials in the State Department decided that the Shah had to go, regardless of who replaced him. Brzezinski, and Energy Secretary James Schlesinger (former Secretary of Defense under Ford), continued to advocate that the U.S. support the Shah militarily. Even in the final days of the revolution, when the Shah was considered doomed no matter what the outcome of the revolution came to be, Brzezinski still advocated a U.S. invasion to stabilize Iran. President Carter could not decide how to appropriately use force, opposed a U.S. coup, ordered the Constellation aircraft carrier to the Indian Ocean, but soon countermanded his order. A deal was worked out with the Iranian generals to shift support to a moderate government, but this plan fell apart when Khomeini and his followers swept the country, taking power 12 February 1979. The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Ambassador Atherton, Sullivan, Vance, Carter and Brzezinski, 1979 Alfred Leroy Atherton Jr. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1979. ... Cyrus Vance Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917 – January 12, 2002) was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, statesman. ... Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1979. ... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, statesman. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII in Roman) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, concerned as the name suggests, with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...


Escalating protests

During the period up to 1978, the opposition to the Shah mostly came from the urban middle class, a section of the population that was fairly secular and would support a constitutional monarchy. It was the Islamic groups that first managed to rally the great mass of the population against the Shah. A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ...


In January of 1978 the official press ran a libelous story attacking Khomeini. Angry students and religious leaders protested against the allegations in the city of Qom. The army was sent in, dispersing the demonstrations and killing several students. Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century. ...


According to the Shi'ite customs, forty days after a person's death memorial services are held. In mosques across the nation, calls were made to honour the dead students. Thus on February 18, groups in a number of cities marched to honour the fallen, and to protest against the rule of the Shah. This time, violence erupted in Tabriz, and over a hundred demonstrators were killed. The cycle repeated itself, and on March 29, a new round of protests began across the nation. Luxury hotels, theaters showing "unethical movies", and other symbols of the Shah regime were destroyed; again security forces intervened, killing many. On May 10 the same occurred. February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ...


The damage from the demonstrations, along with rampant inflation, further ravaged the Iranian economy. As a result, in the summer of 1978, the government introduced austerity measures that saw many public works projects shut down and wage freezes imposed. These measures created widespread unemployment and labour unrest, mostly among the poor labourers living in the slums around Tehran and other major cities. Increasingly, the working class joined the students and the middle class in the protests against the regime. Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California during the Great Depression. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ...


Overthrow of the Shah

By September, the nation was rapidly destabilizing, with major protests becoming a regular occurrence. The Shah introduced martial law, and banned all demonstrations. On Friday, September 8, a massive protest broke out in Tehran, and in what became known as Black Friday, the regime used the full force of its weaponry to crush the protests. Tanks, helicopter gun ships, and machine guns killed hundreds. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Black Friday occurred September 8, 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 AP) in Iran. ...


Black Friday succeeded in alienating much of the rest of the Iranian people, as well as the Shah's allies abroad. A general strike in October resulted in the collapse of the economy, with most industries being shut down. A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ...


The protests of 1978 culminated in December, during the holy month of Muharram, one of the most important months for Shia Muslims. Hundreds of demonstrators were killed each day, yet each day the protests grew. On December 12, over two million people filled the streets of Tehran to protest against the Shah. Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ...


The army began to disintegrate, as conscripts refused to fire on demonstrators and began to switch sides. Some soldiers turned on superior officers, killing them, and took over military bases.


On January 16, 1979 the Shah and the empress left Iran on demands of prime minister Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar (a long time opposition leader himself), who sought to calm down the situation. He dissolved SAVAK and freed all political prisoners, allowed Ayatollah Khomeini to return to Iran after years of exile, asking him to create a Vatican-like state in Qom and called upon the opposition to help preserve the constitution, promising free elections. Ayatollah Khomeini rejected Dr. Bakhtiar's demands fiercely and appointed an interim government on his own. Shortly after, with the military announcing their impartiality in the conflict, the overthrow of monarchy was completed at the hands of the revolutionaries led by the fundamentalist Ayatollah Khomeini. January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar (1915-August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and, although for only 37 days, Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...


Khomeini takes power

Ayatollah Khomeini was a leader of the opposition to the Shah.
Ayatollah Khomeini was a leader of the opposition to the Shah.

There was great jubilation in Iran at the ousting of the Shah, but there was also much disagreement over Iran's future path. While Khomeini was the most popular political figure, there were dozens of revolutionary groups, each with a differing view of the proper direction of Iran's future. There were strong liberal, secularist, Marxist, and anarchist factions, as well as a wide array of religious groups looking to craft the future of Iran. Ruhollah Khomeini, spiritual leader of Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ruhollah Khomeini, spiritual leader of Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Shah is an Iranian term (Persian and Kurdish) for king, and has also been adopted in many other languages. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ...


