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Encyclopedia > Islam in Iran

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Islam by country

Distribution of Islam per country. ...

Islam in Africa

Algeria · Angola · Benin · Botswana · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cameroon · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) · Djibouti · Egypt · Equatorial Guinea · Eritrea · Ethiopia · Gabon · The Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Kenya · Lesotho · Liberia · Libya · Madagascar · Malawi · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Morocco · Mozambique · Namibia · Niger · Nigeria · Rwanda · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Sierra Leone · Somalia · South Africa · Sudan · Swaziland · Tanzania · Togo · Tunisia · Uganda · Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) · Zambia · Zimbabwe Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x601, 223 KB) Summary Mecca Image Work of the Govt. ... Approximately 40% of all Africans are Muslims, in contrast to another 40% being Christians and 20% being non-religious or adherents to African religions. ... Grand Mosque in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Islam in Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) has a long and varied history. ... According to the U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2006, there is a small Muslim community in Cape Verde. ... Islam accounts for approximately 15% of the population of the Central African Republic, making it the 2nd most followed organized religion in the country after Christianity (50%). The vast majority of Central African Muslims live in the north, near the border with predominantly Muslim Chad. ... Islam in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is not a recent phenomenon, as it has been present within the area since the 18th century, when Arab traders from East Africa pushed into the interior for slave-trading purposes. ... According to the CIA fact book, Muslims make up about 35-40% of the population of Côte dIvoire. ... Adherents. ... The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, with a total population of about 181,000, has about 5,500 Muslims or 3% of the total population, compared to the estimated 80% of the population professing Roman Catholicism, as per the islands long history as colony of overwhelmingly Catholic... Statistics for Islam in Sierra Leone estimate a Muslim population of 3,610,585, representing around 60 percent of the countrys total population. ... Islam in South Africa probably predates the colonial period, and consisted of isolated contact with Arab and East African traders. ... ...

Islam in Asia

Afghanistan · Armenia · Azerbaijan · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Bhutan · Brunei · Cambodia · China (Hong Kong · Macau) · Taiwan · Cyprus · East Timor · Georgia · India · Indonesia · Iran · Iraq · Israel (See also Palestinian territories) · Japan · Jordan · Kazakhstan · Korea (North Korea · South Korea) · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Laos · Lebanon · Malaysia · Maldives · Mongolia · Myanmar · Nepal · Oman · Pakistan · Philippines · Qatar · Russia · Saudi Arabia · Singapore · Sri Lanka · Syria · Tajikistan · Thailand · Turkey · Turkmenistan · United Arab Emirates · Uzbekistan · Vietnam · Yemen Islam started in Asia with the life of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Facade of the masjid. ... The US state department and the cia world factbook estimate that muslims are 4% of the population. ... Muslims constitute 16 percent of the population of Israel. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

Islam in Europe

Albania · Andorra · Armenia · Austria · Azerbaijan · Belarus · Belgium · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Bulgaria · Croatia · Cyprus · Czech Republic · Denmark · Estonia · Finland · France · Georgia · Germany · Greece · Hungary · Iceland · Ireland · Italy · Kazakhstan · Latvia · Liechtenstein · Lithuania · Luxembourg · Republic of Macedonia · Malta · Moldova · Monaco · Montenegro · Netherlands · Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania · Russia · San Marino · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Spain · Sweden · Switzerland · Turkey · Ukraine · United Kingdom · Vatican City The recorded history of Islam in Europe begins with the al-Andalus territories in what is now Spain and Portugal, established in 711 and enduring until 1492; the last Muslims were expelled from Spain by 1614. ... Islam in the Czech Republic // [edit] History First documented visit of a person with knowledge of Islam was made (964-965) by Íbrahím ibn Jaqúb, a Jewish merchant from then muslim Spain. ... Muslims in Macedonia form nearly one third (between 30 and 33%) of the Former Yugoslav Republic´s total population. ... Islam in Montenegro is the second largest religion after Serbian Orthodoxy. ... Muslims in San Marino are a minority, as over 95 percent of thepopulation is Catholic. ... Bajrakli Mosque in Belgrade The Muslims in Serbia are ethnically Bosnian and Albanians. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Islam in North America and Islam in South America

