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Encyclopedia > Islamic Republic of Iran

Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. Until 1935 the country was referred to in the West as Persia. In 1959 Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi announced that both terms could be used. Use of the word "Persia" to refer to present-day Iran is, however, rare. The name Iran is a cognate of "Aryan" meaning "Land of the Aryans". Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... For the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ...


Iran borders Pakistan (length of border: 909 km) and Afghanistan (936 km) to the east, Turkmenistan (1000 km) to the northeast, the Caspian Sea to the north, Azerbaijan (500 km) and Armenia (35 km) to the northwest, Turkey (500 km) and Iraq (1458 km) to the west, and finally the waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south. In 1979, a revolution led by the Ayatollah Khomeini established a theocratic Islamic Republic, making the present full name of the country The Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران). The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Dari-Persian: Afğānistān افغانستان) is a country in Central Asia. ... Turkmenistan, once known as the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic is a country in Central Asia. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe ( European Russia). ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... A satellite image showing the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, Arabic: الخليج الفارسي) is an extension of the Gulf of Oman in between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ... The Gulf of Oman is a strait that connects with the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Theocracy is a form of government in which a religion and the government are allied. ... An Islamic republic is a form of government, known as a theocracy, advocated by some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa. ...

جمهوری اسلامی ایران
(Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran)
Image:Iran_coa.png
(In Detail)
National motto: —'Independence, Freedom, The Islamic Republic' 'esteghlâl, âzâdi, jomhoorie eslâmi' (Persian)
image:LocationIran.png
Official language Persian
Capital Tehran
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei
President Mohammad Khatami
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 18th
1,648,195 km²
0.7%
Population
 - Total (July 2004)
 - Density
Ranked 17th
69,018,924
42/km²
Currency Rial
Time zone GMT +3.30
National anthem Sorood-e Melli-e Jomhoori-e Eslami
Internet TLD .ir
Calling Code 98
Contents

2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Supreme Leader (Rahbar)
2.3 The President (Ra'is-e Jomhour)
2.4 The Parliament (Majles)
2.5 The Assembly of Experts
2.6 The Council of Guardians
2.7 The Expediency Council
2.8 The Judiciary
Large flag of Iran Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... Emblem of the Islamic Republic Allah in artistically stylized Arabic letters. ... Flag ratio: 4:7 The current flag of Iran was adopted on July 29, 1980, and is a reflection of the changes brought to Iran by the Islamic Revolution. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Tehran (also spelled Teheran) (تهران in Persian), population 8,000,000 (metropolitan: 10,000,000), is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ... Mohammad Khatami, Irans president, 1997-2005. ... President Khatami Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: حجت‌الاسلام سید محمد خاتمی; born October, 1943 in Ardakan) is the fifth and current President of Iran. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... Rial (ریال in Persian; ISO 4217 code IRR) is the official currency of Iran. ... -1... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ... Sorood-e Melli-e Jomhoori-e Eslami or Sorud-e Melli-e Iran is the national anthem of Iran. ... A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of which Internet domain names consist of. ... .ir is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Iran. ...

History

History of Iran
Elamite Empire
Median Empire
Achaemenid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
Parthian Empire
Sassanid dynasty
Samanid dynasty
Buwayhid empire
Seljuk Turkish empire
Khwarezmid Empire
Ilkhanate
Safavid dynasty
Zand dynasty
Qajar dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
Iranian Revolution
Islamic Republic of Iran

Main article: History of Iran Ancient history Few nations in the world present more of a justification for the study of history than Iran. ... The ancient Elamite Empire lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Achaemenid empire in its highest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing some parts of todays Iraq... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... The Zand dynasty ruled southern and central Iran in the eighteenth century. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Ancient history Few nations in the world present more of a justification for the study of history than Iran. ...


Iran traces its national origin to Persia, derived from Persis, the ancient Greek name for Iran, that emerged in the 6th century BC under the Achaemenid dynasty as a vast empire that controlled an area from northwestern India to Greece. It was defeated by Alexander the Great after three attempts, but soon after, Persia regained its independence in the form of the Parthian and Sassanid Empires. The latter was defeated by Islamic Arab forces in the 7th century AD, who were followed by Seljuk Turks, the Mongols, and Tamerlane. (7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Cyrus the Great conquered many... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Bust of Alexander III in the British Museum. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ...


