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Encyclopedia > Islam in france

Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. A poll released in 2007 [1] placed it at 3% of the population, while in 2006 the U.S Department of State placed it at about 10% [2]. In 2000, the French Ministry of the Interior estimated the total number of people born into Islam as 4.1 million (though other claims range from 5-6 million[citation needed]), and converts as about 40,000. Estimates of numbers of Muslims, and the alleged dangers in the housing projects of the suburbs by the Renseignements Généraux, the intelligence agency, have often been criticized. Critics in particular are the Monde diplomatique and the Canard Enchaîné. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... The Renseignements Généraux or RG (General Information) is a directorate of the French National Police. ... Le Monde diplomatique alongside Le Monde. ... Le Canard enchaîné is a satirical newspaper published weekly in France, founded in 1915, featuring investigative journalism and leaks from sources inside the French government, the French political world and the French business world, as well as a large number of jokes and humoristic cartoons. ...

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Islam by country

Distribution of Islam per country. ...

Islam in Africa

Algeria · Angola · Benin · Botswana · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cameroon · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) · Djibouti · Egypt · Equatorial Guinea · Eritrea · Ethiopia · Gabon · The Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Kenya · Lesotho · Liberia · Libya · Madagascar · Malawi · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Morocco · Mozambique · Namibia · Niger · Nigeria · Rwanda · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Sierra Leone · Somalia · South Africa · Sudan · Swaziland · Tanzania · Togo · Tunisia · Uganda · Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) · Zambia · Zimbabwe Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x601, 223 KB) Summary Mecca Image Work of the Govt. ... Approximately 40% of all Africans are Muslims, in contrast to another 40% being Christians and 20% being non-religious or adherents to African religions. ... Grand Mosque in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Islam in Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) has a long and varied history. ... According to the U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2006, there is a small Muslim community in Cape Verde. ... Islam accounts for approximately 15% of the population of the Central African Republic, making it the 2nd most followed organized religion in the country after Christianity (50%). The vast majority of Central African Muslims live in the north, near the border with predominantly Muslim Chad. ... Islam in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is not a recent phenomenon, as it has been present within the area since the 18th century, when Arab traders from East Africa pushed into the interior for slave-trading purposes. ... In Côte dIvoire, the CIA fact book showed that Muslim is about 35-40%. On the other hand, by 1996 other resources stated that 60% of the population is Muslim. ... Adherents. ... The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, with a total population of about 181,000, has about 5,500 Muslims or 3% of the total population, compared to the estimated 80% of the population professing Roman Catholicism, as per the islands long history as colony of overwhelmingly Catholic... Statistics for Islam in Sierra Leone estimate a Muslim population of 3,610,585, representing around 60 percent of the countrys total population. ... Islam in South Africa probably predates the colonial period, and consisted of isolated contact with Arab and East African traders. ... ...

Islam in Asia

Afghanistan · Armenia · Azerbaijan · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Bhutan · Brunei · Cambodia · China (People's Republic of China (Hong Kong · Macau) · Republic of China (Taiwan) · Cyprus · East Timor · Georgia · India · Indonesia · Iran · Iraq · Israel (See also Palestinian territories) · Japan · Jordan · Kazakhstan · Korea (North Korea · South Korea) · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Laos · Lebanon · Malaysia · Maldives · Mongolia · Myanmar · Nepal · Oman · Pakistan · Philippines · Qatar · Russia · Saudi Arabia · Singapore · Sri Lanka · Syria · Tajikistan · Thailand · Turkey · Turkmenistan · United Arab Emirates · Uzbekistan · Vietnam · Yemen Islam started in Asia with the life of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Islam has a rich heritage in China. ... Facade of the masjid. ... Islam reached Taiwan in the 17th century when muslim families from the southern coastal Fukien Province of China accompanied Koxinga on his invasion of Taiwan to oust the Dutch from the southern city of Tainan in 1661. ... The US state department and the cia world factbook estimate that muslims are 4% of the population. ... Muslims constitute 16 percent of the population of Israel. ... This article is in need of attention. ... It is estimated that there are up to 40,000 Muslim adherents in Korea (does not include migrant workers who live in Korea). ... It is estimated that there are up to 40,000 Muslim adherents in Korea. ...

