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Encyclopedia > Islamic Golden Age

During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many inventions and innovations of their own.[2] Muslim philosophers and poets, artists and scientists, and princes and laborers, created a unique culture that has influenced societies on every continent.[2] Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... The term Trader can refer to: In economics, a merchant, a retail business or one who attempts to generally buy wholesale and sell later at a profit In finance, someone who buys and sells financial instruments such as stocks, bonds and derivatives - see stock trader In marketing, Trader Classified Media... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... This article is about Arts as a group of disciplines. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... This article is about the profession. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ...

Contents

Foundations

Further information: Early reforms under Islam and Muslim conquests
Age of the Caliphs      Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 620-632      Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
Age of the Caliphs      Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 620-632      Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

During the Muslim conquests of the 7th and early 8th centuries, nomadic Arab armies established the Arab Empire, th"the ink of scientists is equal to the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge.[3] During this period the Muslim world became the unrivaled intellectual center for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established a "House of Wisdom" in Baghdad; where both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars sought to translate and gather all the world's knowledge into Arabic.[3] Many classic works of antiquity that would otherwise have been lost were translated into Arabic and later in turn translated into Turkish, Persian, Hebrew and Latin.[3] During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and advanced the works collected from the Chinese, Persian, Egyptian, North African, Greek, Spanish, Sicilian and Byzantine civilizations.[3] Rival Muslim dynasties such as the Fatimids of Egypt, the Umayyads of al-Andalus were also major intellectual centers with cities such as Cairo and Córdoba rivaling Baghdad.[3] Religious freedom, though limited, helped create cross-cultural networks by attracting Muslim, Christian and Jewish intellectuals and thereby helped spawn the greatest period of philosophical creativity in the Middle Ages during the 12th and 13th centuries.[3] Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to certain of the Caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... The Rashidun Caliphate Army or Rashidun army was the primary military body of the Rashidun Caliphates armed forces of 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun caliphate Navy. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Arabic redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... cross-cultural may refer to cross-cultural studies, a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural analysis any of various forms of interactivity between members of disparate cultural groups (see also cross-cultural communication, interculturalism, intercultural relations, hybridity, cosmopolitanism, transculturation) the discourse concerning cultural interactivity, sometimes referred to as cross... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


A major innovation of this period was paper - originally a secret tightly guarded by the Chinese.[4] The art of papermaking was obtained from prisoners taken at the Battle of Talas (751), resulting in paper mills being built in Samarkand and Baghdad.[4] The Arabs improved upon the Chinese techniques of using mulberry bark by using starch to account for the Muslim preference for pens vs. the Chinese for brushes.[4] By AD 900 there were hundreds of shops employing scribes and binders for books in Baghdad and even public libraries began to become established,[4] including the first lending libraries. From here paper-making spread west to Fez and then to al-Andalus and from there to Europe in the 13th century.[4] For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Species See text. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library. ... Fez can refer to: Fez (clothing), a type of hat Fes, Morocco (or, Fez), the name of a city in Morocco Fez (That 70s Show), a character in That 70s Show, played by Wilmer Valderrama Functional electrical stimulation, FES FeS2, Pyrite, otherwise known as fools gold [[Fez (album)], this... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


Much of this learning and development can be linked to geography. Even prior to Islam's presence, the city of Mecca served as a center of trade in Arabia and the Islamic prophet Muhammad was a merchant. The tradition of the pilgrimage to Mecca became a center for exchanging ideas and goods. The influence held by Muslim merchants over African-Arabian and Arabian-Asian trade routes was tremendous. As a result, Islamic civilization grew and expanded on the basis of its merchant economy, in contrast to their Christian, Indian and Chinese peers who built societies from an agricultural landholding nobility. Merchants brought goods and their faith to China, India (the Indian subcontinent now has over 450 million followers), Southeast Asia (which now has over 230 million followers), and the kingdoms of Western Africa and returned with new inventions. Merchants used their wealth to invest in textiles and plantations. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Hajj or Haj is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... West Africa is the region of western Africa generally considered to include these countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Equatorial Guinea Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Chad, Mauritania, and...


Aside from traders, Sufi missionaries also played a large role in the spread of Islam, by bringing their message to various regions around the world. The principal locations included: Persia, Ancient Mesopotamia, Central Asia and North Africa. Although, the mystics also had a significant influence in parts of Eastern Africa, Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia. [5][6] Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Eastern Africa ... The History of Anatolia // Because of its strategic location at the intersection of Asia and Europe, Anatolia has been a cradle for several civilizations since prehistoric ages, with Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Muslim Agricultural Revolution

Main article: Muslim Agricultural Revolution

The Islamic Golden Age witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the "Muslim Agricultural Revolution", "Arab Agricultural Revolution", or "Green Revolution".[7] Due to the global economy established by Muslim traders across the Old World, this enabled the diffusion of many plants and farming techniques between different parts of the Islamic world, as well as the adaptation of plants and techniques from beyond the Islamic world. Crops from Africa such as sorghum, crops from China such as citrus fruits, and numerous crops from India such as mangos, rice, and especially cotton and sugar cane, were distributed throughout Islamic lands which normally would not be able to grow these crops.[8] Some have referred to the diffusion of numerous crops during this period as the "Globalisation of Crops",[9] which, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture (see Industrial growth below), led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover,[10] agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking and diet, clothing, and numerous other aspects of life in the Islamic world.[8] The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... In the Earths history there have been a number of agricultural revolutions. ... The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... The world economy can be represented various ways, and broken down in various ways. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A crop is any plant that is grown in significant quantities to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, or for another economic purpose. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus x aurantifolia - Lime Citrus x aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus x bergamia - Bergamot Citrus x hystrix - Kaffir Lime Citrus x ichangensis - Ichang Lemon Citrus x limon - Lemon Citrus x limonia - Rangpur Citrus x paradisi... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... In biology, the range or distribution of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... The city of Los Angeles is an example of urbanisation Urbanization or Urbanisation (see difference in spelling) means the removal of the rural characteristics of a town or area, a process associated with the development of civilisation. ... labor may refer to: Work of any kind Wage labor, in which a worker sells their labor and the employer buys it Manual labor, physical work done by people Childbirth, especially from the start of uterine contractions to delivery Labor (economics), one of the three main factors of production Labor... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ...

The valve-operated reciprocating suction piston pump with crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism invented by al-Jazari, the father of modern day engineering.
The valve-operated reciprocating suction piston pump with crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism invented by al-Jazari, the father of modern day engineering.

During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, sugar production was refined and transformed into a large-scale industry by the Arabs, who built the first sugar refineries and sugar plantations. The Arabs and Berbers diffused sugar throughout the Arab Empire from the 8th century.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... These water valves are operated by handles. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... For the use of the term in optics, see piston (optics). ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258...