The 16th century saw renewed independence with the Safavids and then other lines of kings or shahs. During the 19th century Persia came under pressure from both Russia and the United Kingdom and a process of modernisation began that continued into the 20th century. Iranians longed for change and this resulted in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905/1911. In 1953, Iran's prime minister Mohammed Mossadeq, who had been elected to parliament in 1923 and again in 1944, and who had been prime minister since 1951, was removed from power in a complex plot orchestrated by British and US intelligence agencies ("Operation Ajax"). Many scholars suspect that this ouster was motivated by British-US opposition to Mossadeq's attempt to nationalize Iran's oil. Following Mossadeq's fall, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Iran's monarch) grew increasingly dictatorial. With strong support from the USA and the UK, the Shah further modernised Iranian industry but crushed civil liberties. His autocratic rule, including systematic torture and other human rights violations, led to the Iranian revolution and overthrow of his regime in 1979. After more than a year of political struggle between a variety of different groups, an Islamic republic was established under the Ayatollah Khomeini by popular vote. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Shah (in Persian: شاه), from the Old Persian word khshathra king, is the Persian term for a monarch and used by the former rulers of Persia (present-day Iran) as well as the rulers of the Persian Empire. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A Revolution in Iran against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... Global Metrics Human security Major Armed Conflicts: Total Deaths in Battle: 700,000 people Violent Deaths caused by Government (Other than War): Violent Deaths caused by other humans: Juvenile Violent Crime: Political security Nations Holding Multi-party Elections: Percentage Living under a Fully Democratic System of Governance: Free Countries: Percentage... Operation Ajax (1953) (officially TP-AJAX) was an Anglo-American covert operation to overthrow the then-government of Iran and Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and restore the exiled Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi to the throne. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... This article treats the generic title monarch. ... Civil liberties are protections from the power of governments. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Aspects of torture Incrimination of innocent people One well documented effect of torture is that with rare exceptions people will say or do anything to escape the situation, including untrue confessions and implication of others without genuine knowledge, who may well then be tortured in turn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... An Islamic republic is a form of government, known as a theocracy, advocated by some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...


The new theocratic political system instituted some conservative Islamic reforms, as well as engaging in an anti-Western course, in particular against the United States, for its involvement in the 1953 coup which had toppled the elected government and fixed the Shah's repressive regime for more than 25 years. The new government inspired various groups considered by a a large part of the Western World to be fundamentalist. As a consequence, many countries, currently leaded by the USA, consider Iran to be a hostile power. Theocracy is a form of government in which a religion and the government are allied. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


In 1980 Iran was attacked by neighbouring Iraq and the destructive Iran-Iraq War continued until 1988. However, in more recent years, the democratic political structure has led to the election of many reformist politicians, including the president, Mohammad Khatami. During the first decade of the 21st century, the struggle between reformists and conservatives over the future of the country continues through electoral politics. The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ... This article deals with democracy in its modern sense. ... President Khatami Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: حجت‌الاسلام سید محمد خاتمی; born October, 1943 in Ardakan) is the fifth and current President of Iran. ... (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Definition In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing, lasting from 2000-2099. ...


See also: full list of Iranian Kingdoms Elamite Empire, 2700BC-660BC The Elamites were an Iranian people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ...


Politics

Azadi (shahyad) Square, has come to symbolize independence and liberty for millions of Iranians.
  1. Politics of Iran
  2. Iranian Foreign Affairs
  3. U.S.-Iran relations

Azadi Square, Tehran, Iran This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Azadi Square, Tehran, Iran This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Introduction Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli; The main gates to Irans Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tehran, Iran. ... In 1953, Irans nationalist Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh began a period of rapid power consolidation, which eventually led to his exiling of Irans constitutional monarch, the Shah. ...

Introduction

Iran is a constitutional Islamic Republic, whose political system is laid out in the 1979 constitution called Qanun e Asasi. Iran's makeup has several intricately connected governing bodies, some of which are democratically elected and some of which operate by co-opting people based on their religious expertise. 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


The Supreme Leader (Rahbar)

According to Iran's Constitution (http://www.salamiran.org/IranInfo/State/Constitution/), the Supreme Leader of Iran is responsible for the delineation and supervision of "the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran." In the absence of a single leader, a council of religious leaders is appointed. The Supreme Leader is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and controls the Islamic Republic's intelligence and security operations; he alone can declare war. He has the power to appoint and dismiss the leaders of the judiciary, the state radio and television networks, and the supreme commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. He also appoints six of the twelve members of the Council of Guardians. He, or the council of religious leaders, are elected by the Assembly of Experts, on the basis of their qualifications and the high popular esteem in which they are held. Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...