Islam in Europe

Albania · Andorra · Armenia · Austria · Azerbaijan · Belarus · Belgium · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Bulgaria · Croatia · Cyprus · Czech Republic · Denmark · Estonia · Finland · France · Georgia · Germany · Greece · Hungary · Iceland · Ireland · Italy · Kazakhstan · Latvia · Liechtenstein · Lithuania · Luxembourg · Republic of Macedonia · Malta · Moldova · Monaco · Montenegro · Netherlands · Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania · Russia · San Marino · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Spain · Sweden · Switzerland · Turkey · Ukraine · United Kingdom · Vatican City The recorded history of Islam in Europe begins with the al-Andalus territories in what is now Spain and Portugal, established in 711 and enduring until 1492; the last Muslims were expelled from Spain by 1614. ... Islam in the Czech Republic // [edit] History First documented visit of a person with knowledge of Islam was made (964-965) by Íbrahím ibn Jaqúb, a Jewish merchant from then muslim Spain. ... Islam in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Islam in Montenegro is the third largest religion after Serbian Orthodoxy. ... Muslims in San Marino are a minority, as over 95 percent of thepopulation is Catholic. ... Bajrakli Mosque in Belgrade The Muslims in Serbia are ethnically Bosnian and Albanians. ... London Central Mosque in London off Regents Park Jamia Masjid, example of a typical small mosque in East Ham // Islam is generally thought of as being a recent arrival in the United Kingdom, but there has been contact for many centuries. ...

Islam in North America and Islam in South America

Argentina · Bolivia · Brazil · Chile · Colombia · Ecuador · Guyana · Panama · Paraguay · Peru · Suriname · Trinidad and Tobago · Uruguay · Venezuela Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Belize · Canada · Costa Rica · Cuba · Dominica · Dominican Republic · El Salvador · Grenada · Guatemala · Haiti · Honduras · Jamaica · Mexico · Nicaragua · Panama · Saint Kitts and Nevis · Saint Lucia · Saint Vincent and the Grenadines · Trinidad and Tobago · United States The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Muslims constitute 12-17% of the population on Trinidad and Tobago. ... The statistics for Islam in Costa Rica estimate a total Muslim population of 4,016, representing 0. ... Map of the Dominican Republic Statistics for Islam in the Dominican Republic estimate that 0. ... There is a small Islamic community in El Salvador, consisting of Arab immigrants. ... According to the US department of state there are some muslims living in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and islam is a minority religion. ... There is no accurate count of the number of Muslims in the US but various sources estimates there could be between 1. ...

Islam in Oceania

Australia
Australia · Norfolk Island · Christmas Island · Cocos (Keeling) Islands Islam in Oceania refers to Islam and Muslims in Oceania. ... The cia worldfactbook estimates that 25% of the population of Christmas Island is muslim. ... The cia worldfactbook estimates that 80% of the population of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is muslim. ...


Melanesia
East Timor · Fiji · New Caledonia · Papua New Guinea · Solomon Islands · Vanuatu Map showing Melanesia. ... The US state department and the cia world factbook estimate that muslims are 4% of the population. ... Islam in New Caledonia arrived more than a 100 years ago. ... Adhernts. ...


Micronesia
Guam · Kiribati · Marshall Islands · Northern Mariana Islands · Federated States of Micronesia · Nauru · Palau


Polynesia
American Samoa · Cook Islands · French Polynesia · New Zealand · Niue · Pitcairn · Samoa · Tokelau · Tonga · Tuvalu · Wallis and Futuna Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Islam in New Zealand has grown with inward immigration to that country. ...

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A study conducted by Michèle Tribalat, a researcher at INED, and based on 1999 French census returns, showed that claims of 5 to 6 million Muslims in France were largely exaggerated. According to the census returns, there are only 3.7 million people of "possible Muslim faith" in France (6.3% of the total population of Metropolitan France in 1999). [3] These millions of Muslims who come from countries where Islam is the dominant faith may or may not be observant Muslims. INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... Metropolitan France (French: France métropolitaine, or just la Métropole) is the part of France in Europe, including Corsica, as opposed to the overseas departments and overseas territories, which, while integral parts of the French Republic, are regarded as Overseas France (la France doutre-mer, or more colloquially...

Contents

Statistics

In accordance with a law dating from 1872, the French Republic does not ask about religion in its census. Nor does it ask for ethnic origin. 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


An Interior ministry source in l'Islam dans la République (Haut Conseil à l'intégration, Nov. 2000, p.26) published the following estimated distribution of Muslims by country of origin: The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ...