Muslims introduced cash cropping[12] and the modern crop rotation system where land was cropped four or more times in a two-year period. Winter crops were followed by summer ones, and in some cases there was in between. In areas where plants of shorter growing season were used, such as spinach and eggplants, the land could be cropped three or more times a year. In parts of Yemen, wheat yielded two harvests a year on the same land, as did rice in Iraq.[8] Muslims developed a scientific approach to agriculture based on three major elements; sophisticated systems of crop rotation, highly developed irrigation techniques, and the introduction of a large variety of crops which were studied and catalogued according to the season, type of land and amount of water they require. Numerous encyclopaedias on farming and botany were produced, with highly accurate precision and details.[13] In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... “Aubergine” redirects here. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A LAND attack is a DoS (Denial of Service) attack that consists of sending a special poison spoofed packet to a computer, causing it to lock up. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... In Wikipedia, precision has the following meanings: In engineering, science, industry and statistics, precision characterises the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results - see accuracy and precision. ...


Age of discovery

Further information: Muslim age of discovery and Muslim navigational technology
See also: Ibn Battuta and Pre-Columbian Islamic contact theories

The earliest forms of globalization began emerging during the Arab Empire and the Islamic Golden Age, when the knowledge, trade and economies from many previously isolated regions and civilizations began integrating due to contacts with Muslim explorers, sailors, scholars, traders, and travelers. Some have called this period the "Pax Islamica" or "Afro-Asiatic age of discovery", in reference to the Muslim Southwest Asian and North African traders and explorers who travelled most of the Old World, and established an early global economy[14] across most of Asia and Africa and much of Europe, with their trade networks extending from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Indian Ocean and China Sea in the east.[15] This helped establish the Arab Empire (including the Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates) as the world's leading extensive economic power throughout the 7th-13th centuries.[14] Several contemporary medieval Arabic reports also suggest that Muslim explorers from al-Andalus and the Maghreb may have travelled in expeditions across the Atlantic Ocean, possibly even to the Americas, between the 9th and 14th centuries.[16] The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... Central New York City. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... The world economy can be represented various ways, and broken down in various ways. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Look up network, networking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The China Sea can refer to the: South China Sea, or East China Sea This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ)is the term conventionally used to describe the Islamic Arab Empire of the immediate successors of Muhammad the first four Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad and are quoted as the Khulafah Rashidun. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Capitalist market economy

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution - Capitalist market economy

The origins of capitalism and free markets can be traced back to the Caliphate,[17] where the first market economy and earliest forms of merchant capitalism took root between the 8th-12th centuries, which some refer to as "Islamic capitalism".[18] A vigorous monetary economy was created on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency (the dinar) and the integration of monetary areas that were previously independent. Innovative new business techniques and forms of business organisation were introduced by economists, merchants and traders during this time. Such innovations included the earliest trading companies, credit cards, big businesses, contracts, bills of exchange, long-distance international trade, the first forms of partnership (mufawada) such as limited partnerships (mudaraba), and the earliest forms of credit, debt, profit, loss, capital (al-mal), capital accumulation (nama al-mal),[12] circulating capital, capital expenditure, revenue, cheques, promissory notes,[19] trusts (waqf), startup companies,[20] savings accounts, transactional accounts, pawning, loaning, exchange rates, bankers, money changers, ledgers, deposits, assignments, and the double-entry bookkeeping system.[21] Organizational enterprises similar to corporations independant from the state also existed in the medieval Islamic world.[22][23] Many of these early capitalist concepts were adopted and further advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th century onwards.[12] The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... Merchant capitalism is a term used by economic historians to refer to the earliest phase in the development of capitalism as an economy and social system. ... A monetary economy is a societys economy where products and services are traded in exchange for money. ... This list of circulating currencies contains the 194 current official or de facto currencies of the 192 United Nations member states, one UN observer state, three partially recognized sovereign states, six unrecognized countries, and 33 dependencies. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein A hyperinflation banknote of 50 billion dinara (1993) A 5,000 dinar bill of the Republic of Serbian Krajina (1992) The dinar is the currency unit of various countries, most of them Arabic-speaking or once part... Moneys is an agreement within a community, to use something as a medium of exchange, which acts as an intermediary market good. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Companies law is the field of law concerning business and other organizations. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... Big Business or big business is a term used to describe large corporations, individually or collectively. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... A negotiable instrument is a specialized type of contract for the payment of money which is unconditional and capable of transfer by negotiation. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ... A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership, except that in addition to one or more general partners (GPs), there are one or more limited partners (LPs). ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up loss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... Most generally, the accumulation of capital refers simply to the gathering or amassment of objects of value; the increase in wealth; or the creation of wealth. ... Circulating capital is a term used by classical economists such as David Ricardo and others such as Karl Marx. ... Capital expenditures (CAPEX or capex) are expenditures creating future benefits. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Example of a Canadian cheque. ... A promissory note is a contract detailing the terms of a promise by one party (the maker) to pay a sum of money to the other (the payee). ... The term trust has several meanings: In sociology, trust is willing acceptance of one persons power to affect another. ... A startup company is a business with a limited operating history. ... The passbook is the traditional document to keep track of earnings in a savings account Savings accounts are accounts maintained by commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mutual savings banks that pay interest but can not be used directly as money (by, for example, writing a cheque). ... The cheque is the traditional mode of payment for a transactional account. ... Pawn may refer to: - * Pawn (chess), the piece used in the board game chess and - * Pawn (law), another name for a pledge in certain jurisdictions - * Pawnbroker, one who owns a pawnshop - * Idiomatically, an exploited person or character, considered expendable (from the use of the chess piece), he was only a... For other uses, see Loan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... A Bureau de Change is an organisation or facility which allows customers to exchange one currency for another. ... A ledger (from the English dialect forms liggen or leggen, to lie or lay; in sense adapted from the Dutch substantive logger), is the principal book for recording transactions. ... Look up deposit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An assignment is a term used with similar meanings in the law of contracts and in the law of real estate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... Look up Enterprise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Commerce

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution - Commerce

Guilds were officially unrecognized by the medieval Islamic city, but trades were supervised by an official recognized by the city. Each trade developed its own identity, whose members would attend the same mosque, and serve together in the militia. Slaves were often employed on sugar plantations and salt mines, but more likely as domestic house servants or professional soldiers. The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ...


The systems of contract relied upon by merchants was very effective. Merchants would buy and sell on commission, with money loaned to them by wealthy investors, or a joint investment of several merchants, who were often Muslim, Christian and Jewish. Recently, a collection of documents was found in an Egyptian synagogue shedding a very detailed and human light on the life of medieval Middle Eastern merchants. Business partnerships would be made for many commercial ventures, and bonds of kinship enabled trade networks to form over huge distances. Networks developed during this time enabled a world in which money could be promised by a bank in Baghdad and cashed in Spain, creating the cheque system of today. Each time items passed through the cities along this extraordinary network, the city imposed a tax, resulting in high prices once reaching the final destination. These innovations made by Muslims and Jews laid the foundations for the modern economic system. A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... The payment of commission as remuneration for services rendered or products sold is a common way to reward sales people. ... For other uses, see Loan (disambiguation). ... An investor is any party that makes an investment. ... Invest redirects here. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ... A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... Look up network, networking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Example of a Canadian cheque. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ...


Industrial growth

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution: Industrial growth and Inventions in the Muslim world
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) is considered the father of chemistry, particularly for introducing the experimental method in chemistry. He also established the chemical industry and perfumery industry.
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) is considered the father of chemistry, particularly for introducing the experimental method in chemistry. He also established the chemical industry and perfumery industry.