The military, economy, and foreign relations of the nation all were in turmoil. The early years saw the development of a government with two centres of power. Mehdi Bazargan became Prime Minister, and the Freedom Movement worked to establish a liberal secular government. The clerics led by Khomeini formed a separate centre of power, the Islamic Republican party. The groups tried to cooperate, but tensions grew between the two factions. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... The Islamic Republican Party (IRP) was formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian_Revolution. ...


It was the theologians who were the first to bring order to the nation, as revolutionary cells became local committees. Becoming known as the Revolutionary Guards in May 1979, these groups soon were running local governments across Iran, and wielding most of the local power. They also gained control of the judicial tribunals that were passing judgment on the former officials in the Shah's security services and the military. Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (Persian سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی - Sepah Pasdaran Enghaleb Islam-e), often shortened to Revolutionary Guards, or called by its Persian name Sepah, translated to English as Pasdaran, is a military organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


In June, the Freedom Movement released its draft constitution; it referred to Iran as an Islamic Republic, but gave no official role to the Ulema or Islamic law. The constitution was sent to the newly-elected legislature for review, dominated by allies of Khomeini. The chamber rejected the constitution, agreeing with Khomeini that the new government should be based "100% on Islam."


A new constitution was made that created a powerful post of Supreme Leader for Khomeini, who would control the military and security services, and could veto candidates running for office. A president was to be elected every four years, but only those candidates approved indirectly by the Supreme Leader (through a Council of Guardians) were permitted to run for the office. Khomeini himself became Head of State for life, as "Leader of the Revolution", and later "Supreme Spiritual Leader". Feeling powerless and disagreeing with the direction the nation was moving, Bazargan resigned as Prime Minister in November. Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to ensure that their authority, legitimacy, and term is never questioned or disputed. ...


Opposition to the revolution

Western/U.S.-Iranian relations

That same month saw anger at the United States, which continued to support the Shah and was blamed for encouraging counter-revolutionary activity. That feeling peaked, as youthful supporters of Khomeini took a number of hostages at the American embassy, in what became known as the Iran hostage crisis. The students responsible would blame it on the United States for accepting the Shah into the country for cancer treatments, but the message was clear; they could defy the U.S. The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day period during which student proxies of the new Iranian regime held hostage 66 diplomats and citizens of the United States, which lasted from November 4, 1979 until January 31, 1981. ...


Failed Nojeh Coup

In July 1980, the U.S. national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski met Jordan's King Hussein in Amman to discuss detailed plans for Saddam Hussein to sponsor a coup in Iran against Khomeini. King Hussein was Saddam's closest confidant in the Arab world, and served as an intermediary during the planning. The Iraqi invasion of Iran would be launched under the pretext of a call for aid from Iranian loyalist officers plotting their own uprising on July 9, 1980 (codenamed Nojeh, after Shahrokhi/Nojeh air base in Hamedan). The Iranian officers were organized by Shapour Bakhtiar, who had fled to France when Khomeini seized power, but was operating from Baghdad and Sulimaniyah at the time of Brzezinski's meeting with Hussein. However, Khomeini learned of the Nojeh Coup plan from Soviet agents in France and Latin America. Shortly after Brzezinski's meeting with Hussein, the President of Iran, Abolhassan Bani-Sadr quietly rounded up six hundred of the loyalist plotters within Iran, putting an effective end to the Nojeh Coup [2]. Saddam would decide to invade without the Iranian officer's assistance, beginning the Iran-Iraq war on 22 September 1980. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, statesman. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... Amman (Arabic عمان Ê¿Ammān), the capital of the Kingdom of Jordan, is a city of more than 1. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... This page is about city of Hamedan. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar (1915-August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and, although for only 37 days, Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: , from Persian بغداد , meaning given by God) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Province. ... Sulaymaniyah (Arabic: as-sulaymānÄ«yä, Kurdish: Slemani) is a city in the southeast of greater Kurdistan (the Kurdish-speaking region of the Middle East). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... Abolhassan Banisadr (ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر in Persian) (born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 revolution. ... Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Strength Casualties Est. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Opposition by neighboring regimes

The leaders of Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf States were also distressed by the Islamic Revolution, as a Shi'a minority exists among their nations (except in Iraq and Bahrain where Shi'a are the majority) and it would stir a civil war. Also Iran called for social justice in the Middle East and an end to corrupt rule in the region and the world. Great support was given to South Africa's Black population, the Developing nations of Africa, Cuba, and the PLO by Iran's new governments. This was seen as a great threat to the status quo and the world order. Iran declared that it was not East or West and opposed both American and Soviet policies to master the world. Ayatollah Khomeini was seen by the leaders of these countries as extreme not only that he encouraged the overthowing of the current oppressive regime in Iran but also the ones in the neighboring countries. Thus, in 1980, Iraq, with financial support from the rulers of the majority of Arab states and the backing of both the Soviet Union and United States, invaded Iran in an attempt to destroy the revolution in its infancy. This began the eight year Iran-Iraq War that would see a huge cost in lives and resources. The Arabian Gulf States, also called the Gulf States (which may cause a confusion with the Gulf States of the United States, which are those along the Gulf of Mexico), are the countries in Southwest Asia or the Middle East which border the Arabian Gulf. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shia clerics. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Strength Casualties Est. ...


