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Encyclopedia > Islamic
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Islam

History of Islam Image File history File links I made this. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ...

Beliefs and practices

Oneness of God
Profession of Faith
PrayerFasting
PilgrimageCharity This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic allāhu الله) is traditionally used by Muslims as the Arabic word for Singular God (not Gods personal name, but the equivalent of the Hebrew word El as opposed to YHWH). Both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars often... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ...

Major figures

Muhammad
AliAbu Bakr
Companions of Muhammad
Household of Muhammad
Prophets of Islam This list is poorly defined, permanently incomplete, or has become unverifiable or an indiscriminate list or repository of loosely associated topics. ... This article is about the prophet. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (or Asahaaba,الصحابه; both forms are plural--the singular is Sahaabi, which is Arabic for friend, or companion) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... This is an Arabic phrase literally translated as People of the House, or family. ... This article is over 200KB in length. ...

Texts & Laws

Qur'anHadithSharia
JurisprudenceTheology
Biographies of Muhammad // Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Sharia (Arabic: ; also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... This article is not about the group of British engineering companies called Sira; see Sira (group of British companies). ...

Branches of Islam

SunniShi'aSufi
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaah. ... Shia Islam or Shi`ism (from the Arabic word شيعة, short for the historic phrase shi`at `Ali شيعة علي, meaning the followers of Ali) is the second-largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ...

Sociopolitical aspects

ArtArchitecture
CitiesCalendar
SciencePhilosophy
Religious leaders
Women in Islam
Political IslamJihad
Liberal Islam
Muslim holidays
Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic studies and architecture. ... This is a list of cities that various groups regard as holy. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar, Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ... Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Islam. ... Islamic religious leaders are persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, perform a prominent role within their community or nation. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Friday is an important day in the life of a Muslim and it is believed that any devotional acts done on this day gain a higher reward. ...

See also

Vocabulary of Islam
Index of articles on Islam The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islam and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

   
Islam Portal

Islam (Arabic: الإسلام; al-islām (), "the submission to God") is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the world's second-largest religion. Followers of Islam are known as Muslims, and believe that Allah (God) revealed his direct word for mankind to the many prophets until Muhammad who is considered the final prophet. Image File history File links Portal. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Image File history File links Ar-al islam. ... God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being ascribed by monotheistic religions to be the creator, ruler and/or the sum total of, existence. ... Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... // In the study of comparative religion, an Abrahamic religion is any of those religions deriving from a common ancient Semitic tradition and traced by their adherents to Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many), a patriarch whose life is narrated in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and in the Quran. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The word is the Arabic term for God. However, in all languages it usually refers to the Islamic concept of God, see Usage below. ... This article is over 200KB in length. ... This article is about the prophet. ...

Contents


Etymology

In Arabic, Islām derives from the three-letter root Sīn-Lām-Mīm (س-ل-م), which means "to be in peaceful submission; to surrender; to obey; peace". Islām is a verbal abstract to this root, and literally means "submission/obedience," referring to submission to Allah. Compare that root with the cognate word in Hebrew, shalom, which derives from the root shin-lamedh-mem (שלם), which has cognates in many Semitic languages, and means completeness, fulfillment, wellbeing, a concept usually encapsulated by translation in the word peace. Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its value is IPA . ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its value is IPA . ... The word is the Arabic term for God. However, in all languages it usually refers to the Islamic concept of God, see Usage below. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Shalom (שלום) is a Hebrew language word meaning peace. ...


Other Arabic words derived from س-ل-م:

  • Salām, meaning "peace", which is also part of a common salutation, As-Salāmu alaykum (Peace be upon you).
  • As-Salām (The Peace) is one of the 99 names of God found in the Qur'an.
  • Muslim, a follower of Islam, an agentive noun meaning "one who surrenders" or "submits" to God.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Assalamu Alaikum. ... Assalamualaikum (السلام عليكم) is an Arabic language greeting used in Muslim cultures. ... The 99 Names of God also known as The 99 attributes of Allah, according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God revealed to man in the Quran. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ...

Beliefs

Muslims believe that God (or, in Arabic, Allāh; also in Aramaic Alaha) revealed his direct word for mankind to Muhammad (c. 570632) and other prophets, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muslims believe that Muhammad is the last or the seal of the prophets. Thus, his preachings for humankind will last until qiyamah (The Day of the Resurrection). Muslims assert that the main written record of revelation to humankind is the Qur'an (see below), which they believe to be flawless, immutable, and the final revelation of God to humanity. Muslims believe that parts of the Gospels, Torah and Jewish prophetic books (though originally divine in their nature) have been forgotten, misinterpreted, incorrectly edited by humans, or distorted by their followers and thus their original message has been corrupted over time. With that perspective, Muslims view the Qur'an as a correction of Jewish and Christian scriptures, and a final revelation. God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being ascribed by monotheistic religions to be the creator, ruler and/or the sum total of, existence. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The word is the Arabic term for God. However, in all languages it usually refers to the Islamic concept of God, see Usage below. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... This article is about the prophet. ... Events First mention of the Spear of Destiny (approximate date). ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... This article is over 200KB in length. ... According to the Book of Genesis in Judaisms Torah and the Christian Bible, and Islams Quran, Adam was the first man created by God. ... Noah or Nóach (circa 2104 BCE according to the chronology of the Hebrew Bible/Tanakh) (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ (Nóaḥ), Tiberian Hebrew (); Arabic نوح ()), is a Biblical figure who, according to Genesis, built an ark to save his family and each species of the worlds animals from the Deluge... Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, (circa 1700 BCE) Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic ابراهيم ; Geez አብርሃም ) is regarded as a patriarch of Israelite religion, recognized by Judaism and later Christianity, and a very important prophet in Islam. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ being a title meaning Anointed One or Messiah. Christian viewpoints on Jesus (known as Christology) are both diverse and complex. ... Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ...


