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Encyclopedia > Islam in India

Islam in India


Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750...


History The Islamic conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the seventh to the twelfth centuries. ...

Architecture

Mughal architecture • Indo-Islamic Architecture Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... The Lotus Mahal at Hampi is a example of Indo-Islamic architecture. ...

Major figures

AkbarAhmed Raza KhanMaulana AzadSir Syed Ahmed Khan This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sayyidunna Mawlana Sanaadi Ala Hadrat Alshaykh Allamah Muhammad Mukhtar Ziauddin Aĥmed Riđā Abdul Mustapha Khān al-Barelwī al-Barkati al-Nuri al-Razwi al-Qadiri (1856–1921, sometimes transcribed as Ahmad Raza Khan) , was a prominent Muslim Alim from Bareilly, a city in Northern India during the late... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Communities

North Indian MuslimsMappilasTamil Muslims
Konkani Muslims • Marathi Muslims • Vora patelMemons
North East Muslims • Kashmiris • Hyderabadi Muslims
Dawoodi BohrasKhojaNawayathMeo
Sunni BohrasKayamkhani • Bengali Muslims The gate of the Jami mosque built in 1571 in Fatehpur Sikri, a city built by the Mughal emperor Akbar. ... The Mappilas (historically called Moplahs in Malayalam :മാപ്പിള) are a Muslim community in Kerala and neighbouring states and territories of India. ... Marakkar or Maraikayar is a common title, surname or name of a sub group of Tamil speaking Muslim people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vora Patel or Vohra Patel is a Sunni Muslim Patel community located in Gujarat, India, primarily in the Bharuch District. ... Memon (Gujarati: મેમણ ) (Urdu: میمن ) a minority social group primarily connected with Indian sub-continent trace their roots largely to Sindh, Kutch and Kathiawar [1]. They adhere to Hanafi Sunni Islam, mainly businesspeople and entrepreneurs , share common tongue, mixture of Sindhi and Kutchi, and strongly connect themselves locally with well organized societies... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Gujarati: દાઉદી બોહરા ) are the main branch of the Bohras, a MustaˤlÄ« subsect of IsmāīlÄ« Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... The Khwajahs or officially Khojas (Urdu: خوجہ) are a (mostly Muslim) community that are mainly concentrated in South Asia, but due to migrations over the centuries have spread to many parts of the globe. ... The Nawayaths (also spelled as Navayath or Nawayat) are a small Muslim community found living in and around the town of Bhatkal, a prosperous little picturesque town with quaint old abodes and villas on the west coast of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. ... Meo (Hindi: मेव, Urdu: میو) is a prominent Muslim Rajput tribe from Northern India and Pakistan. ... Sunni Bohras are a Sunni Muslim community in Sindh province of Pakistan and Gujarat state of India. ... Kayamkhani is a community of Muslims living in Shekhawati region of Rajasthan. ...

Islamic Sects

DeobandiBarelviShia The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandÄ«) is an Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... A name given to the Sunni Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...

Culture

Muslim culture of Hyderabad Makkah masjid on the last Friday of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan Muslims praying by the historic Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there. ...

Other Topics

Ahle Sunnat Movement in South AsiaIndian Muslim nationalism
Indian Wahabi movementMuslim chronicles for Indian history Barelwi (Hindi: बरैल्वि, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sunni Islam in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelwi). ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Indian Wahabi movement is a movement to steer Islam to its more fundamental roots similar to the Arabian Wahabi movement. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

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Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. There are approximately 174 million Muslims in India (according to government census 2001), i.e 16.4% of the population.[1][2]. India has the second largest population of Muslims in the world (the largest being Indonesia). [citation needed] Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...

Contents

History

The emergence of Islam in the region is concurrent with the Turko-Muslim invasion of medieval India (which includes large parts of present day Pakistan and the Republic of India), where these rulers took over the administration of large parts of India. Since its introduction into India, Islam has made significant religious, artistic, philosophical, cultural, social and political contributions to Indian history. The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ...


In modern times the Muslims of South Asia have had a turbulent history within the region. After the Lahore Resolution of 1946, Muslim League politicians achieved a Muslim-majority state known as Pakistan after independence from British rule. In modern times, the Muslim populations of India and Pakistan are roughly even. The President of India, APJ Abdul Kalam, along with numerous other politicians, are Muslims, as are numerous sports and film celebrities within India. Isolated incidences of violence nonetheless have occurred between the Muslim populations and the Hindu, Sikh and Christian populations. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (born October 15, 1931, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India), usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is the President of India. ...

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Islam by country

Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ...

Islam in Africa

Algeria · Angola · Benin · Botswana · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cameroon · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) · Djibouti · Egypt · Equatorial Guinea · Eritrea · Ethiopia · Gabon · The Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Kenya · Lesotho · Liberia · Libya · Madagascar · Malawi · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Morocco · Mozambique · Namibia · Niger · Nigeria · Rwanda · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Sierra Leone · Somalia · South Africa · Sudan · Swaziland · Tanzania · Togo · Tunisia · Uganda · Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) · Zambia · Zimbabwe Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x601, 223 KB) Summary Mecca Image Work of the Govt. ... Approximately 40% of all Africans are Muslims, in contrast to another 40% being Christians and 20% being non-religious or adherents to African religions. ... Grand Mosque in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Islam in Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) has a long and varied history. ... According to the U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2006, there is a small Muslim community in Cape Verde. ... Islam accounts for approximately 15% of the population of the Central African Republic, making it the 2nd most followed organized religion in the country after Christianity (50%). The vast majority of Central African Muslims live in the north, near the border with predominantly Muslim Chad. ... Islam in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is not a recent phenomenon, as it has been present within the area since the 18th century, when Arab traders from East Africa pushed into the interior for slave-trading purposes. ... According to the CIA fact book, Muslims make up about 35-40% of the population of Côte dIvoire. ... Adherents. ... The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, with a total population of about 181,000, has about 5,500 Muslims or 3% of the total population, compared to the estimated 80% of the population professing Roman Catholicism, as per the islands long history as colony of overwhelmingly Catholic... Statistics for Islam in Sierra Leone estimate a Muslim population of 3,610,585, representing around 60 percent of the countrys total population. ... Islam in South Africa probably predates the colonial period, and consisted of isolated contact with Arab and East African traders. ... ...

