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Encyclopedia > Islamic Empires in India
History of the Indian Subcontinent
Stone Age 70,000–7000 BC
Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BC
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BC
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BC
Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BC
Kuru Dynasty 1200–316 BC
Maha Janapadas 700–321 BC
Magadha Empire 684–321 BC
Middle Kingdoms 600 BC–1279 AD
Maurya Empire 321–184 BC
Gupta Empire 240–550 AD
Chola Empire 848–1279 AD
Islamic Sultanates 979–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Delhi Sultanate 1210–1526
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Era 1526–1707
Maratha Empire 1674–1761
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Republic of India 1947 onwards
General Histories
India · Pakistan
Bangladesh · Sri Lanka
Nepal · Bhutan
Regional Histories
Punjab · South India · Assam
Pakistani Regions · Bengal
Specialized Histories
Timeline · Dynasties · Economy
Maritime · Mathematics · Military
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During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... It has been suggested that Ancient Metropolitan City be merged into this article or section. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... // The Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... // Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the... The history of South India begins with the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Bengal had been quite distant and cut off (by the rivers, especially the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) from the mainland of India for ages. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... The chronology of Indian mathematics spans from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1500 BC) and Vedic civilization (1500-500 BC) to modern India (21st century AD). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... South Asia or Southern Asia is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ...

Contents


The rise of Islam in South Asia

The initial entry of Islam into South Asia came in the first century after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. The Umayyad caliph in Damascus sent an expedition to Balochistan and Sindh in 711 led by Muhammad bin Qasim (for whom Karachi's second port is named). The expedition went as far north as Multan but was not able to retain that region and was not successful in expanding Islamic rule to other parts of India. Coastal trade and the presence of a Muslim colony in Sindh, however, permitted significant cultural exchanges and the introduction into the subcontinent of saintly teachers. Muslim influence grew with conversions. Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ... South Asia or Southern Asia is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Karachi District be merged into this article or section. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ...


Almost three centuries later, the Turkics, Persians and the Afghans spearheaded the Islamic conquest in India through the traditional invasion routes of the northwest. Mahmud of Ghazni (979-1030) led a series of raids against Rajput kingdoms and rich Hindu temples and established a base in Punjab for future incursions. The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Rajputs (anonymous, c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


[[Image:[[Media:[[Image:Media:MUSIC! YEAH]]]]]]


Delhi Sultanate

Main article: Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ...


During the last quarter of the twelfth century, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic plain, conquering in succession Ghazni, Multan, Sindh, Lahore, and Delhi. Qutb-ud-din Aybak, one of his generals proclaimed himself Sultan of Delhi. In the 13th century, Shams ud din Iltumish (1211 - 1236), a former slave-warrior, established a Turkic kingdom in Delhi, which enabled future sultans to push in every direction; within the next 100 years, the Delhi Sultanate extended its sway east to Bengal and south to the Deccan, while the sultanate itself experienced repeated threats from the northwest and internal revolts from displeased, independent-minded nobles. The sultanate was in constant flux as five dynasties rose and fell: the Slave dynasty (1206-90), Khalji dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and Lodi dynasty (1451-1526). The Khilji dynasty, under Ala ud din (1296 - 1316), succeeded in bringing most of South India under its control for a time, although conquered areas broke away quickly. Power in Delhi was often gained by violence -- nineteen of the thirty-five sultans were assassinated -- and was legitimized by reward for tribal loyalty. Factional rivalries and court intrigues were as numerous as they were treacherous; territories controlled by the sultan expanded and shrank depending on his personality and fortunes. Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a brave conqueror and sultan of Delhi and what is today Afghanistan between 1171 and 1206. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Minaret, July 2001 Ghazni is a city in central Afghanistan, situated on a plateau at 7280 feet above sea level. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... The Minar-e-Pakistan represents Pakistani independence The Hazuri Bagh, looking towards the Roshnai Gate The Hazuri Bagh, looking towards the Roshnai Gate in 1870 Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Baháí House of Worship is one of the most famous landmarks in Delhi. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Shams ud din Iltutmish, or Altamash, was the third Sultan of Delhi, and the only other significant ruler, besides the founder Qutb ud din Aibak, of the Slave Dynasty. ... Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents France - Philippe II, Auguste King of France (reigned from 1180 to 1223) Mongol Empire - Genghis Khan, Mongol Khan (from 1206 to 1227... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Baháí House of Worship is one of the most famous landmarks in Delhi. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Slave dynasty served as the first Sultans of Delhi in India from 1206 to 1290. ... Khilji or Khalji (Persian: سلطنت خلجی ) was a ruling dynasty of Turkic origin that conquered and ruled northern India (1290-1320). ... The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India started in 1321 CE in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq. ... rulers of Indias Delhi sultanate (c. ... The Lodi Dynasty (1451 to 1526), was the last phase of the Delhi Sultanate. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... Ala-ud-din Khilji (real name Juna Khan) (d. ... Events March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ...