Muslims hold that Islam is essentially the same belief as that of all the messengers sent by God to mankind since Adam, with the Qur'an (the text agreed upon by all sects of the Muslim faith) codifying the final revelation of God. Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as derivations of the teachings of the prophet Abraham and thus acknowledges common Abrahamic roots. The Qur'an calls Jews and Christians (and sometimes people of other faiths) "People of the Book." Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the stories it teaches about the life, and actions of Jesus Christ according to the Christians book of faith, the New Testiment. ... // In the study of comparative religion, an Abrahamic religion is any of those religions deriving from a common ancient Semitic tradition and traced by their adherents to Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many), a patriarch whose life is narrated in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and in the Quran. ... The People of the Book is a term in Islam for peoples who, according to the Quran, have received divine scriptures — generally interpreted to refer to the Taurat (the Torah) and Injeel (the Gospel). ... The People of the Book is a term in Islam for peoples who, according to the Quran, have received divine scriptures — generally interpreted to refer to the Taurat (the Torah) and Injeel (the Gospel). ...


The basis of Islamic belief is found in the shahādatān ("two testimonies", Arabic: لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله ): lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadur-rasūlu-llāhi—"There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." In order to become a Muslim, one needs to recite and believe in these statements under witness. One who wishes to convert must be truly willing, and must have given thought to the meaning of the shahāda before reciting the words (in Arabic) and becoming a Muslim. There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ...

A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in Islam
A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in Islam

Islām is described as a dīn, meaning "way of life" and/or "guidance". Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... Dome of the Rock in center of Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: قبة الصخرة Qubbat As-Sakhrah) is a famous Islamic shrine in Jerusalem. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: (without niqqud: הר הבית), Har haBáyit) or Noble Sanctuary (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, â–¶ (help· info)) is a hotly contested religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Din (الدين) is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslims faith and practice. ...


Six articles of belief

There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims:


1. Belief in God (Allah), the one and only one worthy of all worship (tawhid). Tawhid (توحيد), meaning declaring God one, is the Islamic concept of monotheism. ...


2. Belief in all the prophets (nabi) and messengers (rasul) sent by God. It is believed that there were around 124,000 prophets, of whom 313 are also messengers. Out of the 313 messengers, 25 are held to be of high esteem (ulul azmi) and are mentioned by name in the Quran. A prophet is a person who is believed to communicate with God, or with a deity. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ...


The difference between prophets and messengers is that although all received revelation (wahi) from God, the messengers received a complete Divine code of life ("Shariah") in the form of a Book. The prophets called people back to the Shariah that was in effect at their time. Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


3. Belief in the books (kutub) sent by God: Kutub is the plural form of the Arabic word Kitab (book). ...

The Suhuf (scripts) of Ibrahim (Abraham), which have been completely lost.
The Tawrat sent to Musa (Moses)
The Zabur sent to Daud (David)
The Injil sent to Isa (Jesus)
The Qur'an sent to Muhammad

4. Belief in the Angels (mala'ika) of whom four are held in high esteem and are named in the Quran and the hadith. The Tawrat (Tawrah) is considered by Muslims to be the original divine revelation given to Moses and one of the three Divine Books revealed before the Quran, the other two being the Injil and Zabur. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Injil (Injeel) is one of the four holy books the Quran records as revealed by Allah - the others being the Zabur, Tawrat, and Quran. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


5. Belief in the Day of Judgement (qiyama) and in the life after death (heaven and hell). (Note: Sometimes these articles are listed separately, thus resulting in 7 articles of faith.) Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ...


6. Belief in Fate (predestination) (qadar)1 Predestination is a religious idea, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... Qadar in Arabic means fate or divine destiny. ...


The Muslim creed in English: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

"I believe in Allah; and in His Angels; and in His Scriptures; and in His Messengers; and in The Final Day; and in Fate, that All things are from Allah, and Resurrection after death be Truth.
"I testify that there is no god but Allah Almighty; and I testify that Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, is His Messenger."

The tenets of Islam

The Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Kaaba, Masjid al Haram, Makkah, is one of the five pillars of Islam or one of the roots of religion (for the Shi'a)

The two largest subgroups of the Muslims are the Sunni and the Shi'a. Sunni Muslims make up a large percentage of the Muslim world, although one can find large majorities of Shi'a Muslims in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran and Iraq. However, in countries such as Saudi Arabia and Indonesia, Sunni Muslims are the majority. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 258 KB) Description : Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 258 KB) Description : Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... The Kaaba (Kaabah), (Arabic: الكعبة or Al Kaabah Al Musharafah : الكعبة المشرًّفة) also al-Bait ul Ateeq (Arabic: البيت العتيق ) and al-Bait ul Haram (Arabic: البيت الحرام ), is a building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). ... Masjid al Haram The Masjid al Haram (Arabic: ) is a mosque in the city of Mecca. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Sunni Islam's fundamental tenets are referred to as the Five Pillars of Islam2, while Shia Islam has a slightly different terminology, encompassing five core beliefs, the Roots of Religion and ten core practices, the Branches of Religion. All Muslims agree on the following five basic obligations of believers, which Sunnis term the Five Pillars of Islam, and which Shia would consider to be elements of the Roots of Religion and the Branches of Religion. The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to the five most fundamental aspects of Sunni Islam. ... In Shia Islam, the five Roots of Religion (Usūl al-Dīn) are the five beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ...