Islam in Asia

Afghanistan · Armenia · Azerbaijan · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Bhutan · Brunei · Cambodia · China (Hong Kong · Macau) · Taiwan · Cyprus · East Timor · Georgia · India · Indonesia · Iran · Iraq · Israel · Japan · Jordan · Kazakhstan · Korea (North Korea · South Korea) · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Laos · Lebanon · Malaysia · Maldives · Mongolia · Myanmar · Nepal · Oman · Pakistan · Philippines · Qatar · Russia · Saudi Arabia · Singapore · Sri Lanka · Syria · Tajikistan · Thailand · Turkey · Turkmenistan · United Arab Emirates · Uzbekistan · Vietnam · Yemen Islam started in Asia with the life of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Facade of the masjid. ... Islam is a minority religion in East Timor. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

Islam in Europe

Albania · Andorra · Armenia · Austria · Azerbaijan · Belarus · Belgium · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Bulgaria · Croatia · Cyprus · Czech Republic · Denmark · Estonia · Finland · France · Georgia · Germany · Greece · Hungary · Iceland · Ireland · Italy · Kazakhstan · Latvia · Liechtenstein · Lithuania · Luxembourg · Republic of Macedonia · Malta · Moldova · Monaco · Montenegro · Netherlands · Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania · Russia · San Marino · Scotland · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Spain · Sweden · Switzerland · Turkey · Ukraine · United Kingdom · This article deals with the history and the evolution of the Islamic religion in Europe. ... Islam in the Czech Republic // [edit] History First documented visit of a person with knowledge of Islam was made (964-965) by Íbrahím ibn Jaqúb, a Jewish merchant from then muslim Spain. ... Muslims in Macedonia form nearly one third (between 30 and 33%) of the Former Yugoslav Republic´s total population. ... Islam in Montenegro is the second largest religion after Serbian Orthodoxy. ... Muslims in San Marino are a minority, as over 95 percent of thepopulation is Catholic. ... The arrival of Islam in Scotland is relatively recent. ... Bajrakli Mosque in Belgrade The Muslims in Serbia are ethnically Bosnian and Albanians. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Islam in North America and Islam in South America

Argentina · Bolivia · Brazil · Chile · Colombia · Ecuador · Guyana · Panama · Paraguay · Peru · Suriname · Trinidad and Tobago · Uruguay · Venezuela Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Belize · Canada · Costa Rica · Cuba · Dominica · Dominican Republic · El Salvador · Grenada · Guatemala · Haiti · Honduras · Jamaica · Mexico · Nicaragua · Panama · Saint Kitts and Nevis · Saint Lucia · Saint Vincent and the Grenadines · Trinidad and Tobago · United States Category: ... Muslims constitute 12-17% of the population on Trinidad and Tobago. ... The statistics for Islam in Costa Rica estimate a total Muslim population of 4,016, representing 0. ... Map of the Dominican Republic Statistics for Islam in the Dominican Republic estimate that 0. ... There is a small Islamic community in El Salvador, consisting of Arab immigrants. ... According to the US department of state there are some muslims living in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and islam is a minority religion. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Islam in Oceania

Australia
Australia · Norfolk Island · Christmas Island · Cocos (Keeling) Islands Islam in Oceania refers to Islam and Muslims in Oceania. ... The cia worldfactbook estimates that 25% of the population of Christmas Island is muslim. ... The cia worldfactbook estimates that 80% of the population of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is muslim. ...


Melanesia
East Timor · Fiji · New Caledonia · Papua New Guinea · Solomon Islands · Vanuatu Map showing Melanesia. ... Islam is a minority religion in East Timor. ... Islam in New Caledonia arrived more than a 100 years ago. ... Adhernts. ...


Micronesia
Guam · Kiribati · Marshall Islands · Northern Mariana Islands · Federated States of Micronesia · Nauru · Palau


Polynesia
American Samoa · Cook Islands · French Polynesia · New Zealand · Niue · Pitcairn · Samoa · Tokelau · Tonga · Tuvalu · Wallis and Futuna Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Islam in New Zealand has grown with inward immigration to that country. ...

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Contrary to popular belief, Islam came to South Asia long before Muslim invasions of India. Islamic influence first came to be felt in the early 7th century with the advent of Arab traders. Trade relations between Arabia and the subcontinent are very ancient. Arab traders used to visit the Malabar region, which was a link between them and ports of South East Asia, to trade even before Islam had been established in Arabia. According to Historians Elliot and Dowson in their book The History of India as told by its own Historians, the first ship bearing Muslim travelers was seen on the Indian coast as early as 630 AD. H.G. Rawlinson, in his book: Ancient and Medieval History of India[3] claims the first Arab Muslims settled on the Indian coast in the last part of the 7th century AD. This fact is corroborated, by J. Sturrock in his South Kanara and Madras Districts Manuals,[4] and also by Haridas Bhattacharya in Cultural Heritage of India Vol. IV.[5]It was with the advent of Islam that the Arabs became a prominent cultural force in the world. The Arab merchants and traders became the carriers of the new religion and they propagated it wherever they went.[6] The Islamic conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the seventh to the twelfth centuries. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir) A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... The Malabar region lies along the southwest coast of India and forms the northern part of the present-day state of Kerala. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The History of India as told by its own Historians is book in eight volumes by H.M. Elliot and J. Dowson. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ...