Iran was much stronger and organised than Saddam Hussein had thought. The invasion by Iraq helped rally Iranians behind the new regime, and past differences were largely abandoned in the face of the external threat. In the same year, the new constitution was passed in a referendum by a large majority. For those who did remain opposed to the new regime, mostly the Soviet-backed leftist groups, the war became an excuse for harsh treatment that saw the new regime use torture and illegal imprisonments, just as the Shah had. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


While Iraq was, in the end, unsuccessful at defeating the revolution, the Islamic revolution failed to spread beyond the borders of Iran. Thus the war partially fulfilled its goals and instead of the revolution spreading to other nations it was only maintained within Iran. The significant Shi'ite populations of Iraq and the Gulf States did not embrace the new model even though they sympathise with the system.


The one area where Iranian influence was extended was into the Lebanese Civil War, where Hezbollah became closely allied with the Iranians, fighting Sunni and Christian factions in Lebanon, and later the Israelis. This support for a group regarded as terrorists by much of the world, especially the United States, further ostracized Iran from the world community. Since the end of the civil war, Hezbollah has developed a significant domestic base and is no longer reliant on support from Iran, but relations between the two remain close. For the civil conflict of 1958, see Lebanon crisis of 1958. ... The Hezbollah flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God, for other designations or alternative spellings, see name part of this article) is a Shia Islamist group in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight the Israeli occupation in southern Lebanon. ...


Exile of previous regime

Upon the ascension of the new Shi'ite regime, scores of the Shah's secret police, the SAVAK, and thousands of other supporters of the Shah and members of the civil and military elite were executed (most importantly by Sadegh Khalkhali, the Sharia ruler). Among those executed - practically without trial - was Amir Abbas Hoveida, former Prime Minister of Iran. Another former Prime Minister, Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar, was assassinated in Paris, 1991, after a previous failed attempt on his life. The Shah himself found political asylum in Egypt under Anwar Sadat. The Shah, already terminally ill with cancer, died in Cairo on July 27, 1980. Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali (صادق خلخالی in Persian) (1927? - November 26, 2003) was a hardline Shia cleric of the early years of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Prime Minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda Hoveyda appearing on a book cover. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar (1915-August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and, although for only 37 days, Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Post-revolutionary impact

In the long run, the revolution did result in a lessening of foreign influence, which had tended to be imperialistic. The distribution of wealth also became far more equitable.


However, despite a fair degree of democracy in the post-revolutionary political structure (see politics of Iran for more depth), the violations of human rights during the theocratic regime have been of a similar level of brutality as during the monarchy. Torture, the imprisoning of dissidents, and the murder of prominent critics is commonplace. The oppression of women has been common since the revolution. So has the oppression of religious minorities, particularly the members of the Bahá'í Faith, which has been declared heretical. More than 200 Bahá'ís have been executed or killed, hundreds more have been imprisoned, and tens of thousands have been deprived of jobs, pensions, businesses, and educational opportunities. All national Bahá'í administrative structures have been banned by the government, and holy places, shrines and cemeteries have been confiscated, vandalized, or destroyed. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg is an infamous and rarely used torture device. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís in Haifa Israel The Baháí Faith is an emerging global religion founded by Baháulláh, a 19th century Persian exile. ...


The revolution also left Iran isolated internationally, outcast from both the capitalist and communist worlds, with significant trade sanctions that continue to this day (by the United States). In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Trade sanctions are trade penalties imposed by one or more countries on one or more other countries. ...


On the other hand, the revolution also had the impact of allowing internal evolution of the political system, rather than evolution imposed by external pressures. For example, in 1997, reformist president Mohammad Khatami was elected, and the relatively high level (for the region) of Internet penetration (as of 2005, Iran had about 7.5 million internet users — [3], see also Iranian blogs) makes it difficult to stop this continued internal evolution of political thought and organisation. 1997 (MCMXCVII in Roman) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iranian reformists, or the Reforms Front (جبههٔ اصلاحات) are a group of political parties and organizations in Iran who supported Mohammad Khatami in his run for presidency in 1997. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... Sayyid Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی), born October 14, 1943 in Ardakan, Yazd province), a prominent Iranian-Muslim intellectual, served as the fifth President of Iran from August 2, 1997 to August 2, 2005 and was succeeded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sharissa and Sultan Ta-ha Rule Iran The Irani blogs tends to operate under special circumstances as traditional Iranian society tends to discourage self-expression and individualism is less respected. ...