These numbers may include non-religious or atheist individuals of Islam observing lineage. The study L'Islam en France et les reactions aux attentats du 11 septembre 2001, Résultats détaillés, of the Institut Français de l'Opinion Publique (IFOP), (HV/LDV No.1-33-1, 28 September 2001) found that of people of Islam observing lineage (Muslims), 36% self-describe themselves as "observant believers", and 20% claim to regularly go to the mosque on Fridays. 70% said they "observe Ramadan". This would amount to a number of roughly 1.5 million French Muslims who are "observant believers", another 1.5 million without religious belief who culturally identify with Islam enough to observe Ramadan, and 1 million citizens of "(Islam observing lineage) Muslim extraction" but with no strong religious or cultural ties to Islam. The number of people of Islam observing lineage who are practising Roman Catholics is negligible. A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break Sub-Saharan Africa or is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not considered part of political... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Another estimate is the 2004 study, again by Michèle Tribalat of INED, this time based on anonymous questionnaires that were given to 380, 481 people alongside the 1999 population census conducted by INSEE. In these questionnaires, people were asked the origin of their parents and grandparents. As a result, 3.7 million people in France are likely to be from Muslim families, that is either they, their parents or grandparents come from a predominantly Muslim country making them "possibly" Muslim. More than 14 million French people (23% of the total population) have at least one parent from a foreign country, mostly from other European countries. However, 3 million are from Maghreb and 700,000 from Sub-Saharan Africa. In total, regardless of nationality, in 1999 there were 1.7 million immigrants from mostly Muslim countries to France, 1.7 million children, and 300,000 grand-children. (see L'Islam en France - in French - in L'Express Dec 4th 2003) 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ...


Muslim population in France

1960-70s labor immigration

Muslim immigration, mostly male, was high following World War II, because the French workforce was inadequate for reconstruction efforts. The immigrants came primarily from Algeria and other North African colonies; however, Islam has an older history in France, since the Great Mosque of Paris was built in 1922, as a sign of recognition from the French Republic to the fallen tirailleurs, in particular at the battle of Verdun and the take-over of the Douaumont fort. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Minaret of the Paris Mosque The Grande Mosquée de Paris (Paris Great Mosque), located in the Ve arrondissement, was founded after World War I as a sign of Frances gratefullness to the Muslim tirailleurs from the colonies who had fought against Germany. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... Verdun (German (old): Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Douaumont is a village and a commune in the Meuse département in France, near Verdun. ...


Flawed popular perception

The terms "Arab" and "Muslim" may be confused in popular perception; in practice, Arabs can be Muslim, Christian (Syriac Christianity, for example), agnostic, etc.; while Muslims can be non-Arab (such as Turks and Iranians). A small number of French people have converted to Islam. However "Arab" and "Muslim" are often seen as synonymous, even though the first term designates a cultural characteristic while the second is a religion. This perception is probably reinforced by the fact that Arab Muslim issues are much more visible than, for example, Christian Arab voices (for example Amin Maalouf). Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without and gnosis, knowledge, translating to unknowable) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities—is unknown or (possibly) inherently unknowable. ... Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ; born (25 February 1949 in Beirut) is a Lebanese author. ...


The number of French non-Arabs who have converted to Islam is not precisely known. Further details were presented in a December 2005 article in the Christian Science Monitor from Boston; more women than men convert to Islam, and that a minority are thought to do so in order to marry Muslim men. [4] The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ...


2002 creation of a French Council of the Muslim Faith

For many French people, the term Muslim is still imprecise, as they sometimes use it to refer to an inherited culture, and sometimes as a varying set of religious practices. Though the French State does not want to have anything to do with religions, in recent years the government has tried to organize a representation of the French Muslims. In 2002 the then Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy initiated the creation of a "French Council of the Muslim Faith" (Conseil Français du Culte Musulman - CFCM), thought wide criticism claimed this would only encourage communitarianism. Though the CFCM is informally recognized by the national government, it is a private nonprofit association with no special legal status. As of 2004, it is headed by the rector of the Paris Mosque, Dalil Boubakeur - who harshly criticized the controversial Union of Islamic Organisations of France (UOIF) for involving itself in political matters during the 2005 riots. Nicolas Sarkozy's views on laïcité have been widely criticized by left- and right-wing members of parliament; more specifically, he was accused during the creation of the CFCM of favoring the more extreme sectors of Muslim representation in the Council, in particular the UOIF. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Nicolas Sarkozy speaking at the congress of his party Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa (born 28 January 1955 in Paris, 17th arrondissement), simply known as Nicolas Sarkozy ( —  ), is a French politician, the second son of a Hungarian father, Paul Sárközy de Nagy-Bocsa, and... Conseil Français du Culte Musulman (French: French Council of the Muslim Faith), usually abbreviated to CFCM, a group that is made up of 25 CRCMs (Conseil Regional du Culte Musulman or Regional Councils of the Muslim Faith). ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Minaret of the Paris Mosque The Grande Mosquée de Paris (Paris Great Mosque), located in the Ve arrondissement, was founded after World War I as a sign of Frances gratefullness to the Muslim tirailleurs from the colonies who had fought against Germany. ... The Union des organisations islamiques de France (UOIF, Union of Islamic Organisations of France) is a leading Muslim umbrella organisation, and the French chapter of the Union of Islamic Organisations of Europe. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ...