The first Indian mosque was built in 629 A.D, at the behest of Cheraman Perumal, during the life time of Muhammad (c. 571632) in Kodungallur by Malik Bin Deenar.[7][8][9] Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Events The Monophysites again reject the Council of Chalcedon, causing another schism. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... , “Cranganore” redirects here. ... Malik bin Deenar or Malik Ibn Dinar was a Tabi‘in. ...


In Malabar the Mappilas may have been the first community to convert to Islam because they were more closely connected with the Arabs than others. Intensive missionary activities were carried out along the coast and a number of natives also embraced Islam. These new converts were now added to the Mappila community. Thus among the Mapilas, we find, both the descendants of the Arabs through local women and the converts from among the local people[10] The Mappilas (historically called Moplahs in Malayalam :മാപ്പിള) are a Muslim community in Kerala and neighbouring states and territories of India. ... The Mappilas (historically called Moplahs in Malayalam :മാപ്പിള) are a Syrian Malabar Nasrani and Muslim community in Kerala and neighbouring states and territories of India. ...


In the 8th century, the province of Sindh(Pakistan) was conquered by Syrian Arabs led by Muhammad bin Qasim. Sindh became the easternmost province of the Umayyad Caliphate. In the first half of the 10th century, Mahmud of Ghazni added the Punjab to the Ghaznavid Empire and conducted several raids deeper into modern day India. A more successful invasion came at the end of the 12th century by Muhammad of Ghor. This eventually led to the formation of the Delhi Sultanate. Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Muhammad of Ghor (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also Muhammad Ghori or Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Muizz-ad-din, b. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ...


Conversion controversy

See also: Persecution of Hindus#During Islamic rule in the Indian sub-continent

Considerable controversy exists both in scholarly and public opinion about the conversions to Islam typically represented by the following schools of thought:[11] Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ...

  1. The bulk of Muslims are descendants of migrants from the Iranian plateau or Arabs.[12]
  2. Muslims sought conversion through jihad or political violence[11]
  3. Conversions occurred for non-religious reasons of pragmatism and patronage such as social mobility among the Muslim ruling elite or for relief from taxes[11][12]
  4. Conversion was a result of the actions of Sunni Sufi saints and involved a genuine change of heart[11]
  5. Conversion came from Buddhists and the en masse conversions of lower castes for social liberation and as a rejection of the oppressive Hindu caste strictures.[12]
  6. A combination, initially made under duress followed by a genuine change of heart[11]
  7. As a socio-cultural process of diffusion and integration over an extended period of time into the sphere of the dominant Muslim civilization and global polity at large.[12]

Embedded within this lies the concept of Islam as a foreign imposition and Hinduism being a natural condition of the natives who resisted, resulting in the failure of the project to Islamicize the Indian subcontinent and is highly embroiled within the politics of the partition and communalism in India.[11] An estimate of the number of people killed, based on the Muslim chronicles and demographic calculations, was done by K.S. Lal in his book Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India, who claimed that between 1000 CE and 1500 CE, the population of Hindus decreased by 80 million. His work has come under criticism by historians such as Simon Digby (School of Oriental and African Studies) and Irfan Habib for its agenda and lack of accurate data in pre-census times. Lal has responded to these criticisms in later works. Historians such as Will Durant contend that Islam was spread through violence.[13][14] Sir Jadunath Sarkar contends that several Muslim invaders were waging a systematic jihad against Hindus in India to the effect that "Every device short of massacre in cold blood was resorted to in order to convert heathen subjects."[15] Hindus who converted to Islam were not immune to persecution due to the Muslim Caste System in India established by Ziauddin al-Barani in the Fatawa-i Jahandari.[16], where they were regarded as an "Ajlaf" caste and subjected to discrimination by the "Ashraf" castes[17] Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or sub-castes. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Islamicization is the religious conversion of a people or location to practice the religion of Islam voluntarily, or by force if neccesary. ... This article is under construction. ... In many parts of the world, communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... K.S. Lal is a controversial Indian historian. ... Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India (A.D. 1000-1800) is a book by K.S. Lal published in 1973. ... Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India (A.D. 1000-1800) is a book by K.S. Lal published in 1973. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is a constituent of the University of London specializing in the arts and humanities, languages and cultures, and the law and social sciences concerning Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. ... Irfan Habib (1931- ) is a Marxist Indian historian, a professor at the Aligarh Muslim University and a former Chairman of the Indian Council for Historical Research. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Jadunath Sarkar was an Indian historian born on 10 December 1870 in Karchamaria. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Caste system among South Asian Muslims refers to units of social stratification that have developed among Muslims in South Asia(largely the region that comprises India and Pakistan), despite Islams egalitarian tenets[1][2]. // Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with...


Disputers of the "Conversion by the Sword Theory" point to the presence of the large Muslim communities found in Southern India, Sri Lanka, Western Burma, Bangladesh, Southern Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines coupled with the distinctive lack of equivalent Muslim communities around the heartland of historical Muslim Empires in the Indian Sub-Continent as refutation to the "Conversion by the Sword Theory". The legacy of the Muslim conquest of South Asia is a hotly debated issue and argued even today. Different population estimates by economics historian Angus Maddison and by Jean-Noël Biraben also indicate that India's population did not decrease between 1000 and 1500, but increased by about 35 million during that time.[18][19] Angus Maddison, Emeritus Professor at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Groningen. ...