Muslim engineers in the Islamic world were responsible for numerous innovative industrial uses of hydropower, the first industrial uses of tidal power, wind power, steam power,[24] and fossil fuels such as petroleum, and the earliest large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic).[25] The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were first invented in the Islamic world, including fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, paper mills, sawmills, shipmills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, tide mills, and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.[26] Muslim engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines, first employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines.[11] Such advances made it possible for many industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe later laid the foundations for the Industrial Revolution in 18th century Europe.[27] The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Download high resolution version (575x707, 204 KB)alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, from a 15th c. ... Download high resolution version (575x707, 204 KB)alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, from a 15th c. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides, or the movement of water caused by tidal currents. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century) A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... The term mill, depending on context, can refer to: Mill (factory) – a place of business for making articles of manufacture; e. ... Fulling is a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other impurities. ... Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, VA, 1938 A gristmill is a building where grain is ground into flour. ... An old-type mechanical huller, driven by a gasoline engine An electric rotary huller A huller (or called rice husker) is a kind of agricultural machinery to hull the rice. ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ... For the 1922 film starring Oliver Hardy, see The Sawmill. ... Section of Quincy Mine unit operations diagram showing Allis Steam Stamp Mill A Stamp mill is a mill, a type of machine or device used to break material into smaller pieces, either for further processing or for extraction of metallic ores. ... Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteens early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 till January 1971. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... A tide mill is a specialist type of water mill driven by tidal rise and fall. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment A gear is a wheel with teeth around its circumference, the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device -- possibly another gear wheel -- so that force can be transmitted between the two devices in a... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered physically arduous, and which has as a profitable objective, usually the production of goods. ... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Many industries were generated due to the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, including the earliest industries for agribusiness, astronomical instruments, ceramics, chemicals, distillation technologies, clocks, glass, mechanical hydropowered and wind powered machinery, matting, mosaics, pulp and paper, perfumery, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, rope-making, shipping, shipbuilding, silk, sugar, textiles, water, weapons, and the mining of minerals such as sulfur, ammonia, lead and iron. The first large factory complexes (tiraz) were built for many of these industries. Knowledge of these industries were later transmitted to medieval Europe, especially during the Latin translations of the 12th century, as well as before and after. For example, the first glass factories in Europe were founded in the 11th century by Egyptian craftsmen in Greece.[28] The agricultural and handicraft industries also experienced high levels of growth during this period.[15] In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Ceramics can refer to: Ceramic, a type of material Ceramics (art), a fine art. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... A mat is a generic term for a piece of fabric or flat material, generally placed on a floor or other flat surface, and serving a range of purposes including: providing a regular or flat surface, such as a mouse mat protecting that which is beneath the mat, such as... This article is about a decorative art. ... An International Paper mill in South Carolina The global pulp and paper industry is dominated by North American (United States, Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden) and East Asian countries (such as Japan). ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles . ... Categories: Stub | Water | Sewerage | Industries ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... A handicraft shop in Delhi, India Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools. ...


Labour

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution - Labour

The labour force in the Caliphate were employed from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds, while both men and women were involved in diverse occupations and economic activities.[29] Women were employed in a wide range of commercial activities and diverse occupations[30] in the primary sector (as farmers for example), secondary sector (as construction workers, dyers, spinners, etc.) and tertiary sector (as investors, doctors, nurses, presidents of guilds, brokers, peddlers, lenders, scholars, etc.).[31] Muslim women also had a monopoly over certain branches of the textile industry.[30] The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... labor may refer to: Work of any kind Wage labor, in which a worker sells their labor and the employer buys it Manual labor, physical work done by people Childbirth, especially from the start of uterine contractions to delivery Labor (economics), one of the three main factors of production Labor... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z · See also · External links Categories: | | | ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... An investor is any party that makes an investment. ... This article is about the occupation. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... For other uses, see Broker (disambiguation). ... A peddler, Brit. ... ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... This article is about the economics of markets dominated by a single seller. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...


Technology

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution: Technology and Inventions in the Muslim world
See also: Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world
The programmable automata of al-Jazari, the father of robotics.
The programmable automata of al-Jazari, the father of robotics.

A significant number of inventions were produced by medieval Muslim scientists and engineers, including inventors such as Abbas Ibn Firnas, Taqi al-Din, and especially al-Jazari, who is considered the "father of robotics"[32] and "father of modern day engineering".[33] The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Programming” redirects here. ... An automaton (plural: automata) is a self-operating machine. ... Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... Abbas Ibn Firnas, or Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas (Unknown- 887 A.D.) was a Spanish-Arab humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. ... Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Maruf al-Shami al-Asadi (Arabic: تقي الدين محمد بن معروف الشامي السعدي) (c. ... Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...


Some of the other inventions and discoveries from the Islamic Golden Age include the camera obscura, coffee, hang glider, flight controls, soap bar, shampoo, pure distillation, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation, filtration, distilled alcohol, uric acid, nitric acid, alembic, crankshaft, valve, reciprocating suction piston pump, mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, programmable humanoid robot, combination lock, quilting, pointed arch, scalpel, bone saw, forceps, surgical catgut, windmill, inoculation, smallpox vaccine, fountain pen, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis, three-course meal, stained glass and quartz glass, Persian carpet, modern cheque, celestial globe, explosive rockets and incendiary devices, torpedo, and artificial pleasure gardens.[32] The camera obscura (Lat. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... Aircraft flight controls allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircrafts flight attitude. ... Soap bar or Soapbar may refer to: A bar of soap, surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning. ... Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... Look up filtration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... These water valves are operated by handles. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... For the use of the term in optics, see piston (optics). ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... A pendulum clock uses a pendulum as its time base. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... “Programming” redirects here. ... Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ... A letter combination lock. ... Quilter and Quilters redirect here. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... A scalpel is a very sharp knife used for surgery, anatomical dissection, and various arts and crafts. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... Plastic forceps are intended to be disposable Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Smallpox vaccine being administered. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... A typical distribution of letters in English language text. ... For the coarsely ground flour, see flour. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... A sphere manufactured by NASA out of fused quartz for use in a gyroscope in the Gravity Probe B experiment. ... The Persian carpet (Pahlavi bōb[1] Persian farš فرش, meaning to spread and Arabic qāli, Turkish hali)[2] is an essential part of Persian art and culture. ... Example of a Canadian cheque. ... Chinese history, astronomers have created celestial globes to assist the observation of the stars. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... An 18th century print showing the exterior of the Rotunda at Ranelagh Gardens and part of the grounds. ...