"Second generation immigrants"

The first generation of Muslim immigrants, who are today retired from the workforce, keep strong ties with their countries, where their families lived. In 1974, the government passed a law allowing families of these immigrants to settle; thus, many children and wives moved to France. Most immigrants, realizing that they couldn't or didn't want to return to their homeland, asked for French nationality before quietly retiring. However, many live alone in housing projects, having now lost their ties with their countries of origin. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ...


The situation was different with the "second generation", born in France, and as such French citizens by jus soli influenced law. As such, they can not be designated "immigrants", since they were born on national territory. A 1992 reform of the nationality laws delayed obtainment of French nationality until a request at adulthood (where previously it was automatically given). Because of persistent social discrimination, second generation Muslims are sometimes made to feel like immigrants. A large number of them are located in housing projects in the suburbs. Unlike in the United States and elsewhere, the French working classes often outside large cities, sometimes in ville nouvelles (such as Sarcelles for example, from which the term sarcellite was derived) for which no infrastructure other than sleeping dormitories have been planned, thus explaining a general boredom which some allege contributed to the 2005 Paris suburb riots. The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... A New town or planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... Sarcelles is a large outlying satellite town of Paris, in the Val-dOise département. ... Areas of rioting as of 4 November. ...


Olivier Roy indicates that for first generation immigrants, the fact that they are Muslims is only one element among others. Their identification with their country of origin is much stronger: they see themselves first throught their descent (Algerians, Moroccans, Kabyles, Turks...). In general, ethnic origin is stronger for the first generation, which is why religious buildings built by this generation are Turkish, Tunisian, Moroccan, etc. Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ...


This is not so true with the second generation of Arab Muslims, who often do not even speak Arabic. They have many generational conflicts with newer Imams (Muslim religious leaders), who often are trained abroad and thus have a different understanding of religion. Their rejection of French secular values are at odds with most modern-influenced French Muslim youth, but can be appealing to some . A conflict seems to be growing between those advocating French imams be trained in France, to French academic standards, including fluency in French and in accordance with French and EU legislation (such as human rights and a secular, democratic state), and those insisting that imams should be trained in Muslim countries (and as a consequence often at odds with French & EU legislation etc.). Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Look up imam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Muslim religious practices

Muslims in France can be distinguished from French citizens and Muslim immigrants.


Most follow their religion within the French laïcité model: they may practice prayer (salah - though few pray five times a day as the salah requires), most observe the fast of Ramadan and most do not eat pork while a few do not drink wine. Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... For the Indian village, see Salat, Kulpahar. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ...

  • A low minority (the UOIF for example) request the recognition of an Islamic community in France (which community remains to be built) with an official status.

Two main organisations are recognized by the French Council of Muslim Faith (CFCM): the "Federation of the French Muslims" (Fédération des musulmans de France) with a majority of Moroccan leaders, and the controversial "Union of Islamic Organisations of France" (UOIF), influenced by the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood. Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... Muslim Brotherhood symbol. ...


1,535 mosques exist in France, though only a dozen of them were built for that purpose. About 30 are currently being built. This number is low in comparison to the "possible Muslim" population. In comparison, there are about 40,000 Catholic churches for a Catholic population only 15 times bigger. There are 1700 Protestant churches, for about 500.000 adherents of that faith. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


Education issues

Since publicly funded State schools in France must be secular, owing to the 1905 separation of Church and State, Muslim parents who wish their children to be educated at a religious school often choose private (and therefore fee-paying) Catholic schools, of which there are many. Few specifically Muslim schools have been created. There is a Muslim school in La Réunion (a French island to the east of Madagascar), and the first Muslim collège (a school for students aged 11 to 15) opened its doors in 2001 in Aubervilliers (Paris' close suburbs), with 11 students. 2 other schools are planned as of 2003. Unlike most private schools in the USA and UK, these religious schools are affordable for most parents since they may be heavily subsidised by the government (teachers' wages in particular are covered by the state). Henceforth, the opening of Muslim schools may be a significant goal for Muslims pursuing a communitarianism policy, or simply for those who refused to abide by the recent French headscarf ban. However, while the debate about this law was quite heated, statistics have shown that only a very low minority of high-school students have refused to abide by it. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Réunion is an island and overseas département (département doutre-mer, or DOM) of France, located in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, about 200 km southwest of Mauritius. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aubervilliers is a town and commune of France, in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, on which it is bordering. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ...


Integration issues

Several studies reveal that France seems to be, among the Western countries, where Muslims integrate the best and feel the more for the country. The study from the Pew Research Center on Integrationis a good example of works revealing this typically French phenomenon which seems to lead to the conclusion that France has no lesson at all to receive from its critics.