  • Shahādah: Testifying that there is none worthy of worship except God (Tawheed) and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger (Nubuwwah).
  • Salah: Performing the five daily prayers.
  • Sawm: Fasting from dawn to dusk in the month of Ramadan.
  • Zakāt: Giving Zakaah (charity).
  • Hajj: The Pilgrimage to Makkah during the month of Dhul Hijjah, which is compulsory once in a lifetime for one who has the ability to do it.

Shi'a and Sunni also agree on the following beliefs, although they classify them differently: There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... Tawhid (توحيد), meaning declaring God one, is the Islamic concept of monotheism. ... This article is about the prophet. ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the holiest month in Islam. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ...

  • Adl: The justice of God.
  • Qiyamah: The Day of Resurrection.
  • Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf: Commanding what is good.
  • Nahi-Anil-Munkar: Forbidding what is evil.
  • Al Jihad fi sabilillah: Striving to seek God's approval.

Distinctive Shi'a beliefs, not held by the Sunni, include: Adl is an Arabic term roughly meaning Justice. It is used in the everyday sense of the word: for example, wizeer al-adl translates to The Minister of Justice. ... Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... Amr-Bil-Marūf - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ...

  • Imamah: Leadership. The belief in the divinely appointed and guided imamate of Ali and some of his descendants.
  • Tawalla: To love the Ahl al-Bayt and their followers.
  • Tabarra: To disassociate from the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt.
  • Khums: Paying the tax on profit.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: أهل البيت ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Tabarra - disassociating from Ahl al-Bayt enemies , is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to disassociating from the enemies of God, Muhammad and the Ahl al-Bayt. ... Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all moveable and...

God

Main articles: Allah / God

The fundamental concept in Islam is the oneness of God (tawhid). This monotheism is absolute, not relative or pluralistic in any sense of the word. God is described in Sura al-Ikhlas, (chapter 112) as follows: The word is the Arabic term for God. However, in all languages it usually refers to the Islamic concept of God, see Usage below. ... God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being ascribed by monotheistic religions to be the creator, ruler and/or the sum total of, existence. ... God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being ascribed by monotheistic religions to be the creator, ruler and/or the sum total of, existence. ... Tawhid (توحيد), meaning declaring God one, is the Islamic concept of monotheism. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Al-Ikhlas is the 112th Sura of the Quran, a short 4_verse declaration of Gods absolute unity (tawhid), rejecting the doctrines of polytheism and trinitarianism. ...

Say "He is God, the one and only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute the Self-Sufficient master. He begetteth not, nor is he begotten. And there is none like unto Him."

In Arabic, God is called Allāh. The word is etymologically connected to ʾilāh "deity", ultimately from Proto-Semitic *ʾilâh-, and indirectly related to Hebrew Ēl. Allāh is also the word used by Christian and Jewish Arabs, translating ho theos of the New Testament and Septuagint; it predates Muhammad and in its origin does not specify a "God" different from the one worshipped by Judaism and Christianity, the other Abrahamic religions. A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Ä’l is a northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... // What is the New Testament? The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given in the West to the Koine Greek Alexandrine text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) produced some time between the third to first century BC. The Septuagint Bible includes additional books of the old Jewish canon beyond those contained in the... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ...


The name "Allah" shows no plural or gender, unlike the word "God" that may take plural sense "Gods" and feminine form "Goddesses". In Islam "Allah" Almighty as the Qur’an says:

"(He is) the Creator of the heavens and the earth: He has made for you pairs from among yourselves, and pairs among cattle: by this means does He multiply you: there is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things)" (42:11).

The implicit usage of the definite article in Allah linguistically indicates the divine unity. Muslims believe that the God they worship is the same as the Judeo-Christian God, i.e. the God of Abraham. However, Muslims reject the Christian theology concerning the trinity of God (the doctrine of the Trinity which regards Jesus as the eternal Son of God), seeing it as akin to polytheism. Quoting from the Qur'an, sura An-Nisa 171: Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... Within Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity states that God is a single Being who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a communion of three persons (personae, prosoponoi): Father (the Source, the Eternal Majesty); the Son (the eternal Logos or Word, incarnate as Jesus of Nazareth); and the Holy Spirit. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Surat An-Nisa (The Women) is the 4th sura of the Quran, with 176 ayat. ...

"O People of the Scripture! Do not transgress the limits of your religion, and do not say about God except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was only a messenger of God, and His word that He had sent to Mary, and a revelation from Him. Therefore, you shall believe in GOD and His messengers. You shall not say, "Trinity". You shall refrain from this for your own good. God is only one god. Be He glorified; He is much too glorious to have a son. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. God suffices as Lord and Master."

No Muslim visual images or depictions of God exist because such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry and are thus prohibited. A similar position in Christian theology is termed iconoclasm. Moreover, most Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the many divine attributes mentioned in the Qur'an. All but one Sura (chapter) of the Qur'an begins with the phrase "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful". These are regarded as the most important divine attributes, at least in the sense that Muslims repeat them most frequently during their ritual prayers (Salah). Idolatry is a term used by many religions to describe the worship of a false deity, which is an affront to their understanding of divinity. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 99 Names of God also known as The 99 attributes of Allah, according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God revealed to man in the Quran. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ...


The Qur'an

 The first surah in a handwritten copy of the Qur'an.
The first surah in a handwritten copy of the Qur'an.
Main articles: Qur'an, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

The Qur'an is the sacred book of Islam. It has also been called, in English, "the Koran" or (archaically) "the Alcoran". Qur'an is the currently preferred English transliteration of the Arabic original (قرآن); it means “recitation”. Although the Qur'an is referred to as a "book", when a Muslim refers to the Qur'an, they are referring to the actual text, the words, rather than the printed work itself. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x1343, 225 KB) I found this picture at the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Quranfatihaazizefendi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x1343, 225 KB) I found this picture at the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Quranfatihaazizefendi. ... Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Muslims believe that the Qur'an was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad by God through the Angel Gabriel on numerous occasions between the years 610 and up till his death in 632. In addition to memorizing his revelations, his followers are said to have written them down on parchments, stones, and leaves. This article is about the prophet. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ...