Not all Muslim invaders were simply raiders. Later rulers fought on to win kingdoms and stayed to create new ruling dynasties. The practices of these new rulers and their subsequent heirs (some of whom were borne of Hindu wives) varied considerably. While some were uniformly hated, others developed a popular following. According to the memoirs of Ibn Batuta who travelled through Delhi in the 14th century, one of the previous sultans had been especially brutal and was deeply hated by Delhi's population, Batuta's memoirs also indicate that Muslims from the Arab world, Persia and Turkey were often favored with important posts at the royal courts suggesting that locals may have played a somewhat subordinate role in the Delhi administration. The term "Turk" was commonly used to refer to their higher social status. S.A.A. Rizvi (The Wonder That Was India - II), however points to Muhammad bin Tughlaq as not only encouraging locals but promoting artisan groups such as cooks, barbers and gardeners to high administrative posts. In his reign, it is likely that conversions to Islam took place as a means of seeking greater social mobility and improved social standing.[20] Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 - 1377) was a Moroccan Berber traveller and explorer. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Muhammad bin Tughluq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. ...


Sufism and spread of Islam

Sufis (Sunni Islamic mystics) played an important role in the spread of Islam in India. They were very successful in spreading Islam, as many aspects of Sufi belief systems and practices had their parallels in Indian philosophical literature, in particular nonviolence and monism. The Sufis' unorthodox approach towards Islam made it easier for Hindus to practice. Hazrat Khawaja Muin-ud-din Chisti, Nizam-ud-din Auliya, Shah Jalal, Amir Khusro,Sarkar Sabir Pak,Waris Pak trained Sufi groups for the propagation of Islam in different parts of India. Once the Islamic Empire was established in India, Sufis invariably provided a touch of colour and beauty to what might have otherwise been rather cold and stark reigns. The Sufi movement also attracted followers from the artisan and untouchable communities; they played a crucial role in bridging the distance between Islam and the indigenous traditions. However there is also evidence of fanatical and violent conversions carried out by Sufi Muslims. Ahmed Sirhindi, Naqshbandi Sufi passionately advocated Peaceful conversion of Hindus to Islam. Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (1141 - 1230 AD), also known as Gharib Nawaz, is the most famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order of South Asia. ... Nizamuddin Auliya (1238 - 1325 AD), also known as Hazrat Nizamuddin (ہزرت نِزامُدّین), is a famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order in India. ... Tomb of Hazrat Shah Jalal in Sylhet Shah Jalal (R) a major sufi saint of Bengal. ... Abul Hasan YamÄ«n al-DÄ«n Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as AmÄ«r Khusrow DehlawÄ«, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... // Hazrat Makhdum Sabir Pak (Rehmatullah Aliah) was born in Herat on 19th Rabi ul Awal 592 Hijri. ... // Deva SharifBarabanki, India . ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ...


Role of Muslims in India's freedom movement

The contribution of Muslim revolutionaries, poets and writers is immense in India's struggle against the British. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Rafi Ahmed Kidwai are Muslims who devoted their life for this purpose. Muhammad Ashfaq Ullah Khan of Shahjehanpur who conspired and looted the British treasury at Kakori (Lucknow) to cripple the administration, when asked for his last will, before execution, desired: No desire is left except one that someone may put a little soil of my motherland in my winding sheet. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (popularly known as Frontier Gandhi), was a great nationalist who spent 45 of his 95 years of life in jail for the freedom of India; Barakatullah of Bhopal, one of the founders of the Ghadar party which created a network of anti-British organizations and who died penniless in Germany in 1927; Syed Rahmat Shah of the Ghadar party worked as an underground revolutionary in France and was hanged for his part in the unsuccessful Ghadar (mutiny) uprising in 1915; Ali Ahmad Siddiqui of Faizabad (UP) planned the Indian Mutiny in Malaya and Burma along with Syed Mujtaba Hussain of Jaunpur and was hanged in 1917; Vakkom Abdul Khadar of Kerala participated in the "Quit India" struggle in 1942 and was hanged; Umar Subhani, an industrialist and millionaire of Bombay provided Gandhi with congress expenses and ultimately gave his life for the cause of independence are other notable freedom fighters. Among Muslim women, Hazrat Mahal, Asghari Begum, Bi Amma contributed heavily in the struggle of freedom from the British. Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Muslim scholar and a senior political leader of the Indian independence movement. ... Dr Hakim Ajmal Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, a Muslim doctor and educationalist. ... Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was an Indian freedom fighter and socialist politician. ... Ashfaqullah Khan, the great martyr, was born on 22 October 1900, in a middle class family of Shahjahanpur district in Uttar Pradesh. ... Shahjahanpur City was established by Diler Khan and Bahadur Khan, sons of Shri Dariya Khan, a soldier in the army of Mugal Emperor Jahangeer. ... Kakori is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Bacha Khan) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Urdu: خان عبد Ù„ غفار خان) (b. ... Maulavi Barkatullah was a freedom fighter and nationalist from Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh,India. ... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by the Indians(mostly Punjabis, of the United States and Canada in June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. ... , For the Faizabad in Tajikistan, see Faizabad, Tajikistan. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a British perspective. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Jaunpur is a city in Jaunpur District in Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ... Begum Hazrat Mahal, also known as Begum of Awadh, was the wife of Nawab Wazid Ali Shah. ...