The President (Ra'is-e Jomhour)

After the office of Leadership, the President of Iran is the highest official in the country. His is the responsibility for implementing the Constitution and acting as the head of the executive, except in matters directly concerned with (the office of) the Leadership. According to the law, all presidential candidates must be approved by the Council of Guardians prior to running, after which he is elected by universal suffrage to a 4-year term by an absolute majority of votes. After his election, the president appoints and supervises the Council of Ministers (the cabinet), coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the parliament. Eight vice presidents serve under the president, as well as a cabinet of 21 ministers. The Council of Ministers must be confirmed by Parliament. Unlike many other states, the executive branch in Iran does not control the armed forces. Mohammad Khatami, Irans president, 1997-2005. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... This is a list of current Iranian officials with their titles, last checked and updated on October 12, 2004: Heads Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader Mohammad Khatami, President Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel, Speaker of Majlis Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, Head of the Judiciary Branch Ahmad Jannati, Chairman of the Guardian Council Ali...


The Parliament (Majles)

The "Majles", seat of the legislative branch of the government of The Islamic Republic of Iran.

The unicameral Iranian parliament, the Islamic Consultative Assembly or "Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami", consists of 290 members elected to a 4-year term. The members are elected by direct and secret ballot. It drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the country's budget. All legislation from the assembly must be reviewed by the Council of Guardians. Candidates for a seat in the Majles require approval by the Council of Guardians. Irans seat of parliament, Baharestan,Tehran. ... Irans seat of parliament, Baharestan,Tehran. ... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament The Majlis (مجلس), which means parliament or assembly in the Arabic language, was the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979. ... The Polling by William Hogarth (1755); Before the secret ballot was introduced voter intimidation was commonplace The secret ballot is a process in elections where the choice of the voters is kept confidential. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...


The Assembly of Experts

The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week every year, consists of 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by the public to eight-year terms. Like presidential and parliamentary elections, the Council of Guardians determines eligibility to run for a seat in this assembly. The Assembly of Experts of Iran (مجلس خبرگان in Persian), is a congress-like body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...


Members of the Assembly of Experts in turn elect the Supreme Leader from within their own ranks and periodically reconfirm him. The assembly has never been known to challenge any of the Supreme Leader's decisions. Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ...


The Council of Guardians

Twelve jurists comprise the Council of Guardians, six of whom are appointed by the Supreme Leader. The head of the judiciary recommends the remaining six, which are officially appointed by Parliament. The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...


The Council of Guardians is vested with the authority to interpret the constitution and determines if the laws passed by Parliament are in line with sharia (Islamic law). Hence the council can exercise veto power over Parliament. If a law passed by Parliament is deemed incompatible with the constitution or sharia, it is referred back to Parliament for revision.


The council also examines presidential and parliamentary candidates to determine their fitness to run for a seat.


The Expediency Council

Created by Ayatollah Khomeini in 1988, the Expediency Council has the authority to mediate disputes between Parliament and the Council of Guardians. Presently, according to the constitution, the Expediency Council serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country, at least in name. The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians, and also to serve as a consultative council to the Supreme Leader. ...


The Judiciary

The head of the judiciary is appointed by the Supreme Leader, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor.


Public courts deal with civil and criminal cases. There are also revolutionary courts that try certain categories of offenses, including crimes against national security, narcotics smuggling, and acts that undermine the Islamic Republic. Decisions rendered in revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed.


The rulings of the Special Clerical Court, which functions independently of the regular judicial framework and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader, are also final and cannot be appealed. The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving lay people.


Geography

Map of Iran
Map of Iran

Main article: Geography of Iran Map of Iran. ... Location: Southwest Asia, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan. ...


Iran's landscape is dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaus from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Zagros and Alborz Mountains, the latter of which also contains Iran's highest point, the Damavand at 5,607 m. The eastern half consists mostly of uninhabited desert basins with the occasional salt lake. The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ... Alborz Mountains underneath clouds seen from Tehran Alborz (in Persian البرز), also written as Alburz or Elburz, is a mountain range in northern Iran, stretching from the borders of Armenia in the north-west to the southern end of the Caspian Sea, where also Tehran and Irans highest peak... Mount Damavand (In Persian: دماوند), a dormant volcano, is the highest point in Iran. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert Desert in California In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... If youre looking for a specific Salt lake, try the article Salt Lake (disambiguation). ...