Muslims hold that the Qur'an available today is the same as that revealed to Prophet Muhammad and by him to his followers, who memorized and wrote down his words. Scholars generally accept that the version of the Qur'an used today was first compiled in writing by the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, sometime between 650 and 656. He sent copies of his version to the various provinces of the new Muslim empire, and directed that all variant copies be destroyed. However, some skeptics doubt the recorded oral traditions (hadith) on which this account is based, and will concede only that the Qur'an must have been compiled before 750. This article is about the prophet. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM...


There are numerous traditions, and many conflicting academic theories, as to the provenance of the Qur'anic verses that were eventually assembled into a single volume. (This is covered in greater detail in Qur'an). Most Muslims accept the account recorded in several hadith, which state that Abu Bakr, the first caliph, ordered his personal secretary Zayd ibn Thabit to collect and record all the authentic verses of the Qur'an, as preserved in written form or oral tradition. Zayd's written collection, privately treasured by Muhammad's widow Hafsa bint Umar, was, according to Muslim sources, later used by Uthman and is thus the basis of today's Qur'an. The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of Muhammad. ... Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ...


Uthman's version, whatever its origin, organized the suras roughly in order of length (excepting the brief opening surah Al-Fatiha), with the longest suras at the start of the Qur'an and the shortest ones at the end. More conservative views state that the order of most suras was divinely set. Later scholars have struggled to put the suras in chronological order, and among Muslim commentators, at least, there is a rough consensus as to which suras were revealed in Mecca and which at Medina, with distinctive characteristics observed within these two subgroups. Some suras (e.g. surat Iqra) are thought to have been revealed in parts at separate times. Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. ... The Makkan suras are the chronologically earlier suras of the Quran that were revealed at Makka. ... The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. ... Surat al-Alaq, Iqra, or al-Qalam (The Clot, Read, or The Pen) is the 96th sura of the Quran. ...


To understand the notion of "variants" within the received Qur'anic text, one must understand that Arabic had not yet fully developed as a written language. The Qur'an was first recorded in written form (date uncertain) in the Hijazi, Mashq, Ma'il, and Kufic scripts; these scripts write consonants only and do not supply vowels. (Imagine an English text that wrote the word 'bed' as "BD," and required the reader to infer, from context, that the reference was to "bed" - and not to 'bad" or "bide.") Because there were differing oral traditions of recitation as non-native Arabic speakers converted to Islam, there was some disagreement as to the exact reading of many (vowel-free) verses. Eventually, scripts were developed that used diacritical markings (known as points) to indicate the vowels. For hundreds of years after Uthman's recension, Muslim scholars argued as to the correct pointing and reading of Uthman's (unpointed) official text. Eventually, most commentators accepted seven variant readings (qira'at) of the Qur'an as canonical, while agreeing that the differences among the seven are minor and do not affect the meaning of the text. Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified of the old Syrian script. ...


The form of the Qur'an most used today is the Al-Azhar text of 1923, prepared by a committee at the prestigious Cairo university of Al-Azhar. Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ...


The Qur'an early became a focus of Muslim devotion and eventually a subject of theological controversy among skeptics. In the 8th century, the Mu'tazilis claimed that the Qur'an was created in time and was not eternal. Their opponents, of various schools, claimed that the Qur'an was eternal and perfect, existing in heaven before it was revealed to Muhammad. The Ashari theology (which ultimately became predominant) held that the Qur'an was uncreated. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... The Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy were instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development drastically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ...


Most Muslims regard paper copies of the Qur'an with extreme veneration, wrapping them in a clean cloth, keeping them on a high shelf, and washing as for prayers before reading the Qur'an. Old Qur'ans are not destroyed as wastepaper, but burned or deposited in Qur'an graveyards.


Most Muslims memorize at least some portion of the Qur'an in the original language. Those who have memorized the entire Qur'an are known as hafiz. This is not a rare achievement; it is believed that there are millions of hafiz alive today. Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic:حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ...


From the beginning of the faith, most Muslims believed that the Qur'an was perfect only as revealed in Arabic. Translations were the result of human effort and human fallibility, as well as lacking the inspired poetry believers find in the Qur'an. Translations are therefore only commentaries on the Qur'an, or "translations of its meaning", not the Qur'an itself. Many modern, printed versions of the Qur'an feature the Arabic text on one page, and a vernacular translation on the facing page.


Islamic eschatology

Main articles: Islamic eschatology, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world) and the final judgment of humanity. Like Christianity and some sects of modern Judaism, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfilment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul. In Islamic belief, the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Paradise), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (a fiery Hell, from the Hebrew ge-hinnom or "valley of Hinnom"; usually rendered in English as Gehenna). A significant portion of the Qur'an deals with these beliefs, with many hadith elaborating on the themes and details. Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse Look up eschatology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... Many religious faiths teach that the end of the world will occur at some point in the future. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the stories it teaches about the life, and actions of Jesus Christ according to the Christians book of faith, the New Testiment. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... It has been suggested that Resurrection of the dead be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Paradise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Paradise is also a title of a tv-series The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word of pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make). ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell is, according to many religious beliefs, a place or a state of painful suffering. ... Note: Tanach quotes are from the Judaica press Tanach. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Other beliefs

Other beliefs include the existence of Angels, the Jinns (a species of beings not composed of solid matter, but "fire") and the existence of magic or sihr (the practice of which is strictly forbidden). Angels in Islam are light-based creatures, created by Allah to serve and worship him. ... The Seal of Solomon is said to have given Sulayman power over the jinn. ... The ancient symbol of the pentagram is often used as a symbol for magic. ...