Urbanization

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution: Urbanization

As urbanization increased, Muslim cities grew unregulated, resulting in narrow winding city streets and neighborhoods separated by different ethnic backgrounds and religious affiliations. These qualities proved efficient for transporting goods to and from major commercial centers while preserving the privacy valued by Islamic family life. Suburbs lay just outside the walled city, from wealthy residential communities, to working class semi-slums. City garbage dumps were located far from the city, as were clearly defined cemeteries which were often homes for criminals. A place of prayer was found just near one of the main gates, for religious festivals and public executions. Similarly, Military Training grounds were found near a main gate. The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Muslim cities also had advanced domestic water systems with sewers, public baths, drinking fountains, piped drinking water supplies,[34] and widespread private and public toilet and bathing facilities.[35] By the 10th century, Cordoba had 700 mosques, 60,000 palaces, and 70 libraries, the largest of which had 600,000 books, while as many as 60,000 treatises, poems, polemics and compilations were published each year in al-Andalus.[36] The library of Cairo had more than 100,000 books, while the library of Tripoli is said to have had as many as three million books. The number of important and original Arabic works on science that have survived is much larger than the combined total of Greek and Latin works on science.[37] Domestic water supply or system (DWS) is a comprehensive term for the potable water supply systems in residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... Hygiene is the maintenance of healthful practices. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... A system of copper water tubes used in a radiator heating system. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... See also Toilet for the lavatory Public toilet is a movie from the Hong Kong director Fruit Chan. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). ... Look up Treatise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up compilation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Muslim Scientific Revolution

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) has been described as the "father of optics", the "pioneer of the modern scientific method", and the "first scientist". He also invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera, was the first to discover the principle of least time and first law of motion, and laid the foundations for telescopic astronomy.
Main article: Islamic science
Further information: Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world

A number of modern scholars, notably Robert Briffault, Will Durant, Fielding H. Garrison, Alexander von Humboldt, Muhammad Iqbal, and Hossein Nasr, consider modern science to have begun from Muslim scientists, who were pioneers of the scientific method and introduced a modern empirical, experimental and quantitative approach to scientific inquiry. Some have referred to their achievements as a "Muslim scientific revolution".[38][39][40][41] Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Principle of a pinhole camera. ... Fermats principle assures that the angles given by Snells law always reflect lights quickest path between P and Q. Fermats principle in optics states: This principle was first stated by Pierre de Fermat. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Islamic science has been an important part of the history of science and the present day. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ...


Scientific method

Further information: Islamic science: Scientific method

The modern scientific method was first developed in the Muslim world, where significant progress in methodology was made, especially in the works of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) in the 11th century, who was the pioneer of experimental physics.[42] The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experimentation and quantification to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote the Book of Optics, and he is known as the father of optics for empirically proving that vision occurred because of light rays entering the eye, as well as for inventing the camera obscura to demonstrate the physical nature of light rays.[43][44] In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Experimental physics is the part of physics that deals with experiments and observations pertaining to natural/physical phenomena, as opposed to theoretical physics. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ...


Ibn al-Haytham has also been described as the "first scientist" for his introduction of the scientific method,[45] and some also consider him the founder of psychophysics and experimental psychology,[46] for his pioneering work on the psychology of visual perception.[47][48] Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ...

Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian astronomer. The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model.
Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian astronomer. The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model.

Download high resolution version (500x683, 94 KB)Picture taken by Zereshk from old manuscript of Qotbeddin Shirazis treatise. ... Download high resolution version (500x683, 94 KB)Picture taken by Zereshk from old manuscript of Qotbeddin Shirazis treatise. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ...

Astronomy

Main article: Islamic astronomy
Further information: Islamic astrology

Advances in astronomy included the construction of the first observatory in Baghdad during the reign of Caliph Al-Ma'mun,[49] the first elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena by Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, the first semantic distinction between astronomy and astrology by al-Biruni.[50] the collection and correction of previous astronomical data, resolving significant problems in the Ptolemaic model, perfected forms of the astrolabe,[51] the invention of numerous other astronomical instruments, and the beginning of astrophysics and celestial mechanics after Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir discovered that the heavenly bodies and celestial spheres were subject to the same physical laws as Earth.[52] This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... MolÄ—tai Astronomical Observatory An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... This article is about the historical term. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into BanÅ« MÅ«sā. (Discuss) Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn MÅ«sā ibn Shākir (800 - 873) (Arabic: ) was a 9th century Persian astronomer, engineer, mathematician and physicist from Baghdad, the eldest of the BanÅ« MÅ«sā brothers. ... Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... The celestial sphere is divided by the celestial equator. ... For a list of set rules, see Laws of science. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Several Muslim astronomers also considered the possibility of the Earth's rotation on its axis and perhaps a heliocentric solar system.[53][54] It is known that the Copernican heliocentric model in Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus was adapted from the geocentric model of Ibn al-Shatir and the Maragheh school (including the Tusi-couple) in a heliocentric context,[55] and that his arguments for the Earth's rotation were similar to those of Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī and Ali al-Qushji.[56] An animation showing the rotation of the Earth. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Split from main article Nicolaus Copernicus in order to concentrate on his work: // Much has been written about earlier heliocentric theories. ... “Copernicus” redirects here. ... Nicolai Copernici Torinensis De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, Libri VI (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, by Nicolaus Copernicus of ToruÅ„, Six Books: title page of 2nd edition, Basel, 1566). ... This article is about the historical term. ... Ibn al-Shatir (or Ibn ash-Shatir) (1304–1375) was a Muslim astronomer of Damascus. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Tusi couple is a 2-cusped hypocycloid obtained by rolling a circle of radius inside a circle of radius . ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ...


Chemistry

Main article: Alchemy (Islam)

Geber is considered the father of chemistry,[57][58] for introducing an early experimental scientific method, as well as the alembic, still, retort, and the chemical processes of pure distillation, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation, and filtration.[32] Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... A beautiful retort. ... In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... Look up filtration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The study of alchemy and the theory of the transmutation of metals were first debunked by al-Kindi,[59] followed by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[60] and Avicenna.[61] Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī stated an early version of the law of conservation of mass, noting that a body of matter is able to change, but is not able to disappear.[62] Alexander von Humboldt and Will Durant regarded the Muslim chemists as the founders of chemistry.[63][64] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The philosophers stone, in Latin lapis philosophi, is a legendary substance that supposedly could turn inexpensive metals such as lead into gold (chrysopoeia in the Greek language) and/or create an elixir that would make humans younger, thus delaying death. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ...


Experimental physics

Further information: Islamic science: Optics and Islamic science: Mechanics

The study of experimental physics began with Ibn al-Haytham,[65] the father of optics, who pioneered the experimental scientific method and used it drastically transform the understanding of light and vision in his Book of Optics, which has been ranked alongside Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica as one of the most influential books in the history of physics.[66] In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Experimental physics is the part of physics that deals with experiments and observations pertaining to natural/physical phenomena, as opposed to theoretical physics. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up vision in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon...


The experimental scientific method was soon introduced into mechanics by al-Biruni,[67] and early precursors to Newton's laws of motion were discovered by several Muslim scientists. The law of inertia, known as Newton's first law of motion, and the concept of momentum, part of Newton's second law of motion, were discovered by Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen)[68][69] and Avicenna.[70][71] The proportionality between force and acceleration, foreshadowing Newton's second law of motion, was discovered by Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi,[72] while the concept of reaction, foreshadowing Newton's third law of motion, was discovered by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace).[73] Theories foreshadowing Newton's law of universal gravitation were developed by Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir,[74] Ibn al-Haytham,[75] and al-Khazini.[76] It is known that Galileo Galilei's mathematical treatment of acceleration and his concept of impetus[77] grew out of earlier medieval Muslim analyses of motion, especially those of Avicenna[70] and Ibn Bajjah.[78] For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... Hibat Allah Abul-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (1080? - 1165?) was an Arab philosopher and physicist. ... In classical mechanics, Newtons third law states that forces occur in pairs, one called the Action and the other the Reaction (actio et reactio in Latin). ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into BanÅ« MÅ«sā. (Discuss) Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn MÅ«sā ibn Shākir (800 - 873) (Arabic: ) was a 9th century Persian astronomer, engineer, mathematician and physicist from Baghdad, the eldest of the BanÅ« MÅ«sā brothers. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... This article is about a 12th century scientist. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ...