The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where Iran borders on the mouth of the Arvand river (Shatt al-Arab). Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Sea of Oman. The Iranian climate is mostly arid or semiarid, though subtropical along the Caspian coast. Iran is considered to be one of the fifteen states that comprise the so-called "Cradle of Humanity" Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe ( European Russia). ... A satellite image showing the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, Arabic: الخليج الفارسي) is an extension of the Gulf of Oman in between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in southern Iraq. ... The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز in Persian) is a relatively narrow stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... The Gulf of Oman is a strait that connects with the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf. ... Map of the climate of the Earth The climate (ancient Greek: κλίμα) is the weather averaged over a long period of time. ... The 19th-century evangelical Protestants who invented the term Cradle of Humanity made generalized but undocumented claims that the term originated in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century, and that it was used by early Arab Christians to refer to a geographic area that falls within a 1,000 mile radius...


See also: List of cities in Iran. This is a list of cities in Iran. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Iran Overview Irans Central Bank, Tehran. ...


The economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. The current administration has continued to follow the market reform plans of the previous one and has indicated that it will pursue diversification of Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran is attempting to diversify by investing revenues in other areas, including petrochemicals. Iran also is hoping to attract billions of dollars worth of foreign investment by creating a more favorable investment climate (i.e., reduced restrictions and duties on imports, creation of free-trade zones). Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals ( livestock). ...

The Rial is Iran's official currency.

Iran is OPEC's second largest oil producer and holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves. It also has the world's second largest natural gas reserves (after Russia). The strong oil market in 1996 helped ease financial pressures on Iran and allowed for Tehran's timely debt service payments. Iran's financial situation tightened in 1997 because of lower oil prices. The subsequent rise in oil prices in 1999/2000 afforded Iran fiscal breathing room. Iranian budget deficits have been a chronic problem, in part due to large-scale state subsidies -- totaling some $4.7 billion per year -- including foodstuffs and especially gasoline. The Rial. Irans official currency. ... The Rial. Irans official currency. ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ...


The services sector has seen the greatest long-term growth in terms of its share of GDP, but the sector remains volatile. State investment has boosted agriculture, however, with the liberalisation of production and the improvement of packaging and marketing helping to develop new export markets. Large-scale irrigation schemes, together with the wider production of export-based agricultural items such as dates, flowers and pistachios, produced the fastest economic growth of any sector in Iran over much of the 1990s, although successive years of severe drought in 1999, 2000, and 2001 have held back output growth substantially. Agriculture remains one of the largest employers, accounting for 22% of all jobs according to the 1991 census.


Demographics

Iran is a collection of nearly 80 different, yet culturally related, ethnic groups.

Main article: Demographics of Iran Download high resolution version (1941x1385, 922 KB)Demographic map of Iran, produced by the CIA, displayed with Public Domain permission from The University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Download high resolution version (1941x1385, 922 KB)Demographic map of Iran, produced by the CIA, displayed with Public Domain permission from The University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... The statistics in this article come from the CIA World Factbook, 2004 edition. ...


The majority of Iran's people speak one of the Iranian languages, though only Persian is an official language. While the number, percentage, and definition of the different Iranian peoples is disputed, the major ethnic groups in Iran are Persians (51%), Azeris (24%), Gilaki and Mazandarani (8%), Kurds (7%), Arabs (3%), Baluchi (2%), Lurs (2%), Turkmens (2%), Qashqais, Armenians, Jews, Assyrians and others.¹ The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... This article is about the Persians, an ethnic group. ... Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ... Gilaki and Mazandarani are dialects of Modern Persian spoken in the ostans (provinces) of Gilan and Mazandaran respectively, sometimes considered distinct languages. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Lurs can refer to: Ancient wind instruments, see Lur An Iranian ethnic group; see: Lorestan Lurs, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, a commune of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Qashqai (also spelled Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) are an ethnic group of Iran. ... The Armenians are a nation or ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Assyria, a country named after its original capital city, Asshur on the Tigris, was originally a colony of Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. ...