Organization

Religious authority

There is no official authority who decides whether a person is accepted into, or dismissed from, the community of believers, known as the Ummah ("family" or "nation"). Islam is open to all, regardless of race, age, gender, or previous beliefs. It is enough to believe in the central beliefs of Islam. This is formally done by reciting the shahada, which should be made sincerely from the heart, the statement of belief of Islam, without which a person cannot be classed a Muslim. It is enough to believe and say that one is a Muslim, and behave in a manner befitting a Muslim to be accepted into the community of Islam. Umma (Arabic: ) is an Arabic word meaning community or nation. ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ...


Islamic law

Main articles: Sharia, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

The Sharia is Islamic law, as elaborated by Islamic scholarship. The Qur'an is the foremost source of Islamic jurisprudence. The second is the Sunnah (the practices of Muhammad and the early Muslim community). The Sunnah is not itself a text like the Qur'an, but is extracted by analysis of the hadith (Arabic for "report"), or recorded oral traditions, which contain narrations of the Muhammad's sayings, deeds, and actions. Sharia (Arabic: ; also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Sunna redirects to here, which can also refer to Sunne or Frau Sonne, a Scandinavian sun goddess, also known as Sol. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from the broad topics of governance and foreign relations all the way down to issues of daily living. Islamic laws which were covered expressly in the Quran were referred to as hudud laws. This covered the prohibition of murder, extra-marital sex, drinking of alcohol and gambling. The Quran also details laws of inheritance, marriage, restitution for injuries and murder, as wells as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, the prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so how they are applied in practice varies. Islamic scholars, the ulema, have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these broad rules, supplemented by the hadith reports of how Muhammad and his companions interpreted them.


Apostasy and blasphemy

Main articles: Apostasy in Islam, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

Islamic communities, like other religious communities, often exclude those they regard as apostates and blasphemers from their community of believers. In a few Muslim-majority states, apostasy and blasphemy are considered crimes against the state and punished as such. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Apostasy (αποστασις, in classical Greek a defection or revolt from a military commander, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Look up Blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Blasphemy is the defamation of the name of God. ...


Islamic calendar

Main articles: Islamic calendar, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

Islam dates from the Hijra, or migration from Mecca to Medina. This is year 1, AH (Anno Hegira)—which corresponds to AD 622 or 622 CE, depending on the notation preferred (see Common era). It is a lunar calendar, but differs from other such calendars (e.g. the Celtic calendar) in that it omits intercalary months, being synchronized only with lunation s, but not with the solar year, resulting in years of either 354 or 355 days. This omission was introduced by Muhammad because the right to announce intercalary months had led to political power struggles. Therefore, Islamic dates cannot be converted to the usual CE/AD dates simply by adding 622 years. Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar, Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates the moon phase. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... Lunation is the mean time for one lunar phase cycle (i. ... Solar year The period of time required for the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun, measured from one vernal equinox to the next. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ...


Schools (denominations)

There are a number of Islamic religious denominations, each of which has significant theological and legal differences from each other but possess identical essential belief. The major schools of thought are Sunni and Shi'a, with Sufism considered as a mystical inflection of Islam. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaah. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...


The Sunni are the largest group in Islam (80%– 85% of all Muslims are Sunni). In Arabic, as-Sunnah literally means principle or path, while in terminology, Sunnah is the set of sayings or practice by Prophet Muhammad. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article is about the prophet. ...


Sunnis believe that Muhammad was, when he was acting as a prophet, a perfect human being, and that they must imitate the words and acts of Muhammad as accurately as possible. In fact, the Quran states that the character of the Prophet Muhammad was a good example to follow. Because of this reason, the Hadith in which those words and acts are described are the main pillar of Sunni doctrine. Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Sunnis recognize four legal traditions (madhhabs): Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanafi, and Hanbali. All four accept the validity of the others and Muslims choose any one that he/she finds agreeable to his/her ideas. There are also several orthodox theological or philosophical traditions (kalam). Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Maliki madhab (Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Hanafi (Arabic: حنفى ) is one of the four schools (madhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Hambali is the nom de guerre of Indonesian terrorist Riduan Isamuddin. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...


Shi'a Muslims, the second-largest sect, differ from the Sunni in rejecting the authority of the first three caliphs. They honor different traditions (hadith) and have their own legal traditions. Shi'a scholars have a larger authority than Sunni scholars and have greater room for ijtihad or interpretation. The Imams play a central role in Shi'a doctrine. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ...


The Shi'a consist of one major school of thought known as the Ithna 'ashariyah or the "Twelvers", and a few minor schools of thought, as the "Seveners" or the "Fivers" referring to the number of infallible leaders they recognize after the death of prophet Muhammad. The term Shi'a, when used without qualification, is usually taken to be synonymous with the Ithna Ashariyya or Twelvers. Most Shi'a live in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Pakistan. A minority group (about 15 million) of Shi'a is known as Ismaili. The Shia Ismaili sect is subdivided into Nizari Ismaili and Mustaali Bohra subsects. The Nizari Ismaili or Khoja are led by the Aga Khan and are found mainly in Pakistan, Tajikistan, Bangladesh, India, United Kingdom, Canada and United States. The Mustaali Bohra sect is furthur subdivded into Dawoodi and Sulaimanis subsects. The Dawoodi Bohras are concentrated in Pakistan and India. The Sulaimani Bohras are concentrated in Yemen and Najran province of Saudi Arabia. Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... This article is about the prophet. ... The Ismaili (Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... A sub-sect of the Sevener Shia Muslim Ismaili sect. ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ... Aga Khan is the heriditary title of the Imam (spiritual and general leader), of the Nizari sect (result of the 1094 split from the Mustalis) within the Ismaili branch of Islam (Nizari Ismaili). ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ... Dawoodi Bohras are the main branch of the Bohras (a Mustali subsect of Ismaili Shia Muslims) based primarily in India and Pakistan. ... Sulaimani Bohra are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ...