Mathematics

Main article: Islamic mathematics

Among the achievements of Muslim mathematicians during this period include the development of algebra and algorithms (see Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī), the invention of spherical trigonometry,[79] the addition of the decimal point notation to the Arabic numerals, the discovery of all the trigonometric functions besides sine, al-Kindi's introduction of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis, al-Karaji's introduction of algebraic calculus and proof by mathematical induction, the development of analytic geometry and the earliest general formula for infinitesimal and integral calculus by Ibn al-Haytham, the beginning of algebraic geometry by Omar Khayyam, the first refutations of Euclidean geometry and the parallel postulate by Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, the first attempt at a non-Euclidean geometry by Sadr al-Din, and numerous other advances in algebra, arithmetic, calculus, cryptography, geometry, number theory and trigonometry. Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... Spherical triangle Spherical trigonometry is a part of spherical geometry that deals with polygons (especially triangles) on the sphere and explains how to find relations between the involved angles. ... The decimal separator is used to mark the boundary between the integer and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions) are functions of an angle. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... In mathematics, physics and signal processing, frequency analysis is a method to decompose a function, wave, or signal into its frequency components so that it is possible to have the frequency spectrum. ... Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Karaji (953 - 1029), also known as Al-karkhi was a Persian mathematician and engineer. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true. ... Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish that a given statement is true of all natural numbers. ... Analytic geometry, also called coordinate geometry and earlier referred to as Cartesian geometry or analytical geometry, is the study of geometry using the principles of algebra. ... Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. ... This article is about the concept of integrals in calculus. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics which, as the name suggests, combines techniques of abstract algebra, especially commutative algebra, with the language and the problematics of geometry. ... Tomb of Omar Khayam, Neishapur, Iran. ... Euclid Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Greek mathematician [[Euclid]] of Alexandria. ... a and b are parallel, the transversal t produces congruent angles. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry The term non-Euclidean geometry describes hyperbolic, elliptic and absolute geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... Number theory is the branch of pure mathematics concerned with the properties of numbers in general, and integers in particular, as well as the wider classes of problems that arise from their study. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry All of the trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O. Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon triangle + metron measure[1]), informally called trig, is a branch of mathematics that deals with...

An Arabic manuscript describing the eye, dating back to the 12th century
An Arabic manuscript describing the eye, dating back to the 12th century

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Medicine

Main article: Islamic medicine
Further information: Ophthalmology in medieval Islam and Bimaristan

Muslim physicians made many significant advances and contributions to medicine, including anatomy, ophthalmology, pathology, the pharmaceutical sciences (including pharmacy and pharmacology), physiology, and surgery, and they set up some of the earliest dedicated hospitals, including the first psychiatric hospitals.[80] Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... Bimaristan is a Middle and New Persian (بیمارستان bīmārestān) word meaning hospital, with Bimar- meaning sick and -stan as location and place. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... The pharmaceutical sciences are a group of interdisciplinary areas of study involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition, and use of drugs. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...


Al-Razi (Rhazes) recorded clinical cases of his own experience, provided very useful recordings of various diseases, and discovered measles and smallpox. Al-Kindi wrote the De Gradibus, in which he first demonstrated the application of mathematics to medicine and pharmacology, such as a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drugs and the determination in advance of the most critical days of a patient's illness.[81] For other uses, see Razi. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... De gradibus was a book published by the Arab scientist Al-Kindi(c. ... For other meanings, see Drug (disambiguation). ...


Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery,[82] wrote the Kitab al-Tasrif, in which he invented numerous surgical instruments, including the first instruments unique to women,[83] as well as the surgical uses of catgut and forceps, the ligature, surgical needle, scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula,[84] and bone saw.[32] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) made important advances in eye surgery, as he correctly explained the process of sight and visual perception for the first time in his Book of Optics.[83] Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Plastic forceps are intended to be disposable Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. ... In medicine, a ligature is a device, similar to a tourniquet, usually of thread or string, tied around a limb, blood vessel or similar to restrict blood flow. ... For other uses, see Suture (disambiguation). ... A scalpel is a very sharp knife used for surgery, anatomical dissection, and various arts and crafts. ... Noun A spoon-shaped surgical instrument for cleaning a diseased surface. ... Retracting and exposing instruments that are used to hold back or retract organs or tissue to gain exposure to the operative site. ... For other uses, see Spoon (disambiguation). ... In medicine, sounds are instruments for probing and dilating passages within the body, the best-known of example of which are urethral sounds. ... Look up Hook in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rod may mean: Rod (geometry), a straight and slender stick; a wand; a cylinder; hence, any slender bar Rod cell, a cell found in the retina that is sensitive to light/dark (black/white) Rod (unit), an Imperial unit of length, also known as the pole or perch Rod (cryptozoology... A vaginal speculum, such as this Ricord-type speculum, is used to hold the vagina open for visual examinations, taking of samples, or surgery. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Eye surgery in the middle ages. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen...

Avicenna, considered the father of modern medicine, introduced systematic experimentation and quantification into physiology, discovered the contagious nature of infectious diseases, introduced the methods of quarantine and clinical trials, and described many medical treatments, including anesthetics and medical and therapeutic drugs, in The Canon of Medicine.
Avicenna, considered the father of modern medicine, introduced systematic experimentation and quantification into physiology, discovered the contagious nature of infectious diseases, introduced the methods of quarantine and clinical trials, and described many medical treatments, including anesthetics and medical and therapeutic drugs, in The Canon of Medicine.

Avicenna, the father of modern medicine, wrote The Canon of Medicine and The Book of Healing. His contributions include the introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,[85] the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of clinical trials,[86] the first descriptions on bacteria and viral organisms,[87] the distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy, the contagious nature of phthisis and tuberculosis, the distribution of diseases by water and soil, and the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions, and nervous ailments,[80] and the use of ice to treat fevers, and the separation of medicine from pharmacology, important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences.[83] Image File history File links Avicenna_Persian_Physician. ... Image File history File links Avicenna_Persian_Physician. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek αν- an- “without” + αἲσθησις aisthesis “sensation”) has traditionally meant the condition of having the feeling of pain and other sensations blocked. ... For other meanings, see Drug (disambiguation). ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... “Pervert” redirects here. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... The pharmaceutical sciences are a group of interdisciplinary areas of study involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition, and use of drugs. ...


Ibn al-Nafis was the first to describe human blood circulation and pulmonary circulation. Ibn al-Lubudi rejected the theory of humorism, and discovered that the body and its preservation depend exclusively upon blood, women cannot produce sperm, the movement of arteries are not dependant upon the movement of the heart, the heart is the first organ to form in a fetus' body, and the bones forming the skull can grow into tumors.[88] Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib discovered that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms which enter the human body.[89] Mansur ibn Ilyas drew comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems.[2] Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf Ibn Ilyās ( ) was a late 14th century physician from Shiraz, Timurid Persia. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ...