Most Iranians are Muslims; 89% belong to the Shia branch of Islam, the official state religion, and about 10% belong to the Sunni branch, which predominates in most Muslim countries. Non-Muslim religious minorities include the Bahá'í Faith, Zoroastrians, as well as Jews and Christians. The latter three are officially recognised minority religions and have reserved seats in parliament. Iran's population size increased dramatically in the latter part of the 20th century. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The majority and state religion of Iran is Shia Islam. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ... The Church of St Stephanus in Jolfa, Iran, said to have been erected shortly after the ascension of Jesus Christ, is considered by some historians to be the second oldest church after the Church of Bethlehem in Palestine. ...


¹ Please note that the numbers are according to 2004 edition of CIA's The World Factbook, which may be more neutral than other sources. Different claims include higher numbers for Persians and a respectively lower numbers for Turkic peoples or a higher number for Turkic speaking peoples. Some people in the first group claim that the CIA statistics are based on guesses made around 1964, while CIA claims that the edition is based on January 2004 information. CIA, see CIA (disambiguation). ... The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Iran Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ...


Iran consists of 30 provinces (ostan-haa, singular form: ostan):

Image:IranNumbered.png numbered map of Iranian provinces File links The following pages link to this file: Iran List of subnational entities Provinces of Iran Categories: GFDL images ...

  1. Tehran
  2. Qom
  3. Markazi
  4. Qazvin
  5. Gilan
  6. Ardabil
  7. Zanjan
  8. East Azarbaijan
  9. West Azarbaijan
  10. Kurdistan
  11. Hamadan
  12. Kermanshah
  13. Ilam
  14. Lorestan
  15. Khuzestan
  1. Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari
  2. Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad
  3. Bushehr
  4. Fars
  5. Hormozgan
  6. Sistan and Baluchistan
  7. Kerman
  8. Yazd
  9. Esfahan
  10. Semnan
  11. Mazandaran
  12. Golestan
  13. North Khorasan
  14. Razavi Khorasan
  15. South Khorasan

Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Markazi Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Zanjan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of East Azarbaijan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Kurdistan Province, Iran Kurdistan Province, Ottoman Empire see also: Kurdistan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... External links Official website of Hamadan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Ilam is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... This article needs cleanup. ... External links Official website of Khuzestan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Fars Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Hormozgan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Kerman Governorship Tourist information on Kerman Noncommercial Guide to Kerman Rugs & Carpets Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website of Yazd Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... External links Official website Isfahan Cultural Heritage Organization Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Mazandaran (مازندران in Persian) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ...

Culture

Farhang ("culture") has always been the cynosure of Iranian civilization. Thus the Iranian considers himself the proud inheritor and guardian of an ancient sophisticated culture.

Main article: Culture of Iran Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Like all ancient civilizations, culture constitutes the focal point and heart of the Iranian civilization. The art, music, architecture, poetry, philosophy, traditions, and ideology of this land is what makes the Iranian a proud citizen of the global village. In fact, Iranians believe their culture to be the one and only reason why their civilization has continuously survived thousands of years of plethoric calamities.

This is List of Iranians and Persians: In the news Nazanin Afshin-Jam Shohreh Aghdashloo Goli Ameri Anousheh Ansari Ladan and Laleh Bijani Shirin Ebadi Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Zahra Kazemi Mohammad Reza Khatami Ross Mirkarimi Mostafa Moin Authors Ali Mohammad Afghani, writer Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, poet Bozorg Alavi, novelist Jalal... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millenia BC. Iran National Museum. ... The campus of Tabriz University, Iran The history of the establishment of western style academic universities in Iran dates back to 1851 with the establishment of Dar-ol-fonoon – which was founded as a result of the efforts of the royal vizier Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir, aimed at training... This is a list of universities in Iran: See Higher education in Iran, for more information. ... Imam Square in Isfahan was the symbolic center of the Safavid Empire. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... Introduction A traditional rug weaver in Isfahan. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia, modernday Iran. ... Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... A Persian woman here as depicted during the Safavi period of Iran. ... This is a list of topics related to Iran (Persia) and Persian culture: Provinces of Iran Demographics of Iran History of Iran Aryan Economy of Iran Geography of Iran List of cities in Iran Iranian Plateau Iranian Azarbaijan Iranian monarchy Politics of Iran Iranian Revolution Iranian presidential election, 2005 Iranian... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... A list of Iranian (Persian) scientists: Khwarizmi Avicenna Omar Khayyam Farabi Shaykh Bahai Razi Samarqandi Mahani Qazwini Karaji Farsi Al-Kindi Biruni Kushyar ibn Labban Qadi Zada Alhazen Kashi Ulugh Beg Nayrizi Abu al-Wafa Ibn Miskawayh Quhi Abu Sahl Kuhi Sharaf Tusi Ahmad Banu Musa Khujandi Nasireddin Tusi Hasan... Medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ...