See also

MKO Logo The Peoples Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI) (Persian: سازمان مجاهدين خلق ايران) is an Iranian terrorist group. ... For the doctrine, see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine) For the book by Khomeini, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Khomeini) For the book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same... The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... The 1979 (or second) oil crisis occurred in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. ... The history of Iran covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilization on the Iranian plateau, Mannaeans civilization in Azerbaijan, Shahr-e Sookhteh (Burned City) in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft followed by the kingdom of Elam and the Achaemenid, the Parthian, the Sassanian and following Empires to the... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000-660 BC of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. ...

Further reading

  • Afshar, Haleh, ed. (1985). Iran: A Revolution in Turmoil, Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0333369475.
  • Barthel, Günter, ed. (1983). Iran: From Monarchy to Republic, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
  • Daniel, Elton L. (2000). The History of Iran, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313307318.
  • Esposito, John L., ed. (1990). The Islamic Revolution: Its Global Impact, Miami: Florida International University Press. ISBN 0813009987.
  • Harris, David (2004). The Crisis: The President, the Prophet, and the Shah -- 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam, New York & Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0316323942.
  • Hiro, Dilip (1989). Holy Wars: The Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415902088. (Chapter 6: Iran: Revolutionary Fundamentalism in Power.)
  • Kapuscinski, Ryszard. Shah of Shahs. Translated from the Polish by William R. Brand and Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand. New York: Vintage International, 1992.
  • Kurzman, Charles. The Unthinkable Revolution. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2004.
  • Habib Ladjevardi (editor), Memoirs of Shapour Bakhtiar, Harvard University Press, 1996.
  • Legum, Colin, et al., eds. Middle East Contemporary Survey: Volume III, 1978-79. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1980.
  • Abbas Milani, The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the Riddle of the Islamic Revolution, Mage Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0934211612.
  • Munson, Henry, Jr. Islam and Revolution in the Middle East. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Nobari, Ali-Reza, ed. Iran Erupts: Independence: News and Analysis of the Iranian National Movement. Stanford: Iran-America Documentation Group, 1978.
  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Response to History, Stein & Day Pub, 1980, ISBN 0812827554.
  • Rahnema, Saeed & Sohrab Behdad, eds. Iran After the Revolution: Crisis of an Islamic State. London: I.B. Tauris, 1995.
  • Sick, Gary. All Fall Down: America's Tragic Encounter with Iran. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.
  • William Shawcross, The Shah's last ride: The death of an ally, Touchstone, 1989, ISBN 067168745X.
  • Smith, Frank E. The Islamic Revolution. 1998.
  • Society for Iranian Studies, Islamic Revolution in Perspective. Special volume of Iranian Studies, 1980. [Volume 13, nos. 1-4].
  • Time magazine, Jan 7, 1980. Man of the Year. [Ayatollah Khomeini]
  • U.S. Department of State, American Foreign Policy Basic Documents, 1977-1980. Washington, DC: GPO, 1983. [JX 1417 A56 1977-80 REF - 67 pages on Iran]
  • Yapp, M.E. The Near East Since the First World War: A History to 1995. London: Longman, 1996. [Chapter 13: Iran, 1960-1989]

Abbas Milani is a contemporary persian historian, Iranologist and author. ... Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran. ... William Shawcross (b. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

External links

World Service logo The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 43 languages to around 150 million people throughout the world. ... BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of chiefly spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^  Hiro, Dilip. Iran Under the Ayatollahs. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1985. p. 57.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iranian Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4102 words)
The Iranian Revolution was the 1979 revolution that transformed Iran from a constitutional monarchy, under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic, populist theocratic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
While Iraq was, in the end, unsuccessful at defeating the revolution, the Islamic revolution failed to spread beyond the borders of Iran.
Torture, the imprisoning of dissidents, and the murder of prominent critics is commonplace.
Islamic Revolution of Iran - MSN Encarta (1566 words)
Islamic Revolution of Iran, widespread uprising in 1978 and 1979 in which Islamic fundamentalists and their supporters overthrew Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran.
The revolutionaries, led by an exiled religious leader, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, dismantled the shah’s secular (nonreligious) monarchy and established the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Instead, Shia clerics should defend the religion and await the return of the 12th imam, the messianic figure of Shiism whose presence was needed for the establishment of an Islamic state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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