Other sciences

Main article: Islamic science

Many other advances were made by Muslim scientists in biology (anatomy, botany, evolution, physiology and zoology), the earth sciences (anthropology, cartography, geodesy, geography and geology), psychology (experimental psychology, psychiatry, psychophysics and psychotherapy), and the social sciences (demography, economics, sociology, history and historiography). In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ...


Some of the most famous scientists from the Islamic world include Geber (polymath, father of chemistry), Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (father of algebra and algorithms), al-Farabi (polymath), Abu al-Qasim (father of modern surgery),[90] Ibn al-Haytham (polymath, father of optics, founder of experimental psychology, pioneer of scientific method, "first scientist")[46], Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (polymath, father of Indology[91] and geodesy, "first anthropologist"),[92] Avicenna (polymath, father of momentum[93] and modern medicine),[94] Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (polymath), and Ibn Khaldun (father of demography,[95] cultural history,[96] historiography,[97] the philosophy of history, sociology,[98] and the social sciences),[99] among many others. Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... See Anthropology. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...


Other achievements

The Kharaghan twin towers, built in 1067 AD, Persia, contain tombs of Seljuki princes.

Download high resolution version (770x606, 462 KB)Kharaghan twin towers, Qazvin province, 1067 AD, Iran. ... Download high resolution version (770x606, 462 KB)Kharaghan twin towers, Qazvin province, 1067 AD, Iran. ... The Kharāghān twin towers, built in 1053 CE, Qazvin Province. ...

Architecture

Main article: Islamic architecture

The Great Mosque of Xi'an in China was completed circa 740, and the Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq was completed in 847. The Great Mosque of Samarra combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed. The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques The Great Mosque of Xian (Chinese: 西安大清真寺), located near the Drum Tower (Gu Lou) on Huajue Lane of Xian, Shaanxi province, China, is one of the oldest and most renowned mosques in the country. ... The Great Mosque of Samarra is a mosque located in the Iraqi city of Samarra and was built in the 9th century. ... In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Spanish Muslims began construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in 785 marking the beginning of Islamic architecture in Spain and Northern Africa (see Moors). The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra, the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada, with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red, blue, and gold. The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs, Arabic inscriptions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in glazed tiles. Interior of the Mezquita Mezquita, (from Arabic Masjid), is Spanish for mosque. This article deals with the one in Cordoba, Spain. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ...


Another distinctive sub-style is the architecture of the Mughal Empire in India in the 15-17th centuries. Blending Islamic and Hindu elements, the emperor Akbar constructed the royal city of Fatehpur Sikri, located 26 miles (42 km) west of Agra, in the late 1500s and his son Shah Jahan had constructed the mausoleum of Taj Mahal for Mumtaz Mahal in the 1650s, though this time period is well after the Islamic Golden Age. Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... St. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ...

An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils.
An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x664, 671 KB) Manuscript of Sughrat (Socrates) belongs to a 13th century Seljuk illustrator. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x664, 671 KB) Manuscript of Sughrat (Socrates) belongs to a 13th century Seljuk illustrator. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ...

Arts

Main article: Islamic art

The golden age of Islamic (and/or Muslim) art lasted from 750 to the 16th century, when ceramics, glass, metalwork, textiles, illuminated manuscripts, and woodwork flourished. Lusterous glazing became the greatest Islamic contribution to ceramics. Manuscript illumination became an important and greatly respected art, and portrait miniature painting flourished in Persia. Calligraphy, an essential aspect of written Arabic, developed in manuscripts and architectural decoration. Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript, often of a religious nature, in which the text is supplemented by the addition of colourful ornamentation, such as decorated initials, borders and the like. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Some links to this page should perhaps link to miniature (illuminated manuscript). ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...


Literature

Main article: Islamic literature
Further information: Arabic literature and Persian literature
"Ali Baba" by Maxfield Parrish.
"Ali Baba" by Maxfield Parrish.

The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales. The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another.[100] All Arabian fantasy tales were often called "Arabian Nights" when translated into English, regardless of whether they appeared in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, in any version, and a number of tales are known in Europe as "Arabian Nights" despite existing in no Arabic manuscript.[100] Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (778x1000, 254 KB)Maxfield Parrish. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (778x1000, 254 KB)Maxfield Parrish. ... The Dinky Bird, by Maxfield Parrish, an illustration from Poems of Childhood by Eugene Field, 1904. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


This epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland.[101] Many imitations were written, especially in France.[102] Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad and Ali Baba. Part of its popularity may have sprung from the increasing historical and geographical knowledge, so that places of which little was known and so marvels were plausible had to be set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this is a process that continues, and finally culminate in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places. Antoine Galland (April 4, 1646 — February 17, 1715) was a French orientalist and archaeologist, and the first European translator of the Arabian Nights. ... Aladdin in the Magic Garden, an illustration by Max Liebert from Ludwig Fuldas Aladin und die Wunderlampe Aladdin (an adaptation of the Arabic name , Arabic: علاء الدين literally nobility of faith) is one of the tales with an Ancient Arabian origin[1] in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights... The name Sinbad when used alone refers to more than one personage, place, or thing. ... Ali Baba by Maxfield Parrish (1909). ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ...


A number of elements from Arabic and Persian mythology are now common in modern fantasy, such as genies, bahamuts, magic carpets, magic lamps, etc.[102] When L. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.[103] Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ... Bahamut (Arabic: Bahamūt) is a giant omnipotent being in Arabian mythology, thus the Christian counterpart, Behemoth and the vocabulary significance. ... Riding a Flying Carpet, an 1880 painting by Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books ever written in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today...


The Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran, is a mythical and heroic retelling of Persian history. Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan. Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... edit See Also: Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting areas from Euphrates in the west to Indus River and Syr Darya in the east and from Caucasus, Caspian sea and Aral Sea in the north... Amir Arsalan-e Namdar (in Persian امیرارسلان نامدار) is a popular Persian mythical story (epic) which was narrated to the Qajar Shah of Persia by a storyteller named Mohammad Ali Naqib al-Mamalek (میرزا محمدعلی نقیب الممالک). Mohammad never transcribed the poem himself, but the daughter of the Shah, who also loved the tale, eventually transcribed... The Heroic Legend of Arslan is the title of a Japanese fantasy novel, which is known in Japan as Arslan Senki (アルスラーン戦記). In the 1800s, Naqib ul-Mamālik (نقیب الممالک), royal story teller of Nasereddin Shahs court, became popular for creating the tale Amir Arsalān-i Nāmdār. In...


Philosophy

Further information: Logic in Islamic philosophy, Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800 - 1400), Early Muslim sociology, and Historiography of early Islam
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, is regarded as a founding father of modern secular thought.
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, is regarded as a founding father of modern secular thought.

Arab philosophers like al-Kindi, and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Persian philosophers like Ibn Sina (Avicenna) played a major role in preserving the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds. They would also absorb ideas from China, and India, adding to them tremendous knowledge from their own studies. Three speculative thinkers, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna (Ibn Sina), fused Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Image File history File links AverroesColor. ... Image File history File links AverroesColor. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... This article is about secularism. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Persia redirects here. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


From Spain the Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew, Latin, and Ladino, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy. The Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, muslim sociologist-historian Ibn Khaldun, Carthage citizen Constantine the African who translated Greek medical texts, and the muslim Al-Khwarzimi's collation of mathematical techniques were important figures of the Golden Age. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Constantine the African was a translator of Greek medical texts. ... Soviet postage stamp commemorating the 1200th anniversary of Muhammad al‑Khwarizmi in 1983. ...