The period starting from 1498 saw the rise of the naval and trading power of the European countries, as they increasingly projected their naval power and expanded their trading interests over the Indian Subcontinent. Subsequently with the advent of the Industrial Revolution in Britain and in Europe, the European powers gained a significant technological and commercial advantage over the decaying Mughal Empire. They gradually began increasing their influence on the Indian Subcontinent. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Hyder Ali, and later his brave and valiant son Sultan Tipu were early to understand the designs of the British East India Company and resisted it with the force of arms in the south of India. However, Tipu Sultan was finally defeated at Seringapatam in 1799. In Bengal, even earlier, Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah faced the greed and expansionist aims of the British East India Company and fought the British. However, he lost at the battle of Plassey in 1757. Hyder Ali or Haidar Ali (c. ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ... Ranganatha Temple Srirangapatna (British called it Seringapatam) is a small town, 13 km from Mysore in southern India. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shirajuddaula. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Battle of Plassey was a battle that took place on June 23, 1757, near Plassey (Palashee (পলাশী) in Bengali), a small village on the Bhagirathi River (a distributary of Ganges River) located just north of Kolkata and south of Murshidabad in India. ...


As the Muslim power waned with the gradual demise of the once mighty Mughal Empire, and the freedom of India was lost, the Muslims of India faced a new challenge - that of protecting their culture, beliefs, way of life, and their interests, yet interacting with the alien, advanced, more powerful, technologically advantaged power. Suddenly, this was a completely different world for the Muslims of India. In this period, the Ulama of Firangi Mahal, based first at Sehali, District Barabanki, and since 1690s based in Lucknow, educated, guided, provided spiritual and temporal guidance to the Muslims enabling them to adjust to, and interact with the changed world. The Firangi Mahal led and steered the Muslims of India in this dark hour of their history. Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... Firangi Mahal (Hindi: फ़रन्गी महल, Urdu: فرنگی محل, literally French Palace from Arabic فرنگی Firangi Europeaner a corruption of Frank) is a Religious Higher education school in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Barabanki district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Firangi Mahal (Hindi: फ़रन्गी महल, Urdu: فرنگی محل, literally French Palace from Arabic فرنگی Firangi Europeaner a corruption of Frank) is a Religious Higher education school in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


Other famous Muslims who fought for freedom from the British Rule, and subsequently the British Raj: Maulana Azad, Hakeem Ajmal Khan, Hasrat Mohani, Professor Maulavi Barkatullah, Dr. Zakir Husain , Saifuddin Kichlu, Allama Shibli Nomani, Vakkom Abdul Khadir, Dr. Manzoor Abdul Wahab, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Hakeem Nusrat Husain, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, Samad Achakzai, Colonel Shahnawaz, Dr. M.A.Ansari, Rafi Ahmad Kidwai, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad, Ansar Harwani, Tak Sherwani, Nawab Viqarul Mulk, Nawab Mohsinul Mulk, Mustsafa Husain, VM Ubaidullah, SR Rahim, Badruddin Tyabjee, and Moulvi Abdul Hamid. Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Hakim Ajmal Khan (1863 - 1927) Dr. Hakim Ajmal Khan was a noted Indian freedom fighter, renowned physician and educationalist. ... Hasrat Mohani Maulana Hasrat Mohani (Urdu: مولانا حسرت موہانی) (b. ... Maulavi Barkatullah was a freedom fighter and nationalist from Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh,India. ... Dr Zakir Husain (February 8, 1897 - May 3, 1969) was the third President of India from May 13, 1967 until his death. ... Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew (January 15, 1888 - October 9, 1963) was an Indian freedom fighter and a Muslim Indian nationalist leader. ... Mawlana Shibli Numani (in Arabic: شبلي نعماني) was an Indian Muslim scholar (1857 - 1914). ... Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Bacha Khan) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Urdu: خان عبد Ù„ غفار خان) (b. ... Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was an Indian freedom fighter and socialist politician. ...


Until the 1930s Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a member of the Indian National Congress and was part of the struggle for the freedom struggle for India from the British, and was a strong proponent of Hindu -Muslim unity. Similarly, Dr. Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal, poet and philosopher, was a strong proponent of Hindu - Muslim unity and an undivdided India until the 1920s. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ...


Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali struggled for the emancipation of the Muslims in the overall Indian context, and struggled for freedom alongside Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Abdul Bari of Firangi Mahal. Until the 1930s, the Muslims of India broadly conducted their politics alongside their other countrymen, in the overall context of an undivided India. Maulana Shaukat Ali (Born in 1873) is an Indian nationalist Muslim and freedom fighter. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari, Hindi: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी,Gujarati:મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was the spiritual and political leader of India who led the struggle for Indias independence from the British Empire, empowered by tens of millions of Indians. ... Firangi Mahal (Hindi: फ़रन्गी महल, Urdu: فرنگی محل, literally French Palace from Arabic فرنگی Firangi Europeaner a corruption of Frank) is a Religious Higher education school in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


In the late 1920s, recognising the variance in the perspectives of the leadership of the Indian National Congress, Mahatama Gandhi, and that of the All India Muslim League, and realising that this significant difference of perspective continued to delay the freedom of India, Dr. Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal presented the concept of a separate Muslim homeland in India in the 1930s. Consequently, the All India Muslim League raised the demand for a separate Muslim homeland. This demand was raised in Lahore in 1940 (Known as the Pakistan Resolution). Dr. Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal had passed away by then, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan,Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, and many others led the Pakistan Movement. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari, Hindi: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी,Gujarati:મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was the spiritual and political leader of India who led the struggle for Indias independence from the British Empire, empowered by tens of millions of Indians. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second largest city in Pakistan. ... Pakistan Resolution was passed by the All India Muslim League on March 24, 1940 in Lahore. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... For other people with the same or similar name, see Liaqat Ali (disambiguation) Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Urdu/Pashto: لیا قت علی خان)  (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was a Pakistani politician who became the first prime minister of Pakistan. ... Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (September 8, 1892 - December 5, 1963) was a politician from Bengal in undivided India, and later in East Pakistan, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1956 until 1957. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ...