Miscellaneous topics

Blogging has opened a new horizon for self-expression in the traditionally mute Iranian society where individualism was less respected. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 7 million (1998 est. ... Overview Iran is an ethnically diverse state. ... Irans Premier Football League Important clubs: Esteghlal, Pirouzi, Foolad, Sepahan, Abou-Muslim, Pas, Zobe-Ahan Important players: Ali Karimi, Mehdi Mahdavikia and Ali Daei Federation: the IRIFF (Islamic Republic of Iran Football Federation) Categories: Stub | Iranian football ... Introduction In Iran, Ayatollah Khomeinis revolutionary regime initiated sharp changes from the foreign policy pursued by the Shah, particularly in reversing the countrys orientation toward the West. ... Holidays in Iran Holidays Iran uses three official calendar systems. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ... Biological Weapons Chemical Weapons Nuclear Weapons The Islamic Republic of Irans nuclear program goes back several decades. ... This is List of Iranians and Persians: In the news Nazanin Afshin-Jam Shohreh Aghdashloo Goli Ameri Anousheh Ansari Ladan and Laleh Bijani Shirin Ebadi Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Zahra Kazemi Mohammad Reza Khatami Ross Mirkarimi Mostafa Moin Authors Ali Mohammad Afghani, writer Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, poet Bozorg Alavi, novelist Jalal... This article needs cleanup. ... Military branches: Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij-mobilization-forces), Law Enforcement Forces Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 17,762... Persia or Persian most often refer to: Persia The Persians, an ethnic group, also called Tajiks Persian language Persian (Pokémon) See also Iranian, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages and Aryan. ... The majority and state religion of Iran is Shia Islam. ... Railways: total: 6,130 km broad gauge: 94 km 1. ... The White Revolution was a reform program launched by the Muhammad Reza Shah of Iran in 1963. ... The Church of St Stephanus in Jolfa, Iran, said to have been erected shortly after the ascension of Jesus Christ, is considered by some historians to be the second oldest church after the Church of Bethlehem in Palestine. ... This is a list of universities in Iran: See Higher education in Iran, for more information. ...

Official Government Links

The following websites belong to the various branches of government, or are directly operated by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran:

  • Official site of the Supreme Leader (http://www.leader.ir), (Qom office) (http://www.wilayah.org/)
  • Presidency of the Islamic Republic of Iran (http://www.president.ir) - Official website.
  • The Council of Guardians (http://www.irisn.com/), Official website.
  • The Majlis (http://mellat.majlis.ir/), Iran's parliament. (2) (http://www.majlis.ir/).
  • The Judiciary of The Islamic Republic of Iran (http://www.iranjudiciary.org/)
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs (http://www.mfa.gov.ir)
  • Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (http://www.msrt.ir/)
  • Ministry of Health and Medical Education (http://www.hbi.dmr.or.ir)
  • Ministry of Agriculture (http://www.agri-jahad.org)
  • Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (http://www.ershad.gov.ir/)
  • Ministry of Commerce (http://www.irancommerceministry.com/)
  • Ministry of Energy (http://www.moe.org.ir/)
  • Ministry of Petroleum (http://www.nioc.org/)
  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (http://www.hud.ir/)
  • Ministry of Industry and Mines (http://www.mim.gov.ir/)
  • Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces (http://www.mod.ir/)
  • Ministry of Roads and Transportation (http://www.mrt.ir/New/Main.asp)
  • Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (http://www.irimlsa.ir)
  • Ministry of Interior (http://www.moi.ir/)
  • Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (http://www.dci.ir/), (2) (http://www.iranpac.net.ir/)
  • Ministry of Cooperation (http://www.icm.gov.ir/)
  • Ministry of Education (http://213.176.19.4/medu/index.aspx)
  • Ministry of Economic and Finance Affairs (http://www.mefa.gov.ir/)
  • Secretariat of The High Council of Iran Free Trade Industrial Zones (http://www.freezones.ir/)
  • Secretariat of The High Council of The Cultural Revolution (http://www.iranculture.org)
  • Official Spokesman of the Islamic Republic of Iran (http://www.spk-gov.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Atomic Energy Organization (http://www.aeoi.org.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Police Forces (http://www.police.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of The Arts (http://www.honar.ac.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Geological Survey Organization (http://www.gsi-iran.org/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Management and Planning Organization (http://www.mporg.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Organization of Welfare (http://www.behzisty.org)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran National Youth Organization (http://www.nyoir.org)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Judiciary Public Relations Bureau (http://www.irjpr.com/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Center for Affairs of Women's Participation (http://www.women.org.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Medical Sciences (http://www.ams.ac.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Cultural Heritage Organization (http://www.iranmiras.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Headquarters for Combating Drugs (http://www.dchq.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Persian Language and Literature (http://www.persianacademy.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Department of Environment (http://www.irandoe.org/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran International Center for Diologue Among Civilizations (http://www.dialoguecentre.org/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Red Crescent Society (http://www.rcs.ir/en)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Physical Education Organization (http://www.sport.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Sciences (http://www.ias.ac.ir/)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (http://www.irib.com), official website.
  • Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (http://www.cbi.ir/)
  • Bonyad e Shahid Foundation (http://www.shahid.ir/)
  • Bonyad e Mostazafeen Foundation (http://www.iran-bonyad.com/)