One of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd), founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, and who is regarded as a founding father of secular thought in Western Europe.[104] Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... This article is about secularism. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Ghazali, the famous Persian jurist and philosopher, wrote a devastating critique in his Tahafut al-Falasifa on the speculative theological works of Kindi, Farabi and Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Philosophy in the Muslim world never recovered from this critique, even though Ibn Rushd (Averroes) responded strongly in his Tahafut al-Tahafut to many of the points Ghazali raised. Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-Falasifa) is the title of a landmark polemic in Islamic philosophy by the Sufi sympathetic Al-Ghazali of the Asharite school against the neoplatonic school of thought in Islamic Philosophy. ... The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahāfut ʾal-Falāsifaʰ) in Arabic (تهافت الفلاسفة) is the title of a landmark polemic in Islamic philosophy by the Sufi sympathetic Imam al-Ghazali of the Asharite school against the Islamic Neoplatonic school of thought. ...


Other influential Muslim philosophers include al-Jahiz, a pioneer of evolutionary thought and natural selection; Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science, and a critic of Aristotle's concept of place (topos); and Ibn Khaldun, considered the father of the philosophy of history and a pioneer of social philosophy. Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Look up Place in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In mathematics, a topos (plural topoi or toposes) is a type of category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ...


End of the Golden Age

Mongol invasion

Further information: Battle of Baghdad (1258)

In 1206, Genghis Khan from Central Asia established a powerful Mongol Empire. A Mongolian ambassador to the Caliph in Baghdad is said to have been murdered,[105] which may have been the cause of Hulagu Khan's sack of Baghdad in 1258. Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... This article is about the person. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ...


The Mongols conquered most of the Eurasian land mass, including both China in the east and much of the old Islamic caliphate and Islamic Khwarezm, as well as Russia and Eastern Europe in the west, and subsequent invasions of the Levant. Later Mongol leaders, such as Timur, though himself became a Muslim, destroyed many cities, slaughtered thousands of people and did irrevocable damage to the ancient irrigation systems of Mesopotamia. These invasions transformed a civil society to a nomadic one. The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Eurasian, also Euroasian or Euro-Asian can mean: Eurasian may be used as a slang term to refer to people of Asian decent, living in European countries who have no other traits of being Asian other then the fact that they look it. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ögodei, Tolui, Subutai, Jebe, Jelme, Mukali, Khubilai, Kasar, Boorchu, Sorkin-shara Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din, Inalchuq† (executed) Strength 100,000-200,000 mounted archers, with powerful siege engines 400,000 men, however not organized into armies, only city... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


Eventually, the Mongols that settled in parts of Persia, Central Asia and Russia converted to Islam and in many instances became assimilated into various Muslim Iranian or Turkic peoples (for instance, one of the greatest Muslim astronomers of the 15th century, Ulugh Beg, was a grandson of Timur). The Ottoman Empire rose from the ashes, but the Golden Age was over. Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Causes of decline

"The achievements of the Arabic speaking peoples between the ninth and twelfth centuries are so great as to baffle our understanding. The decadence of Islam and of Arabic is almost as puzzling in its speed and completeness as their phenomenal rise. Scholars will forever try to explain it as they try to explain the decadence and fall of Rome. Such questions are exceedingly complex and it is impossible to answer them in a simple way."

George SartonThe Incubation of Western Culture in the Middle East [106]

The Islamic civilization which had at the outset been creative and dynamic in dealing with issues, began to struggle to respond to the challenges and rapid changes it faced during the 12th and 13th century onwards towards the end of the Abbassid rule. Despite a brief respite with the new Ottoman rule, the decline continued until its eventual collapse and subsequent stagnation in the 20th century. George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ...


Despite a number of attempts by many writers, historical and modern, none seem to agree on the causes of decline.


The main views on the causes of decline comprise the following: political mismanagement after the early Caliphs (10th century onwards), closure of the gates of ijtihad (independent reasoning) and the institutionalisation of taqleed (imitation) rather than ijtihad or bid‘ah (innovation) by the 13th century, foreign involvement by invading forces and colonial powers (11th century Crusades, 13th century Mongol Empire, 15th century Reconquista, 19th century European empires), and the disruption to the cycle of equity based on Ibn Khaldun's famous model of Asabiyyah (the rise and fall of civilizations). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... For British writers Robert Cooper and Mark Leonards concept of 21st century EU influence, see Eurosphere. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Asabiyyah refers to social solidarity with an emphasis on group conciousness and unity. ... Central New York City. ...


Tolerance about different ideas reduced and faded. Seminaries systematically forbade philosophical thought which comprising both natural and theological aspects of world in Islamic context. Even polemic debates were abandoned after the 13th century. Institutions of science comprising Islamic universities, libraries (including the House of Wisdom), observatories, and hospitals, had been destroyed by foreign invaders like the Mongols and never promoted again.[107] Not only wasn't new publishing equipment accepted but also wide illiteracy overwhelmed Muslim society. Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... The House of Wisdom (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. ... Bimaristan is a Middle and New Persian (بیمارستان bīmārestān) word meaning hospital, with Bimar- meaning sick and -stan as location and place. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...


Some historians have recently come to question the traditional picture of decline, pointing to continued astronomical activity as a sign of a continuing and creative scientific tradition through to the 15th century, of which the works of Ibn al-Shatir (1304–1375) and Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) are considered two of the most noteworthy examples.[108][109] Ibn al-Shatir (or Ibn ash-Shatir) (1304–1375) was a Muslim astronomer of Damascus. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Criticism of ascribing the Golden Age to Islam

The issue of Islamic Civilization being a misnomer has been raised by a number of recent scholars such as the secular Iranian historian, Dr. Shoja-e-din Shafa in his recent controversial books titled Rebirth (Persian: تولدى ديگر) and After 1400 Years (Persian: پس از 1400 سال) manifesting the intrinsic contradiction of expressions like "Islamic civilization", "Islamic science", "Islamic medicine", "Islamic astronomy", "Islamic scientists", etc. Shafa states that while religion has been a cardinal foundation for nearly all empires of antiquity to derive their legitimacy from, it does not possess adequate defining factors to advance a kingdom or domain in accumulation and furtherance of science, technology, arts, and culture in a way to justify attribution of such developments to existence and practice of a certain faith within that realm. While various empires in the course of mankind's history advocated and officialized the religion they deemed most appropriate to exercise their absolute authority over the masses, we never ascribe their achievements to the faith they practiced. Ergo, using Islamic attribute for the abovementioned terms is as impertinent as arbitrarily concocted namings such as "Christian Civilization" for the totality of "Roman Empire" as of Constantine I's reign onwards, "Byzantine Empire" and all subsequent European empires that advocated Christianity one way or another; or "Zoroastrian Architecture" for all the architectural innovations and marvels that pre-Islamic Persian Empire later loaned to its Muslim conquerors. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Persia redirects here. ...