Initially, the demand for separate Muslim homeland(s) was within a framework of a large,independent, undivided India with autonomous regions governed by the Muslims. A number of other options to give the Muslim minority in India adequate protection and political representation in a free, undivided India, were also debated. However, when no common formula leading to early independence of India from the British Raj could be agreed between the Indian National Congress, the All India Muslim League, and the British colonial government, the All India Muslim League went ahead pressing unequivocally with its demand for a completely independent, sovereign country, Pakistan. Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ...


Law and politics

Muslims in India are governed by "The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937."[21] It directs the application of Muslim Personal Law to Muslims in marriage, mahr (dower), divorce, maintenance, gifts, wakf, wills and inheritance.[22] The courts generally apply the Hanafi Sunni law, with exceptions made only for those areas where Shia law differs substantially from Sunni practice. For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Wakf One and a half thousand years ago, long before the birth of the doctrine of uses and trusts in English Law, Islamic Law recognized and developed a legal expedient under the name of wakf, which permitted an owner to settle his property for the use of beneficiaries in perpetuity. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


Although the Indian constitution provides equal rights to all citizens irrespective of their religion, Article 44 recommends a Uniform civil code. The attempts by successive political leadership in the country to integrate Indian society under common civil code is strongly resisted and is viewed by Indian Muslims as an attempt to dilute the cultural identity of the minority groups of the country. Thus in India there exists the unique situation where proponents of a secular law are deemed fascist while those who support the separate Sharia law for Indian Muslims are considered secular. The All India Muslim Personal Law Board was established for the protection and continued applicability of “Muslim Personal Law” i.e. Shariat Application Act in India. The Constitution of India, the worlds lengthiest written constitution (with 395 articles and 8 schedules) was passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) is an organisation constituted in 1973 to adopt suitable strategies for protection and continued applicability of “Muslim Personal Law” i. ...


Hindu-Muslim conflict

See also: Persecution of Muslims#Communal violence in India and Persecution of Hindus#In the Indian subcontinent

India maintains a constitutional commitment to secularism and does not distinguish amongst the people on the basis of religious beliefs.Hindu-Muslim relations in India have been marred by communal violence, this communal conflict is inherited from the convulsive and turbulent course of history, starting with the Islamic invasion of India. The aftermath of the Partition of India in 1947 saw large scale sectarian strife and bloodshed throughout the nation. Since then India has witnessed sporadic large-scale violence sparked by underlying tensions between sections of the Hindu and Muslim communities. These conflicts also stem from the ideologies of Hindu Nationalism versus Islamic Fundamentalism and Islamism prevalent in certain sections of the population. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ... Communalism is used in South Asia to denote attempts to promote primarily religious stereotypes between groups of people identified as different communities and to stimulate violence between those groups. ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... This article is under construction. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sectarianism. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating literalistic interpretations of the texts of Islam and of Sharia law. ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ...


More Muslims have usually been killed than Hindus in inter-community violence in India, while Hindus have been persecuted in neighboring Muslim states and in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. In all the communal riots since 1947, factually contested official police records reveal that three-quarters of lives lost and properties destroyed were Muslim, a figure that climbed to 85% during the 2002 riots in Gujarat.[23]. Nevertheless, it is to be remembered that most of the Muslims of India remained in their homeland while Hindus were expelled en masse from Pakistan.


Violence against Hindus by Muslims continued in East Pakistan, seeing the migration of over 2 million Hindus from 1950 to 1969. The birth of Bangladesh witnessed unparalleled violence against Hindus when nearly 3 million Bangladeshis were killed and another 10 million sought refuge in India, the majority of them were Hindu. Fresh violence took place in the Sindhi riots of 1980 when Muslims in Gujarat burnt Hindus alive. [24] In addition, Islamist attacks on Hindus in Kashmir such as the Wandhama massacre and Kaluchak Massacre contributed to the rising communal tensions in the region. The ethnic cleansing of the Hindu Kashmiri Pandits from the region by Islamist's has worsened the situation. The Indian military stationed in Kashmir has been accused by Pakistan, as well as human rights advocacy groups, of atrocities against the Muslim population in the region. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Hindu temple in Wandhama after it was desecrated and destroyed by the terorists . ... The Kaluchak Massacre refers to an incident on May 14, 2002 near the town of Kaluchak in the Indian state of Jammu when three terrorists attacked a tourist bus from the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... The Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) are the original inhabitants of the Valley of Kashmir. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


The sense of communal harmony between Hindus and Muslims in the post-partition period has been compromised in the last decade with the demolition of the disputed Babri Mosque in Ayodhya. The demolition took place in 1992 and was allegedly perpetrated by the Hindu Nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party and organizations like Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Bajrang Dal and Vishwa Hindu Parishad. This was followed by tit for tat violence by Muslim and Hindu fundamentalists throughout the country including Mumbai with the Bombay Riots and also the 1993 Mumbai Bombings, amongst those allegedly involved in these atrocities were the Muslim Mafia don Dawood Ibrahim and the predominantly Muslim D-Company criminal gang. A view of the Babri Mosque, pre-1992. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu nationalist organization in India. ... Bajrang Dal (Hindi: , English: ) is the youth wing of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), and one of the family of organizations (Sangh Parivar) based on the core ideology of Hindutva. ... The Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP; World Hindu Council in Hindi), is a Hindu nationalist organisation in Bharat, an offshoot of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. ... Tit for Tat is a highly-effective strategy in game theory for the iterated prisoners dilemma. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... Although numerous riots have occurred in the City of Mumbai, India (Bombay) since Independence, the Bombay Riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December 1992 and January 1993, in which 900 people died. ... The 1993 Mumbai bombings were a series of 15 bomb explosions that took place in Mumbai (Bombay), India on March 12, 1993. ... Dawood Ibrahim (Urdu: , Hindi: ), b. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 2001 a high profile attack on the Indian Parliament by Islamic militants from Pakistan created considerable strain on community relations. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a high-profile attack by Pakistan based Kashmiri terrorists against the building housing the Parliament of India in New Delhi. ... The Parliament of India is bicameral. ...