Wahhabis, as they are known by non-Wahhabis, are a smaller, more recent Sunni group. They prefer to be called Salafis. Wahhabism is a movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab in the 18th century in what is present-day Saudi Arabia. They classify themselves as Sunni and some claim to follow the Hanbali legal tradition. The major trend, however, is the abolition of these "schools of thoughts" (legal traditions), and the following of a more literalist interpretation. Some even regard other Sunni as heretics. Wahabbism is recognized as the official religion of Saudi Arabia and they have had a great deal of influence on the Islamic world because of Saudi control of Mecca and Medina, the Islamic holy places, and because of Saudi funding for mosques and schools in other countries. Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Tamimi (1703 C.E. – 1792 C.E.) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمى) was an Arab theologian born in the Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and the most famous scholar of the movement within Islam known as the Wahhabi movement. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Hambali is the nom de guerre of Indonesian terrorist Riduan Isamuddin. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. ...


Sunni and Shi'a have often clashed. Some Sunni believe that Shi'a are heretics while other Sunni recognize Shi'a as fellow Muslims. According to Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot, head of the al-Azhar University in the middle part of the 20th century, "the Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shi'a al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e. The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought". Al-Azhar later distanced itself from this position. Al-Azhar University in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University, or Al-Azhar Al-Shareef (الأزهر الشريف; literally, The Noble Al-Azhar), is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ...


Another sect which dates back to the early days of Islam is that of the Kharijites. The only surviving branch of the Kharijites are the Ibadhi Muslims. Ibadhism is distinguished from Shiism by its belief that the Imam (Leader) should be chosen solely on the basis of his faith, not on the basis of descent, and from Sunnism in its rejection of Uthman and Ali and strong emphasis on the need to depose unjust rulers. Ibadhi Islam is noted for its strictness, but, unlike the Kharijites proper, Ibadhis do not regard major sins as automatically making a Muslim an unbeliever. Most Ibadhi Muslims live in Oman. Kharijites or Khawarij(Arabic خوارج, literally those who go out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which reject the caliphate of Ali as invalid. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (disambiguation). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Another trend in modern Islam is that which is sometimes called progressive. Followers may be called Ijtihadists. They may be either Sunni or Shi'ite, and generally favor the development of personal interpretations of Qur'an and Hadith. See: Liberal Islam In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المتقدمة or Progressive Islam). These generally denote religious outlooks which depend mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المتقدمة or Progressive Islam). These generally denote religious outlooks which depend mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ...


One very small group, based primarily in the United States, follows the teachings of Rashad Khalifa and calls itself the "Submitters". They reject hadith and fiqh, and say that they follow the Qur'an alone. Most Muslims of both the Sunni and the Shia sects consider this group to be heretical. Rashad Khalifa, 1989 Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935 - January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian Muslim who moved to the United States in 1959 where he studied biochemistry and later became a citizen. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


Sufism is a spiritual practice followed by both Sunni and Shi'a. Sufis generally feel that following Islamic law or jurisprudence (or fiqh) is only the first step on the path to perfect submission; they focus on the internal or more spiritual aspects of Islam, such as perfecting one's faith and fighting one's own ego (nafs). Most Sufi orders, or tariqa, can be classified as either Sunni or Shi'a. However, there are some that are not easily categorized as either Sunni or Shi'a, such as the Bektashi. Sufis are found throughout the Islamic world, from Senegal to Indonesia. Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Bektashi order is a Sufi religious order (Tarikat). ...


Religions based on Islam

The following groups consider themselves Muslims, but are not considered Islamic by the majority of Muslims or Muslim authorities:

The following consider themselves Muslims but acceptance by the larger Muslim community varies: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zikri is a small Islamic sect that is concentrated in Balochistan. ... Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ...

The following religions are said by some to have evolved or borrowed from Islam, in almost all cases influenced by traditional beliefs in the regions where they emerged, but consider themselves independent religions with distinct laws and institutions: The Druze (Arabic: duruzī درزي, pl. ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ...

The claim of the adherents of the Bahá'í Faith that it represents an independent religion was upheld by the Muslim ecclesiastical courts in Egypt during the 1920s. As of January 1926, their final ruling on the matter of the origins of the Bahá'í Faith and its relationship to Islam was that the Bahá'í Faith was neither a sect of Islam, nor a religion based on Islam, but a clearly defined, independently founded faith. This was seen as a considerate act on the part of the ecclesiastical court and in favor of followers of Bahá'í Faith since the majority of Muslims regard a religion based on Islam as a heresy. Malak Ta’us The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... Bayani, meaning of the Bayan, also known as Azali are followers of the Báb. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is an emerging global religion founded by Baháulláh, a 19th century Persian exile. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Some see Sikhism as a syncretic mix of Islam and Hinduism, although it is often considered a Dharmic faith than an Islamic or Abrahamic one. It arose in the context of the interaction between Hindu and Muslim communities in North India. The Golden Temple is a sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism (Punjabi: ) is a religion based on the teachings of ten Gurus who lived primarily in 16th and 17th century India. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Dharma - The Liberty of Knowledge The principle that all knowledge are the manifestation of Dharma by Dr. Edmund Chan Forest Dhamma Books Free English translations of the teachings from the Buddhist Masters of the Thai forest tradition. ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ... A Hindu (archaic Hindoo) is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, also known as Sanatan (सनातन) Dharma or Vedic Dharma. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The following religions might have been said to have evolved from Islam, but are not considered part of Islam, and no longer exist:

The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... Ha-Mim, after the beginning of a Quranic surah, or chapter, is the short form of the name Ha-Mim ibn Mann-Allah ibn Harir ibn Umar ibn Rahfu ibn Azerwal ibn Majkasa, also known as Abu Muhammad; he was a member of the Majkasa sub-tribe of the Ghomara...