Argentina · Bolivia · Brazil · Chile · Colombia · Ecuador · Guyana · Panama · Paraguay · Peru · Suriname · Trinidad and Tobago · Uruguay · Venezuela Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Belize · Canada · Costa Rica · Cuba · Dominica · Dominican Republic · El Salvador · Grenada · Guatemala · Haiti · Honduras · Jamaica · Mexico · Nicaragua · Panama · Saint Kitts and Nevis · Saint Lucia · Saint Vincent and the Grenadines · Trinidad and Tobago · United States The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Category: ... Muslims constitute 12-17% of the population on Trinidad and Tobago. ... The statistics for Islam in Costa Rica estimate a total Muslim population of 4,016, representing 0. ... Map of the Dominican Republic Statistics for Islam in the Dominican Republic estimate that 0. ... There is a small Islamic community in El Salvador, consisting of Arab immigrants. ... According to the US department of state there are some muslims living in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and islam is a minority religion. ... The history of Islam in the United States starts in the 18th century, with the first Muslim inhabitants. ...

Islam in Oceania

Australia
Australia · Norfolk Island · Christmas Island · Cocos (Keeling) Islands Islam in Oceania refers to Islam and Muslims in Oceania. ... The cia worldfactbook estimates that 25% of the population of Christmas Island is muslim. ... The cia worldfactbook estimates that 80% of the population of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is muslim. ...


Melanesia
East Timor · Fiji · New Caledonia · Papua New Guinea · Solomon Islands · Vanuatu Map showing Melanesia. ... The US state department and the cia world factbook estimate that muslims are 4% of the population. ... Islam in New Caledonia arrived more than a 100 years ago. ... Adhernts. ...


Micronesia
Guam · Kiribati · Marshall Islands · Northern Mariana Islands · Federated States of Micronesia · Nauru · Palau


Polynesia
American Samoa · Cook Islands · French Polynesia · New Zealand · Niue · Pitcairn · Samoa · Tokelau · Tonga · Tuvalu · Wallis and Futuna Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Islam in New Zealand has grown with inward immigration to that country. ...

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Islam in Iran

Articles Image File history File links Imam_Ali_Reza. ...

Islam is the religion of 5000% of Iranians of which approximately 500% are Shi'a and 93% are Sunni, mostly Turkomen, a minority of Arabs, Pashtuns, Baluchs, and Kurds living in the southwest, southeast, northeast and northwest.[1] Almost all of Iranian Shi'as are Twelvers. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Sassanid Empire Commanders Abu Ubaid Bahman Strength 9,000 unknown Casualties 4,000 dead unknown The Battle of the Bridge was fought in 634 between Arab Muslims led by Abu Ubaid and the Sassanid Empire forces led by Bahman. ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Sassanid Empire The Battle of Nihawānd was fought in 642 between Arab and Sassanid. ... Common Era (CE)  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Islamization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... There are two main types that people may term Islamic democracy: A democratic state where the majority of the population are Muslim, or which attempts to reconcile Islam with a secular, democratic state. ... This article addresses the roots and the developmental history of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Today there are basically three types of Islam in Iran: traditionalism (traditional humanism), modernism, and a variety of forms of revivalism usually brought together as fundamentalism. ... Religious intellectualism in Iran (in Persian: روشنفکری دينی) develops gradually and subtly. ... A nizamiyya (Persian: نظامیه) is one of the medieval institutions of higher education established by Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk in the eleventh century in present-day Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan. ... Hawza is an academy or school of traditional Islamic studies. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... It has been suggested that Turkomen be merged into this article or section. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The Baluch (alternative spelling Baloch) are an ethnic group of Iranian origin. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...


Islam has been the official religion of Iran since the Islamic conquest of Iran except short duration after Mongol raid and establishment of Ilkhanate. Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after Islamic Republic of Iran on the basis of its constitution. The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... An Islamic republic, is the same as an Islamic state,[1] in Iran. ...