Both the Qur'an and sharia (Islamic law) provided the basis for enforcing Islamic administration over the independent Hindu rulers, but the sultanate made only fitful progress in the beginning, when many campaigns were undertaken for plunder and temporary reduction of fortresses. The effective rule of a sultan depended largely on his ability to control the strategic places that dominated the military highways and trade routes, extract the annual land tax, and maintain personal authority over military and provincial governors. Sultan 'Ala ud-Din made an attempt to reassess, systematize, and unify land revenues and urban taxes and to institute a highly centralized system of administration over his realm, but his efforts were abortive. Although agriculture in North India improved as a result of new canal construction and irrigation methods, including what came to be known as the Persian wheel, prolonged political instability and parasitic methods of tax collection brutalized the peasantry. Yet trade and a market economy, encouraged by the free-spending habits of the aristocracy, acquired new impetus both inland and overseas. Experts in metalwork, stonework, and textile manufacture responded to the new patronage with enthusiasm. In this period Persian language and many Persian cultural aspects became dominant in the centers of power in India. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 400 KB) Image Info: <-: Description: The Shalamar Garden :-> Sideview of the marble enclosure on the side of the pond, on the second level of the Garden. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 400 KB) Image Info: <-: Description: The Shalamar Garden :-> Sideview of the marble enclosure on the side of the pond, on the second level of the Garden. ... The Shalimar Gardens, sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, Pakistan. ... The , , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Quran, Quran, Koran, and Alcoran), is the holy book of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) refers to Islamic law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A map showing North India North India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


The Mughals

Taj Mahal which became the icon of India, was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan during 1630 and 1653.
Taj Mahal which became the icon of India, was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan during 1630 and 1653.

The Mughal Empire, (Persian: مغل بادشاہ) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian Subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. The word "Mughal" is the Indo-Aryan version of Mongol. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1279 KB) Agra, India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1279 KB) Agra, India. ... The Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (Hindi: , Persian & Urdu: ) is a monument located in Agra in India, constructed between 1631 and 1654 by a workforce of more than twenty thousand. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Shahbuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) The Indian subcontinent is a peninsular landmass of the Asian continent occupying the Indian Plate and extending into the Indian Ocean, bordered on the north by the Eurasian Plate. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur (Persian: محمد بابر) (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530), (also spelled ), Emperor and Founder of the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Ibrahim Lodi (died April 21, 1526) was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mogul Empire. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...

The Greater Mughal Emperors
Emperor Reign start Reign end
Babur 1526 1530
Humayun 1530 1556
Akbar 1556 1605
Jahangir 1605 1627
Shah Jahan 1627 1658
Aurangzeb 1658 1707

Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur (Persian: محمد بابر) (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530), (also spelled ), Emperor and Founder of the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر), (alternative spellings include Jellaladin, Celalettin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbār-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – October 27, 1605) was the son of Humayun whom he succeeded to become ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 until 1605. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... Nuruddin Jahangir (Persian: نور الدین جہھانگر) (August 31, 1569 – October 28, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until 1627. ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Shahbuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Aurangzeb (from Persian, اورنگ‌زیب Aurang means throne and Zaib meant beauty or ornament),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal April 25 - Allied army is defeated by Bourbonic army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession. ...