Islam and other religions

Main articles: Islam and other religions, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

The Qur'an contains both injunctions to respect other religions, and to fight and subdue unbelievers. Muslims do not agree on how to interpret and apply these injunctions. Some Muslims have respected Jews and Christians as fellow "peoples of the book" (monotheists following Abrahamic religions), while others have reviled them as having abandoned monotheism and corrupted their scriptures. At different times and places, Islamic communities have been both intolerant and tolerant. Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many attitudes towards other religions, ranging from intolerant to tolerant attitudes. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


The classical Islamic solution was a limited tolerance — Jews and Christians were to be allowed to privately practice their faith and follow their own family law. They were called Dhimmis, and they had fewer legal rights and obligations than Muslims. A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ...


The classic Islamic state was often more tolerant than many other states of the time, which insisted on complete conformity to a state religion. The record of contemporary Muslim-majority states is mixed. Some are generally regarded as tolerant, while others have been accused of intolerance and human rights violations. See the main article, Islam and other religions, for further discussion. Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many attitudes towards other religions, ranging from intolerant to tolerant attitudes. ...


History

Main articles: History of Islam, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

Modern Islamic history begins in Arabia in the 7th century with the emergence of the prophet Muhammad. Within a century of his death, an Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic ocean in the west to central Asia in the east, which, however, was soon torn by civil wars (fitnas). After this, there would always be rival dynasties claiming the caliphate, or leadership of the Muslim world, and many Islamic states or empires offering only token obedience to an increasingly powerless caliph. The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... // Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... This article is about the prophet. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Nonetheless, the later empires of the Abbasid caliphs and the Seljuk Turk were among the largest and most powerful in the world. After the disastrous defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, Christian Europe launched a series of Crusades and for a time captured Jerusalem. Saladin, however, restored unity and defeated the Shiite Fatimids. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Battle of Manzikert (Turkish Malazgirt Savaşı) occurred on August 26, 1071 between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp Arslan, resulting in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Saladin, from a 12th-century Arab codex. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


From the 14th to the 17th centuries, one of the most important Muslim territories was the Mali Empire, whose capital was Timbuktu. The Mali Empire was an Islamic Empire of the Mandinka people in West Africa from the 14th to 17th centuries. ... Timbuktu or Timbuctu (Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu, French: Tombouctou) is a city populated by the Songhay, Tuareg, Fulani, and Moorish people in the West African country of Mali. ...


In the 18th century, there were three great Muslim empires: the Ottoman in Turkey, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean; the Safavid in Iran; and the Mogul in India. By the 19th century, these realms had fallen under the sway of European political and economic power. Following WWI, the remnants of the Ottoman empire were parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. Islam and Islamic political power have revived in the 20th century. However, the relationship between the West and the Islamic world remains uneasy. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Mogul may mean: a bump in the snow in alpine skiing, a Mongolian the Mughal empire, or any member of its ruling dynasty by extension, any ruler or powerful person, such as a industrial mogul or media mogul a railroad steam locomotive type called the Mogul the largest size light... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the rule of Oliver Cromwell, see The Protectorate. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Contemporary Islam

Countries with Muslim populations over 10% of total (source - CIA World Factbook, 2004). The darker green represents a Sunni majority and the light green represents a Shia majority.
Countries with Muslim populations over 10% of total (source - CIA World Factbook, 2004). The darker green represents a Sunni majority and the light green represents a Shia majority.

Although the most prominent movement in Islam in recent times has been fundamentalist Islamism, there are a number of liberal movements within Islam, which seek alternative ways to align the Islamic faith with contemporary questions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (839x370, 10 KB) M LKNLN+ File links The following pages link to this file: Islam ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (839x370, 10 KB) M LKNLN+ File links The following pages link to this file: Islam ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... In comparative religion, fundamentalism has come to refer to several different understandings of religious thought and practice, including literal interpretation of sacred texts such as the Bible or the Quran and sometimes also anti-modernist movements in various religions. ... Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ...


Early Sharia had a much more flexible character than is currently associated with Islamic jurisprudence, and many modern Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and the classical jurists should lose their special status. This would require formulating a new fiqh suitable for the modern world, e.g. as proposed by advocates of the Islamization of knowledge, and would deal with the modern context. One vehicle proposed for such a change has been the revival of the principle of ijtihad, or independent reasoning by a qualified Islamic scholar, which has lain dormant for centuries. Sharia (Arabic: ; also SharÄ«ah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... Islamic jurisprudence, Fiqh (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings of Islamic scholars to direct the lives of the Muslim faithful. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... The Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Quran and the Sunnah. ...


This movement does not aim to challenge the fundamentals of Islam; rather, it seeks to clear away misinterpretations and to free the way for the renewal of the previous status of the Islamic world as a centre of modern thought and freedom. (See Modern Islamic philosophy for more on this subject.) There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ...