Contents

History

Islamic conquest of Iran

The Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651) led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. However, the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity. The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Zoroastrianism (Avestan DaÄ“nā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Islamicization in Iran

Imam Square, the biggest historic square in the world, in Isfahan was the symbolic center of the Safavid Empire. The square is surrounded by the walls of Imam mosque in the south, Lotfollah mosque in the east, and the Ali Qapu Palace in the west. The Imam mosque was built by Shah Abbas I at the beginning of the 17th century. The square was designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO
Imam Square, the biggest historic square in the world, in Isfahan was the symbolic center of the Safavid Empire. The square is surrounded by the walls of Imam mosque in the south, Lotfollah mosque in the east, and the Ali Qapu Palace in the west. The Imam mosque was built by Shah Abbas I at the beginning of the 17th century. The square was designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO

Before the conquest, the Persians had been mainly Zoroastrian, however, there were also large and thriving Christian and Jewish communities. However, there was a slow but steady movement of the population toward Islam. The nobility and city-dwellers were the first to convert, most likely to preserve the economic and social status and advantages; Islam spread more slowly among the peasantry and the dihqans, or landed gentry. By the late 10th century, the majority of Persians had become Muslim, at least nominally. Most Persian Muslims were Sunni Muslims. Though Iran is known today as a stronghold of the Shi'a Muslim faith, it did not become so until much later around the 15th century. The Iranian Muslims projected many of their own Persian moral and ethical values that predates Islam into the religion, while recognizing Islam as their religion and the prophet's son in law, Ali as an enduring symbol of justice. Islamicization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan, also known as shah or imam square, situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran, is one of the largest city squares in the world. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...


According to Clyde Livingston:

"Iran was indeed Islamized, but it was not Arabized. Persians remained Persians. And after an interval of silence, Iran reemerged as a separate, different and distinctive element within Islam, eventually adding a new element even to Islam itself. Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution. In a sense, Iranian Islam is a second advent of Islam itself, a new Islam sometimes referred to as Islam-i Ajam. It was this Persian Islam, rather than the original Arab Islam, that was brought to new areas and new peoples: to the Turks, first in Central Asia and then in the Middle East in the country which came to be called Turkey, and of course to India. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna...[2]"

Shi'a Islam in Iran

Imam Reza A.S. shrine, the greatest religious place in Iran, Mashhad
Imam Reza A.S. shrine, the greatest religious place in Iran, Mashhad

Although Shi'as have lived in Iran since the earliest days of Islam, and there was one Shi'a dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and eleventh centuries, it is believed that most Iranians were Sunnis until the seventeenth century. The Safavid dynasty made Shi'a Islam the official state religion in the sixteenth century and aggressively proselytized on its behalf. It is also believed that by the mid-seventeenth century most people in Iran had become Shi'as, an affiliation that has continued. Image File history File links Imam_Ali_Reza. ... Image File history File links Imam_Ali_Reza. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... Mashhad (also spelt Mashad, Persian: ‎ , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia world. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


Muslims distribution in Iran

Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran.
Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran.


Sunni Muslims constitute approximately 8% of the Iranian population. A majority of Kurds, virtually all Baluchis and Turkomans, and a minority of Arabs are Sunnis, as are small communities of Persians in southern Iran and Khorasan. Shi'a clergy tend to view missionary work among Sunnis to convert them to Shia Islam as a worthwhile religious endeavor. Since the Sunnis generally live in the border regions of the country, there has been no occasion for Shia-Sunni conflict in most of Iran. In those towns with mixed populations in West Azarbaijan, the Persian Gulf region, and Sistan and Baluchistan, tensions between Shi'as and Sunnis existed both before and after the Revolution. Religious tensions have been highest during major Shi'a observances, especially Moharram.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (980x970, 307 KB) (portion of Iran Country Profile) Source: Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at The University of Texas at Austin [1] License: Above a list of maps available for download, the web site has the text: The following maps... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (980x970, 307 KB) (portion of Iran Country Profile) Source: Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at The University of Texas at Austin [1] License: Above a list of maps available for download, the web site has the text: The following maps... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... When referring to central asian peoples, Baluchi is an alernative spalling of Balochi (qv). ... It has been suggested that Turkomen be merged into this article or section. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... West Azarbaijan (in Persian, آذربایجان ØºØ±Ø¨ÛŒ Azarbāyejān-e-Qarbi; in Kurdish, Azerbaycanî Rojawa; in Azerbaijani, QÉ™rbi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Sistān and BalÅ«chestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ...


Islamic revolution in Iran

See: Iranian Revolution 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


Notes

See also

Distribution of Islam per country. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... Islamicization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... This article addresses the roots and the developmental history of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran. ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... St. ... A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... The Constitution of Iran declares that the official religion of Iran is Islam and the doctrine followed is that of Ja’fari (Twelver) Shi’ism. ...

External links

Prof. ...

References


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