Sensationalism of the media

Yet, the French media points to the high rates of crime and poverty among certain immigrant communities, and to the influence descendants of immigrants have had on national athletics, the arts, and popular culture. In France, Islam is particularly present in populous suburbs. The Muslim population is very concentrated, mostly in parts of Paris, Marseille, Lyon, and Strasbourg. In the Paris suburbs, Seine St-Denis department hosts numerous Muslim people, and is suffering high rates of unemployment (30% in La Courneuve). Consequently, it is one of the most violent département of France. It also has high levels of vandalism and drug dealing, although a relatively low murder rate [5][6]. The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ...


Recuperations

The 2005 French riots have been presented especially by the foreign press as an illustration of the problems of integrating Muslims in France, but smaller scale riots have been occurring throughout the 1980s and 1990s, first in Vaulx-en-Velin in 1979, and in Vénissieux in 1981, 1983 , 1990 and 1999. Furthermore, while Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy claimed that most rioters were immigrants and already known to the police, the majority of them were French citizens previously unknown by the police. The huge majority of banlieusards (not necessarily black or Muslims as spread in some parts of the English-speaking press) themselves don't approve of the labelling of those riots with any "ethnical" or "religious" adjective because they see them as first a rebellion for social reasons and they fear that those will be neglected behind those false labels. They often complain about the stigmatisation and devilishing of their revolt. Established French actor Roshdy Zem said in an interview with French magazine Première given during the promotion of the movie "Indigènes" speaking about those riots, spreading this very much-shared view: "Making of those riots an ethnico-religious affair seemed to me particularly disgusting. When railwaymen are blocking France, nobody goes search further as their demands. Take any Norwegian or Suede, inflict the same life conditions [as those of some French banlieusards] on them and i can assure you that they will end up burning cars too...". They see this as a recuperation to not have to discuss the real problems behind their exasperation. [citation needed] Beginning in the suburbs of Paris on 29 October 2005, mass civil unrest spread throughout France and has continued for twelve consecutive nights[1]. It is the most dramatic unrest experienced in France since the 1968 student revolt [2]. Cities affected by sustained rioting as of 6 November; minor unrest... Vaulx-en-Velin is a commune of the Rhône département, in France. ... Vénissieux is a commune of the Rhône département, in France. ...


Some parties, such as far-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen's Front National and Bruno Mégret's Mouvement National Républicain, claim that large numbers of immigrants with non-Western European cultural background destabilize France and insist there is a clear danger in Islamist behavior among the immigrant Muslim population. In the 2004 regional elections, the MNR ran on a "No to Islamization!" platform. Jean-Marie Le Pen Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National party, and a perennial candidate for the French presidency. ... Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ... Bruno Mégret (born April 4, 1949) is a French politician. ... The National Republican Movement (Mouvement National Républicain or MNR) is a French right-wing political party, created by Bruno Mégret as a split from Jean-Marie Le Pens National Front. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...


In 2004, the French government expelled several foreign imams for preaching hate, an action highly criticized by Amnesty International. In a few cases, expulsion warrants on the basis of immigration status had already been issued. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up imam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Founded in the UK in 1961, AI compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these...


A few issues are crystallizing the debate, the hijab issue being the most significant.


The hijab issue

Further information: French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools

The wearing of hijab in France has been a very controversial issue since 1989. The debate essentially concerns whether Muslim girls who choose to wear hijab may do so in state schools. A secondary issue is how to protect the free choice and other rights of young Muslim women who do not want the veil, but who may face strong pressure from families or traditionalist Muslims. Similar issues exist for civil servants and for acceptance of male Muslim medics in medical services. The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i. ... Hijab or ħijāb () is the Arabic term for cover (noun), based on the root حجب meaning to veil, to cover (verb), to screen, to shelter In some Arabic-speaking countries and Western countries, the word hijab primarily refers to womens head, face, and body covering. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...


The Qu'ran instructs women to keep their heads covered (outside of the immediate family); Muslims argue that it is a form of religious discrimination not to allow head coverings in school. They believe that the law is an attempt to impose secular values on them. The specific parts of the Qu'ran are interpreted differently by groups of more liberal Muslims; another source for the requirement to keep women's heads covered is in the Hadith. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The French government, and a large majority of public opinion, is opposed to the wearing of a "conspicuous" sign of religious expression (dress or symbol), whatever the religion, as this is incompatible with the French system of laïcité. In December 2003, Mr. Chirac said that it breaches the separation of church and state and would increase tensions in France's multicultural society, whose Muslim and Jewish populations are both the biggest of their kind in Western Europe. Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ...


Most teachers are highly opposed to the veil, often perceived as alienating the women. They feel it is their responsibility to ensure that girls are not allowed to wear veils, thus protecting those not wearing it as well as preventing the others from wearing it any longer.