Southern dynasties

The sultans' failure to hold securely the Deccan and South India resulted in the rise of competing southern dynasties: the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1527) and the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565). Zafar Khan, a former provincial governor under the Tughluqs, revolted against his Turkic overlord and proclaimed himself sultan, taking the title Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in 1347. The Bahmani Sultanate, located in the northern Deccan, lasted for almost two centuries, until it fragmented into five smaller states, known as the Deccan sultanates (Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Berar, and Bidar) in 1527. The Bahmani Sultanate adopted the patterns established by the Delhi overlords in tax collection and administration, but its downfall was caused in large measure by the competition and hatred between deccani (domiciled Muslim immigrants and local converts) and paradesi (foreigners or officials in temporary service). The Bahmani Sultanate initiated a process of cultural synthesis visible in Hyderabad where cultural flowering is still expressed in vigorous schools of deccani architecture and painting. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka. ... Golconda is a ruined city and fortress 11 km west of the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India. ... Ahmednagar is a city in the state of Maharashtra, India, on the left bank of the Sina river, about 100 km southeast of Pune. ... Berar is a former province of British India, located in central India. ... Bidar is a city in Karnataka state, India. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ...


Founded in 1336, the Vijayanagara Empire (named for its capital Vijayanagara (Vijayanagar), "City of Victory," in present-day Karnataka) expanded rapidly toward Madurai in the south and Goa in the west and exerted intermittent control over the east coast and the extreme southwest. Vijayanagara rulers closely followed Chola precedents, especially in collecting agricultural and trade revenues, in giving encouragement to commercial guilds, and in honoring temples with lavish endowments. Added revenue needed for waging war against the Bahmani sultans was raised by introducing a set of taxes on commercial enterprises, professions, and industries. Political rivalry between the Bahmani and the Vijayanagara rulers involved control over the Krishna-Tungabhadra river basin, which shifted hands depending on whose military was superior at any given time. The Vijayanagar rulers' capacity for gaining victory over their enemies was contingent on ensuring a constant supply of horses--initially through Arab traders but later through the Portuguese--and maintaining internal roads and communication networks. Merchant guilds enjoyed a wide sphere of operation and were able to offset the power of landlords and Brahmans in court politics. Commerce and shipping eventually passed largely into the hands of foreigners, and special facilities and tax concessions were provided for them by the ruler. Arabs and Portuguese competed for influence and control of west coast ports, and, in 1510, Goa passed into Portuguese possession. The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar, meaning the city of victory), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagara empire in the Southern part of India. ... It has been suggested that Divisions of Karnataka be merged into this article or section. ... Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil) is situated on the banks of Vaigai River in Tamil Nadu, a southern Indian state. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Krishna River is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... A guild is an association of people of the same trade or pursuits (with a similar skill or craft), formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ...


The city of Vijayanagara itself contained numerous temples with rich ornamentation, especially the gateways, and a cluster of shrines for the deities. Most prominent among the temples was the one dedicated to Virupaksha, a manifestation of Shiva, the patron-deity of the Vijayanagar rulers. Temples continued to be the nuclei of diverse cultural and intellectual activities, but these activities were based more on tradition than on contemporary political realities. (However, the first Vijayanagara ruler--Harihara I--was a Hindu who converted to Islam and then reconverted to Hinduism for political expediency.) The temples sponsored no intellectual exchange with Islamic theologians because Muslims were generally assigned to an "impure" status and were thus excluded from entering temples. When the rulers of the five Deccan sultanates combined their forces and attacked Vijayanagara in 1565, the empire crumbled at the Battle of Talikot. Virupaksha Raya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... This article is about the Hindu God Śiva. ... Harihara I, also called as Vira Harihar I, was the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, one of the best known empires of the Indian subcontinent. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Combatants The Vijayanagara Empire The Deccan sultanates Commanders Rama Raya Deccan Sultanite Kings & Generals Strength 140,000 foot, 10,000 horse and over 100 War elephant s 80,000 foot, 30,000 horse and several dozen cannons Casualties Unknown but very heavy including Rama Raya Unknown but moderate to heavy...


References

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Literature

  • Elliot and Dowson: The History of India as told by its own Historians, New Delhi reprint, 1990.
  • K.S. Lal: The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India [1]
  • K.S. Lal. Indian Muslims - Who are they. [2]
  • Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, Bombay, 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973.

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