Many Muslims counter the claim that only "liberalization" of the Islamic Sharia law can lead to distinguishing between tradition and true Islam by saying that meaningful "fundamentalism", by definition, will eject non-Islamic cultural inventions — for instance, acknowledging and implementing Muhammad's insistence that women have God-given rights that no human being may legally infringe upon. Proponents of modern Islamic philosophy sometimes respond to this by arguing that, as a practical matter, "fundamentalism" in popular discourse about Islam may actually refer, not to core precepts of the faith, but to various systems of cultural traditionalism. The word tradition, comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ...


The demographics of Islam today

Main articles: Islam by country, and Demographics of Islam, and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

Based on the percentages published in the 2005 CIA World Factbook ("World"), Islam is the second-largest religion in the world. According to the World Network of Religious Futurists, the U.S. Center for World Mission, and the Samuel Huntington, Islam is growing faster numerically than any of the other major world religions. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance estimates that it is growing at about 2.9% annually, as opposed to 2.3% per year global population growth. This is attributed either to the higher birth rates in many Islamic countries (six out of the top-ten countries in the world with the highest birth rates have a Muslim majority [1]) and/or high rates of conversion to Islam. Distribution of Islam Important note: There is currently no exact mechanism in place anywhere around the world for counting religious denomination membership with precision. ... The following table analyzes the demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is a political scientist known for his analysis of the relationship between the military and the civil government, his investigation of coup detats, and his thesis that the central political actors of the 21st century will be civilizations rather than nation-states. ... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherents of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ...


Commonly cited estimates of the Muslim population today range between 900 million and 1.4 billion people (cf. Adherents.com); estimates of Islam by country based on U.S. State Department figures yield a total of 1.48 billion, while the Muslim delegation at the United Nations quoted 1.2 billion as the global Muslim population in Sept 2005. Distribution of Islam Important note: There is currently no exact mechanism in place anywhere around the world for counting religious denomination membership with precision. ...


Only 18% of Muslims live in the Arab world; 20% are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, about 30% in the South Asian region of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, and the world's largest single Muslim community (within the bounds of one nation) is in Indonesia. There are also significant Muslim populations in China, Europe, Central Asia, and Russia. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... -1... Composite satellite image of South Asia Map of South Asia. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Austria was the first European country to recognize Islam as an official religion, while France has the highest Muslim population of any nation in Western Europe, with up to 6 million Muslims (10% of the population [2]). Albania is said to have the highest proportion of Muslims as part of its population in Europe (70%), although this figure is only an estimate (see Islam in Albania). The number of Muslims in North America is variously estimated as anywhere from 1.8 to 7 million. The eighteenth-century Ethem Bey Mosque on Skanderbeg Square in the heart of Tirana The majority of citizens of Albania are secular in orientation after decades of rigidly enforced atheism under the Communist regime, which ended in 1990. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the...


Symbols of Islam

Main articles: Islamic symbols, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

Muslims do not accept any icon or color as sacred to Islam, as worshipping symbolic or material things is against the spirit of monotheism. Many people assume that the star and crescent symbolize Islam, but these were actually the insignia of the Ottoman Empire, not of Islam as a whole. The color green is often associated with Islam as well; this is mere custom and not anything prescribed by religious scholars. However, Muslims will often use elaborately calligraphed verses from the Qur'an as decorations in mosques, homes, and public places. The Quranic verses are believed to be sacred. There are no art works prescribed by the Quran or Hadith as the symbols of Islam; however there are some Shaair or signs (of memory) initiated by the Quran. ... Star and crescent historically was a symbol of the Ottoman Empire, but later become associated with Islam in general. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


See also

List of Islamic and Muslim-related topics

Adhan ([]) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. ... Christo-Islamic is a term of comparative religion to connect fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Dawah (دعوة) is an Arabic term meaning invite or invitation, and is used in Islam to refer to the activity of proselytizing. ... In Arabic, Ihsan means perfection or excellence. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Islamic feminism is a movement that began in the 1990s in response to the growth of Islamism throughout the Islamic world. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy. ... Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many attitudes towards other religions, ranging from intolerant to tolerant attitudes. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... This is a list of people, mainly from the United States or Europe who have converted to Islam sometime during their lives. ... Interior of the Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey, June 1994. ... This list is poorly defined, permanently incomplete, or has become unverifiable or an indiscriminate list or repository of loosely associated topics. ... This article is over 200KB in length. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ...

References

  • Encyclopedia of Islam
  • Arberry, A. J. The Koran Interpreted: a translation by A. J. Arberry. Touchstone, ISBN 0684825074
  • Kramer, Martin. The Islamism Debate. University Press, (1997) ISBN 9652240249
  • Kurzman, Charles. Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press, (1998) ISBN 0195116224
  • Rahman, Fazlur. Islam. University of Chicago Press; 2nd edition, (1979) ISBN 0226702812
  • Safi, Omid. Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender and Pluralism. Oneworld Publications, (2003) ISBN 1-85168-316-X
  • Tibi, Bassam. The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam and the New World Disorder. Univ. of California Press, (1998) ISBN 0520088689

The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ...

External links

Academic sources

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Directories

Islam and the arts, sciences, & philosophy

  • Islamic Art (Los Angeles County Museum of Art)
  • Muslim Heritage (Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation, UK)
  • Islamic Architecture (IAORG) illustrated descriptions and reviews of a large number of mosques, palaces, and monuments.
  • The International Museum of Muslim Cultures, Jackson, MS. Features exhibits on Islamic Moorish Spain and the Timbuktu Manuscripts.
  • Islamic Philosophy (Journal of Islamic Philosophy, University of Michigan)
  • Famous muslim scientists & scholars



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Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as derivations of the teachings of the prophet Abraham and thus acknowledges common Abrahamic roots.
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Within a century of his death, an Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic ocean in the west to central Asia in the east, which, however, was soon torn by civil wars (fitnas).
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