The issue of Muslim hijabs has sparked controversy after several girls refused to uncover their heads in class, as early as 1989. In October 1989, three Muslim schoolgirls wearing the Islamic headscarf were expelled from the collège Gabriel-Havez in Creil (north of Paris). In November, the First Conseil d'Etat ruling affirmed that the wearing of the Islamic headscarf, as a symbol of religious expression, in public schools was not incompatible with the French school system and the system of laïcité. In December, a first ministerial circular (circulaire Jospin) was published, stating teachers had to decide on a case-by-case basis whether to ban the wearing of Islamic headscarf. In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...


In January 1990, three schoolgirls were expelled from the collège Pasteur in Noyon, north of Paris. The parents of one expelled schoolgirl filed a defamation action against the principal of the collège Gabriel-Havez in Creil. As a result, the teachers of a collège in Nantua (eastern part of France, just to the west of Geneva, Switzerland) went on strike to protest the wearing of the Islamic headscarf in school. A second ministerial circular was published in October, to restate the need to respect the principle of laïcité in public schools.


In September 1994, a third ministerial circular (circulaire Bayrou) was published, making a distinction between "discreet" symbols to be tolerated in public schools, and "ostentatious" symbols, including the Islamic headscarf, to be banned from public schools. In October, some students demonstrated at the lycée St. Exupery in Mantes-la-Jolie (northwest of Paris) to support the freedom to wear Islamic headscarves in school. In November, approximately 24 veiled schoolgirls were expelled from the lycée St. Exupery in Mantes-la-Jolie and the lycée Faidherbe in the city of Lille. Mantes-la-Jolie or Mantes or Mantes-sur-Seine is a commune of northern France, the capital of an arrondissement (sous-préfecture) and the third largest town in the département of Yvelines on the left bank of the Seine, some 30 miles north west of Paris. ...


Since 1994, around 100 girls have been excluded from French state schools for wearing such veils. In half the cases, courts have subsequently overturned the decision.


In December 2003 President Chirac decided that the law should prohibit the wearing of visible religious signs in schools, according to laïcité requirements. The law was approved by parliament in March of 2004. Items prohibited by this law include Muslim hijabs, Jewish yarmulkes or large Christian crosses. It is still be permissible to wear discreet symbols of faith such as small crosses, Stars of David or Fatima's hands. The fact that small Christian crosses are allowed is seen by some as evidence that the aim of the law was against Muslims only. December 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → Events December 31, 2003 In Taiwan, President Chen Shui-bian signs a law that allows referendums to be held. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hijab or ħijāb () is the Arabic term for cover (noun), based on the root حجب meaning to veil, to cover (verb), to screen, to shelter In some Arabic-speaking countries and Western countries, the word hijab primarily refers to womens head, face, and body covering. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Star of David The Star of David in the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text, the Leningrad Codex, dated 1008. ... Hand of Fatima used as a pendant The symbol or design known in Islamic societies as the Hand of Fatima and in Jewish lore as the Hand of Miriam, or in both as Khamsa, from the Hebrew and Arabic words for five, serves as an ancient talismanic way of averting...


A large majority of French people, and in particular teachers, are in favor of this ban. Some religious leaders have showed their opposition. Two French journalists working in Iraq, Christian Chesnot and Georges Malbrunot were taken hostage by the "Islamic Army in Iraq" (an Iraqi resistance militant movement) under accusations of spying. Threats to kill the two journalists if the law on headscarves wasn't revoked were published on the internet by groups claiming to be the "Islamic Army in Iraq". The two journalists were later released unharmed. [7] Christian Chesnot is a French journalist working for Radio France who, along with Georges Malbrunot, was taken hostage on August 20, 2004, by the Islamic Army in Iraq. ... George Malbrunot, along with Christian Chesnot, is a French journalist working for Le Figaro taken hostage on August 20, 2004, by the Islamic Army in Iraq. ...


References

  • Liberation.com article (French) http://www.liberation.com/page.php?Article=105036
  • Article in French in Le Monde

See also

Ni Putes Ni Soumises (Neither Whores Nor Submissives) is a French feminist movement, founded in 2002, which has already secured the recognition of the French press and parliament. ... The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools is an amendment to the French Code of Education banning students from wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public primary and secondary schools. ...

Political Islam

Political Islam has a weak presence in France. Formal as well as informal Muslim organisations help the new French citizens to integrate. There are no Islam-based political parties, but a number of cultural organisations. Their most frequent activities are homework help and language classes in Arabic, but ping pong, Muslim discussion groups etc. are also common. However, most important associations active in assisting with the immigration process are either secular (GISTI, for example) or ecumenist (such as the protestant-founded CIMADE). The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) (IPA: ) is derived from the Greek oikoumene, which means the inhabited world. In its broadest meaning ecumenism is the religious initiative towards world-wide unity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The most important national organisation is the CFCM (Conseil Français du Culte Musulman), which gathers Paris and Marseille's mufti, and also the UOIF, which has many links with Arab government and negotiates with the French government. It is a very broad organisation and there is no real consensus on major issues. A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such...