External links

  • Encyclopaedia Iranica (http://www.iranica.com)
  • Iranian Cultural & Information Center (http://tehran.stanford.edu/) at Stanford University, California
  • Iran Travel and Tourism Guide (http://www.irpedia.com/)
  • CIA World Factbook - Iran (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ir.html)
  • Yahoo! News Full Coverage Iran (http://news.yahoo.com/fc?tmpl=fc&cid=34&in=world&cat=iran) headline links
  • HavenWorks' Iran News (http://www.havenworks.com/world/iran)
  • Directory of Iranian online newspapers (http://www.gooya.com)
  • Iran Oil and Gas (http://www.iranoilgas.com/)
  • Freedom of Expression in Iran (http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/221/) - IFEX
  • List of alleged weapons (http://cns.miis.edu/research/wmdme/iran.htm/)
  • The Dismal Reality of Ahlus Sunnah in Iran  (http://www.islam.org.au/articles/24/iran.htm)


Countries and Territories in Southwest Asia

Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Cyprus | Egypt | Gaza Strip | Georgia | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Oman | Qatar | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Syria | Turkey | United Arab Emirates | West Bank | Yemen This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Dari-Persian: Afğānistān افغانستان) is a country in Central Asia. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain (occasionally spelt Bahrein), is a borderless island nation in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... This article is about the country of Kuwait. ... The Lebanese Republic or Lebanon is a country in Southwest Asia, bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Sultanate of Oman is a country in the southwestern part of Asia, on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. ... The State of Qatar (قطر) is an emirate in the Middle East. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... The West Bank is a territory in the Middle East constituting the area west of the Jordan River annexed by Jordan at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. ...


Countries and Territories in the Middle East
Bahrain | Cyprus | Egypt | Gaza Strip | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Oman | Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Syria | Turkey | United Arab Emirates | West Bank | Yemen

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran: An Assessment (8097 words)
The main conventional threat from Iran is in the naval arena; specifically, the threat it poses to the flow of oil from the region, the security and stability of the southern Gulf states, and the ability of the United States to project force in the region.
Moreover, Iran's use of terrorism as an instrument of foreign policy appears to be a corollary to the use of shadowy violent pressure groups in the Islamic Republic's domestic politics, and may therefore represent a manifestation of the political culture of the Islamic Republic.(35)
Iran has in the past shown it is able to use terrorist surrogates to strike painful blows against the interests of the United States and its allies, while obscuring its involvement in order to escape retribution.
Islamic republic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (328 words)
In an Islamic republic the laws of the state are theoretically required to be compatible with the laws of Islam, while the state remains a republic.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran (established in 1979), the president and members of the legislature are elected by direct vote of the citizens (although many westernized and pro-monarchy iranians object to elections as a means of choosing leaders).
Iran's Islamic republic is in contrast to the partially democratic state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (founded in 1947) where Islamic laws are nonetheless considered to override laws of the state, though in reality they rarely do.
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