Shafa particularly points out that counting all scholars in the Islamic empires as muslims, can also be misleading, since with the harsh punishment and prosecution awaiting alleged heretics and Zendiqs, no sane scientist or intellectual would dare express his/her true faith and religious thoughts. To exemplify this matter, Shafa alludes to two of the most prominent physicians/philosophers of the Islamic era, namely Avicenna and Rhazes; the former being a true muslim that was charged with heresy for mere utterance of his philosophical ideas; and the latter daringly and openly criticizing revelational religions (viz. Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism) in three of his controversial treatises, exposing himself to great peril. Bearing this personality comparison in mind, factors other than Islamic thought should be considered to have contributed to the great achievements of such individuals. ZindÄ«q (Arabic: زنديق) refers to those, who Muslims believe, have strayed so far from mainstream Islamic beliefs to have left Islam altogether. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Bernard Lewis states:[110] For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ...

"There have been many civilizations in human history, almost all of which were local, in the sense that they were defined by a region and an ethnic group. This applied to all the ancient civilizations of the Middle East—Egypt, Babylon, Persia; to the great civilizations of Asia—India, China; and to the civilizations of Pre-Columbian America. There are two exceptions: Christendom and Islam. These are two civilizations defined by religion, in which religion is the primary defining force, not, as in India or China, a secondary aspect among others of an essentially regional and ethnically defined civilization. Here, again, another word of explanation is necessary." For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Matthew E. Falagas, Effie A. Zarkadoulia, George Samonis (2006). "Arab science in the golden age (750–1258 C.E.) and today", The FASEB Journal 20, p. 1581-1586.
  2. ^ a b c Howard R. Turner, Science in Medieval Islam, University of Texas Press, November 1, 1997, ISBN 0-292-78149-0, pg. 270 (book cover, last page)
  3. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  4. ^ a b c d e Arnold Pacey, "Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-Year History", MIT Press, 1990, ISBN 0262660725 pg 41-42
  5. ^ Bülent Þenay. Sufism. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  6. ^ Muslim History and the Spread of Islam from the 7th to the 21st century. The Islam Project. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  7. ^ Thomas F. Glick (1977), "Noria Pots in Spain", Technology and Culture 18 (4), p. 644-650.
  8. ^ a b c Andrew M. Watson (1974), "The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion, 700-1100", The Journal of Economic History 34 (1), p. 8-35.
  9. ^ The Globalisation of Crops, FSTC
  10. ^ Andrew M. Watson (1983), Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052124711X.
  11. ^ a b Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering
  12. ^ a b c Jairus Banaji (2007), "Islam, the Mediterranean and the rise of capitalism", Journal Historical Materialism 15 (1), p. 47-74, Brill Publishers.
  13. ^ Al-Hassani, Woodcock and Saoud (2007), Muslim heritage in Our World, FSTC publishing, 2nd Edition, p. 102-123.
  14. ^ a b John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 29-30, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.
  15. ^ a b Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), p. 79-96.
  16. ^ S. A. H. Ahsani (July 1984). "Muslims in Latin America: a survey", Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 5 (2), p. 454-463.
  17. ^ The Cambridge economic history of Europe, p. 437. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521087090.
  18. ^ Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), p. 79-96 [81, 83, 85, 90, 93, 96].
  19. ^ Robert Sabatino Lopez, Irving Woodworth Raymond, Olivia Remie Constable (2001), Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231123574.
  20. ^ Timur Kuran (2005), "The Absence of the Corporation in Islamic Law: Origins and Persistence", American Journal of Comparative Law 53, p. 785-834 [798-799].
  21. ^ Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), p. 79-96 [92-93].
  22. ^ Said Amir Arjomand (1999), "The Law, Agency, and Policy in Medieval Islamic Society: Development of the Institutions of Learning from the Tenth to the Fifteenth Century", Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, p. 263-293. Cambridge University Press.
  23. ^ Samir Amin (1978), "The Arab Nation: Some Conclusions and Problems", MERIP Reports 68, p. 3-14 [8, 13].
  24. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan (1976). Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering, p. 34-35. Instiute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo.
  25. ^ Maya Shatzmiller, p. 36.
  26. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), p. 1-30 [10].
  27. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), p. 1-30.
  28. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part 1: Avenues Of Technology Transfer
  29. ^ Maya Shatzmiller, p. 6-7.
  30. ^ a b Maya Shatzmiller, p. 400-401.
  31. ^ Maya Shatzmiller, p. 350-362.
  32. ^ a b c d Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 March 2006.
  33. ^ 1000 Years of Knowledge Rediscovered at Ibn Battuta Mall, MTE Studios.
  34. ^ Fiona MacDonald (2006), The Plague and Medicine in the Middle Ages, p. 42-43, Gareth Stevens, ISBN 0836859073.
  35. ^ Tor Eigeland, "The Tiles of Iberia", Saudi Aramco World, March-April 1992, p. 24-31.
  36. ^ Dato' Dzulkifli Abd Razak, Quest for knowledge, New Sunday Times, 3 July 2005.
  37. ^ N. M. Swerdlow (1993). "Montucla's Legacy: The History of the Exact Sciences", Journal of the History of Ideas 54 (2), p. 299-328 [320].
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Sprague de Camp, Arkham House, 1976 Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: the Makers of Heroic Fantasy is a 1976 work of collective biography on the formative authors of the heroic fantasy genre by L. Sprague de Camp, published by Arkham House. ... George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arch marking entrance to campus The University of Calgary is a public university located in the north-western quadrant of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... George Saliba has been Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science of the Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, USA since 1979. ...

References

  • Donald Routledge Hill, Islamic Science And Engineering, Edinburgh University Press (1993), ISBN 0-7486-0455-3
  • George Sarton, The Incubation of Western Culture in the Middle East, A Geroge C. Keiser Foundation Lecture, March 29, 1950, Washington DC, 1951
  • Maya Shatzmiller (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004098968
  • Shoja-e-din Shafa, Rebirth (1995) (Persian Title: تولدى ديگر)
  • Shoja-e-din Shafa, After 1400 Years (2000) (Persian Title: پس از 1400 سال)


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See also

Islamic studies
v  d  e
Islamic Art

ArtArchitectureCalligraphyLiteratureMusicPoetryPottery Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ...

Islamic Philosophy

PhilosophyEarly PhilosophyModern PhilosophyTheology
HistoriographySociologyEarly Sociology
Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ...

Islamic Science

Islamic ScienceTimeline of Islamic ScienceIslamic Golden Age
Alchemy & ChemistryAstronomyMathematicsMedicineOphthalmology
In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ...

Islamic Technology

Muslim Inventions • Agricultural Revolution • Timeline of Islamic Technology A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ...

Other Fields

EconomicsHistoryJurisprudenceMysticismSufi Studies Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Sufi studies: a particular branch of comparative studies that uses a. ...

In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... A 9th century picture of Arab scientists working in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... Scholars debate what exactly constitutes an Empire. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

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Islamic Golden Age - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2884 words)
Scientific and intellectual achievements blossomed in the Golden age, and passed on to Europe to be expanded upon in the Renaissance.
Islamic governments inherited "the knowledge and skills of the ancient Middle East, of Greece, of Persia and of India.
The golden age of Islamic (and/or Muslim) art lasted from 750 to the 16th century, when ceramics, glass, metalwork, textiles, illuminated manuscripts, and woodwork flourished.
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