With a rise in Hindu nationalism and Islamic fundamentalism, Hindu-Muslim rioting has now allegedly taken a more planned form and is being linked to genocide.[25] Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ...


Some of the most violent events in recent times took place during the infamous Gujarat riots in India where it is estimated one thousand people were killed, most of whom allegedly muslim, some sources claim there were approximately 2000 Muslim deaths and 58 Hindu deaths,[26] there were also allegations made of state involvement. [27][28] The riots were in retaliation to the Godhra Train Burning in which 50 Hindus belonging to group called the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, returning from the disputed site of the Babri Mosque, were burnt alive in a train fire at the Godhra railway station. The incident was allegedly a planned act carried out by extremely radicalized Ghanchi Muslims in the region against the Hindu Pilgrims according to Gujarat police.[29] The commission appointed to investigate this finding declared that the fire was an accident. In 2006 the High Court decided the constitution of such a committee was illegal as another inquiry headed by Justice Nanavati Shah was still investigating the matter.[5]. The Nanavati Shah commission is yet to conclude its inquiry and recently declared that it is not going to give an interim report in the meantime.[30] The Gujarat riots that took place in retaliation for the incident swiftly took the state out of control, with the killing of Muslims by angry mobs of Hindus, and corresponding counter-attacks on Hindus by Muslims. Several Hindu Nationalist groups have been accused of direct involvement in the anti-Muslim riots. The skyline of Ahmedabad filled with smoke as buildings and shops are set on fire by rioting mobs. ... The Godhra Train Burning Incident occurred in the town Godhra in the Indian state of Gujarat at 0630 hrs on 27 February 2002. ... The Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP; World Hindu Council in Hindi), is a Hindu nationalist organisation in Bharat, an offshoot of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. ... A view of the Babri Mosque, pre-1992. ...


Muslim-Hindu conflicts have also been fomented due to the mushrooming of Islamic Fundamentalist organisations like SIMI (Students Islamic Movement of India) whose goal is to establish Islamic rule in India. Other Pakistan based groups such as the Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed have been fomenting bias in the local Muslim populace against Hindus. These groups are believed by many to be responsible for the 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings, in which nearly 200 people were killed. Such groups also attacked the Indian Parliament in 2001, declared parts of Indian Kashmir to be Pakistani in 1999 and have orchestrated numerous other attacks including constant attacks in Indian Kashmir and bombings in the Indian capital New Delhi. In the meantime, the toll of innocent Muslims and Hindus at the altar of communal strife continues to mount. [6] The phrase Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the West to describe Islamist groups. ... The Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) was formed in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh state, in April 1977. ... Lashkar-e-Toiba (Urdu: لشكرِ طيبه laškar-ĕ ṯaiyyiba, literally The Army of Pure, also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba or Lashkar-i-Toiba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorist organizations in South Asia. ... Jaish-e-Mohammed (Arabic:جيش محمد, literally The Army of Muhammad, transliterated as Jaish-e-Muhammed, Jaish-e-Mohammad or Jaish-e-Muhammad, often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic militant organization in South Asia. ... Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... India map showing Delhi The 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings occurred on October 29, 2005 in the Indian city of Delhi, killing 59 people and injuring at least 200 others [1] in three explosions. ... India map showing Delhi The 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings occurred on October 29, 2005 in the Indian city of Delhi, killing 59 people and injuring at least 200 others [1] in three explosions. ...


Muslims in modern India

A Muslim couple being wed in India, as a Hindu man takes his ritual bath in the river.
A Muslim couple being wed in India, as a Hindu man takes his ritual bath in the river.

Muslims in India are 13.4% of total population. Like all minorities, Muslims have played roles in various fields of the country's advancement. Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... List of notable Muslims of independent India // [edit] Sports Badminton Syed Modi Field hockey Mohammed Shahid Zafar Iqbal ( hockey player) Mohammed Riaz Aslam Sher Khan Saba Anjum Karim Basket ball Gulam Abbas Moontasir Tennis Sania Mirza Zeeshan Ali Asif Ismail Akhtar Ali Table tennis Mir Khasim Ali Volleyball Abdul Basith... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Prominent Indian Muslims include:

  • Khwaja Abdul Hamied, who in 1935 founded one of the first Indian-owned industries in the colonial era, CIPLA (The Chemical, Industrial & Pharmaceutical Laboratories). In 1939, when Mahatma Gandhi visited CIPLA he wrote that he was "delighted to visit this Indian enterprise". CIPLA today is a pharmaceutical company with a global presence, it's products being sold in over 150 countries worldwide. Yusuf Hamied, the founder's eldest son, is the current Chairman.
  • There have been three Muslim presidents of India, Dr. Zakir Hussain, Dr Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed and Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.
  • Salim Ali (November 12, 1896 - July 27, 1987) is one of India's best known ornithologists and naturalists. Known as the "Birdman of India", Salim Ali was among the first Indians to conduct systematic bird surveys in India and his books have contributed enormously to understanding and protecting India's birds and also other wildlife.
  • Azim Premji is the founder of and the highest stake holder in Wipro, one of the leading software service providing companies in India. In 2005, Yusuf Hameed of CIPLA and Azim Premji received one of India's highest civilian awards, the Padma Bhushan for his contributions to the country.
  • [Dr Sabu Aliyar] (Demographer) is one of India's noted young Demographer and Health Researcher. Dr Aliyar is among the 3 Asians,selected for the Canada-HOPE scholarship for conduting Healthy Ageing research in Canada and India through Canadian Institute of Health Research, a prestigious Canadian Government Institute at Ottawa, Canada. Dr Sabu Aliyar,born in Vembayam, near the Capital City of Kerala State.