Two more left wing organizations are PCM (Muslim Participation and Spirituality), who combine political mobilization (against racism, sexism etc.) and spiritual retreats and parties. The other is CMF (well-known as "the organization close to Tariq Ramadan", though he is not their leader). Both of these organizations put a lot of emphasis on the need to get involved in French society - by joining organizations, registering to vote, working with your children's schools etc. They do not have clear cut political positions as such, but push for active citizenship. They are vaguely on the Left in practice. Tariq Said Ramadan (born 26 August 1962 in Geneva, Switzerland) is a Swiss Muslim academic and theologian. ...


Government efforts toward integration/ assimilation

The government has yet to formulate an official policy towards making integration easier. As mentioned above, it is difficult to determine in France who may be called a Muslim. Some Muslims in France describe themselves as "non-practising". Most simply observe Ramadan and other basic rules, but are otherwise secular.


Islamism in France

Islamism (Islamisme in French) is a term that is rather less used, perhaps due to its lack of precision. The following terms are instead used : Islamiste (when referring to a person of extremist opinions), islamique (for a qualifier, the "hidjab" or foulard islamique, or barbe islamique, the beard; this does not have the connotation of extremism), mouvement islamique (to refer to a political movement), mouvement intégriste or mouvement extrémiste (to refer to a fundamentalist group), mouvement terroriste (for a terrorist group). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In countries with Muslim majorities, Islamist movements are essentially political. Olivier Roy calls Islamists those which see in Islam a political ideology, in the modern sense of the term. In other words a theory which presumes to entirely understand the social side of a society, in political terms. Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ...


Islamists want to influence the laws of the state. When using the term Islamiste, Muslims refer almost exclusively to those whose program is to establish an Islamic state. There are many more movements to establish such states than are recognized as Islamist by the West, thus the use is not very uniform. A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ...


This is not to say that Islamist groups overtly advocate violent takeover in every political environment, so they should not be seen necessarily as terrorists. Because influence in French politics is possible without resorting to violence, the use of violence in that context is considered counterproductive toward achieving their goal of guiding the political system according to the principles of Islam. However, in Algeria, the situation is different. Events there ultimately affect the stance of Islamists toward France itself, as the hope of bringing about an Islamic state in Algeria is a cause for which some French Islamists are willing to turn to violence. Islamic terrorism events in France have been linked to Algerian Islamists. Terrorist redirects here. ...


The political aim of Islamists is ultimately the formal establishment of Sharia law, with or without modern adaptations. Fundamentalism and traditionalism, of themselves, do not have this specific political connotation at all. Islamists are deemed such according to their adherence to the political goal of an Islamic state, rather than by features of their religious observance. Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ...


Islamists characterize their movement as:

  • A recall to tradition, which in Arabic is called "Sallaf". This is a doctrine from the end of the 19th century called "la Salafia". It may be found in many Islamist movements, and in particular in Algeria, in one of the GIA groups (There are several different doctrines in Islamism, and given the variety of the movements, and their varying goals, it is almost always advisable when referring to a specific political movement, to avoid generalizations and refer to it by its name.)
  • The return to following the laws outlined in the Qur'an ("Coran" in French). Islamists support a revolutionary and political reading of the Qur'an, they criticize the anti-Islamic times, also known as a return of the ignorance before the Prophet Mohammed. (pbuh) ("jahhiliyya" - Arabic for ignorance).
  • Islam as religion and State. This government has been adopted, for example, by the djazarist faction of the G.I.A. This is meant to say that the State should ultimately be a Muslim State.

Islamists often portray themselves as a revival movement, a call to Muslims to renew their own adherence to fundamental Islamic religious principles and laws, which initially apply only to Muslims. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ...


According to Pascal Mailhos, chief of the Renseignements Généraux (RG), out of 1700 known places of worship, 75 had been subject to attempts of destabilisations by radical elements, half of them resisting the attempts. 31 radical activists have been expelled from French territory, and a dozen have been monitored by the French police. The Renseignements Généraux or RG (General Information) is a directorate of the French National Police. ...


Islam in France is subject to strong foreign influences. Statistically, only a third of the imams in France have a good command of the French language, another third an average command, and the last third a poor command. This is due to the fact that there exists no imam training school in France, the 1905 law of 'laïcité' preventing the state from sponsoring religious establishments; in this case, any mosques or 'imam schools'. A low number of salafist elements can be found in some regions of France. The RG counts about 200,000 Muslims who regularly practice their religion, and about 5,000 salafists, of whom one quarter are involved in radical Islamism. However, their studies on security as often been criticized, for example by Le Monde Diplomatique or Le Canard Enchaîné. Look up imam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is on an Islamic movement. ... The Direction Centrale des Renseignements Généraux (Central Direction of General Intelligence), often called Renseignements Généraux (RG), is the intelligence service of the French police, under orders of the Direction Générale de la Police Nationale (DGPN), and ultimately of the Ministry of the Interior. ... Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Article of the Canard Enchaîné mocking Nicolas Sarkozy and citing Wikipedia as source. ...


According to the RG head, Pascal Mailhos, the influence of radical Islamism in the 2005 civil unrest in France was nil. [8] [9] A torched car in Strasbourg, 5 November. ...


History of Islamist Terrorism in France

Before 1995 (the year several terrorist attacks occurred in France), terrorism raised in many French minds the memory of Arab action in the 1960s. However, real violent action appeared in the 1980s, after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Terrorist redirects here. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


At the beginning of the Seventies, Arab socialism was in crisis, because of economic failure of its policies and cultural dependence from the West.


Once the common opposition to colonialism, corruption and racism was established, debates on political Islam became generally focused on three core questions through the 1970s: Pith helmet of the Second French Empire. ... It has been suggested that Racial supremacy be merged into this article or section. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...

United Nations co-operation was pivotal in this view - as was co-operation with secular forces and allies. The agenda of secular and Islamist movements during this period was all but indistinguishable. In 1979 the political situation drastically changed, with Egypt's peace with Israel, the Iranian Revolution, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan - all three events had wide-ranging effects on how Islam was perceived as a political phenomenon. Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the liberation of women. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


Some Muslims place the blame for flaws on the influx of "foreign" ideas including debt-based capitalism and communism; a return to the principles of Islam is seen as the solution. This is however interpreted in many ways: socialism and Marxism as a guide to adapting Islam to the modern world was in decline by the 1980s as the USSR invaded Afghanistan and poisoned attitudes against Communism and other secular variants of socialism. Capitalism was often discredited by plain corruption, which led Algeria into the turmoils of the Algerian civil war). Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Combatants Algerian government Islamic Armed Movement (MIA) Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) others. ...


It was largely through reactive measures that the movement that is known as Islamist came to be visible to the West, where it was a distinct movement from Islam, pan-Arabism and resistance to colonization. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


The legitimacy of this kind of distinction is very much in doubt. Olivier Roy, a top advisor to President Jacques Chirac, holds that the primary motive of all of this activity is resistance to colonialism and control of the Islamic World by outsiders. In this view, the movement called Islamist is wholly reactive and incidental. Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) has served as the President of France since he was first elected in 1995. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


Airbus in 1994

The GIA hijacked Air France Flight 8969 from Algiers in December 1994. The men landed the plane in Marseille to refuel, so that they could fly to Paris and crash it into the Eiffel Tower. French commandos of the GIGN stormed the plane in Marseille and killed the hijackers. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Air France (Compagnie Nationale Air France) is a subsidiary of Air France-KLM. Before its merger with KLM, it was the national airline of France, employing 71,654 people (as of January 2005). ... Air France Flight 8969 (AF8969, AFR8969) was an Air France flight that was hijacked on December 24, 1994 at Algiers. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Eiffel tower on Bastille Day The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris, France. ... Categories: Stub | Law enforcement in France ...


Terrorist attacks in 1995

France suffered a series of attacks in 1995 masterminded by Khaled Kelkal, and linked back to Algeria. The first violent movements appeared in Algeria in the 1980/1984 by the emergence of a new movement, the M.I.A. (Algerian Islamic movement), led by Mustapha Bouyali. It was dismantled in years 1988/1989. After the dissolution, about 150 people were judged members of this movement. In October 1988, a large meeting mostly made of students in Algiers led to between 500 and 600 dead. These events were used by some Islamists who created new parties, such as the F.I.S. in Algeria (1989/1990) then the G.I.A. (leader Mansour Emezziani), reconstructed from the M.I.A. The first violent action of the G.I.A. occurred in 1992 before elections in Algeria. This date was the beginning of many violent actions, which have had repercussions in France, because of the very tight ties between France and it's former colony Algeria. In 1995, the GIA Islamist militant group staged a series of attacks against the French public, targeting public transportation. ... Khaled Kelkal Khaled Kelkal (April 28, 1971 - September 29, 1995) was an Algerian terrorist affiliated with the GIA. He was involved in several gunfights and was one of the men behind the islamist bombing campaign in France in 1995. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ...


See also

Disclaimer: It must be noted that reference to French people as an ethnic group is not present in French official terminology. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ...

External links

References


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