Muslims are also playing pivotal roles in the advertising industry, film industry (Bollywood), modern art, academics, theatre and sports. Some large industries like Wipro Ltd., Wockhardt, Himalaya health care, Hamdard Laboratories and Mirza Tanners are owned by Muslims. Dr. K.A. Hamied was a Science Graduate from the Allahabad University and a M.A., Ph. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Yusuf Khwaja Hamied is chairman of Cipla, a company founded by his father K. A. Hamied. ... Dr Zakir Husain (February 8, 1897 - May 3, 1969) was the third President of India from May 13, 1967 until his death. ... Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (May 13, 1905 - February 11, 1977) was President of India of 1974 to 1977. ... Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (born October 15, 1931, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India), usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is the President of India. ... Dr. Sálim Ali (full name Dr. Sálim Moizuddin Abdul Ali), November 12, 1896 - July 27, 1987 was the pre-eminent ornithologist of India. ... Premji (born July 24, 1945) is the Chairman & CEO of Wipro Technologies, which today is one of the largest software companies in India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wipro Technologies. ... The Padma Bhushan is an Indian civilian decoration established on January 2, 1954 by the President of India. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wipro Technologies. ... Hamdard (Wakf) Laboratories is a famous pharmaceutical company in India known for its Unani and Ayurvedic products. ...


Muslims are disproportionally represented in Indian politics. For details on parliamentary representation see Muslims in Parliament of India. Muslims in India are 13. ...


Discrimination

Despite being a sizeable minority, many Muslims in India say they are discriminated against, there are various reasons given for this, lack of modern education in the community, the fact that many of the Muslims were descended from or are perceived to have descended from low caste Hindus, as well as the partition of India along religious lines which was a controversial arrangement, and is still the cause of much tension between Hindus and Muslims. [31].


Sachar commission report=

According to a recently published report to government, called the Sachar Report, Muslims are heavily under-represented in different government and social areas.[32][33][34] Among other facts, it found that in the province of West Bengal, where Muslims make up 27% of the population, their employment in the government sector was below 3%.[31]

The Sachar report has received substantial backlash, including allegations of bias in the media coverage concerning the report. Indian media expert[35] Dasu Krishnamoorti has criticized the media coverage of the report. He criticizes the claims made in the media, that the fault of the plight of the Muslim lays squarely on the Hindus and the Congress Party, as politically motivated in favor of the Muslim community and encourages "emotional segregation (between Muslims and Hindus) that hardly helps Muslims share the Indian miracle".[36]The report stands criticized for misrepresenting data and figures, bias and "misrepresenting inequities".[37] Leaders of the Bharatiya Janata Party have also criticized the Sacher report as "distorted, politically motivated and dangerous", also pointing out that proposals of special reservation given to Muslims would harm the country, and criticized the UPA Government's endorsement of the report as a snub to their previous efforts to help the Muslim community.[38][39] BJP leader Murli Manohar Joshi said that the tone and texture of the Sachar Committee "has a striking similarity to the Muslim League of pre-independence era. Unfortunately, the government is irrationally following a policy of blind populism which threatens to divide the nation."[38] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... Murli Manohar Joshi was the Union Human Resources Development minister of India in the NDA government. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ...


Muslim employment in government sectors (according to the Sachar Report)[40]

Area Muslim %
Total 4.9
PSUs 7.2
IAS, IFS, and IPS 3.2
Railways 4.5
Judiciary 7.8
Health 4.4
Transport 6.5
Home affairs 7.3
Education 6.5

Muslim institutes

There are several well established Muslim institutes in India. Here is a list of reputed institutes established by Muslims. Aligarh Universitys Victoria gate File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Aligarh Universitys Victoria gate File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University was established by the Indian Muslims and the Act of Indian Parliament made it University. ...

Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University was established by the Indian Muslims and the Act of Indian Parliament made it University. ... Jamia Millia Islamia (Urdu: جامعہ ملیہ اسلامیہ, Hindi: जामिया मिलिया इस्लामिया, translation: National Islamic University) is an Indian Central University located in New Delhi. ... Jamia Hamdard is a University located in New Delhi. ... Crescent Engineering College: Also called B.S.Abdur Rahman Crescent Engineering College is located in Vandalur, a suburban area of Chennai, India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Darul Uloom, (dārul ulūm devband in Hindi and Urdu) is an Islamic madrassa (seminary) famous for being the inception place of the Deobandi Islamic movement. ... // Darul-uloom of Nadwa, Nadwatul Ulama is an Islamic institution at Lucknow, which draws large number of Muslim students from all over the country. ...

Population statistics

Muslims praying by the historic Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there.
Muslims praying by the historic Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there.

Islam is India's largest minority religion, with Muslims officially constituting 16.4% of the country's population, or 174 million people as of the 2001 census. However, unofficial estimates claim a far higher figure supposedly discounted in censuses. For instance, in an interview with a well circulated newspaper of India The Hindu Justice K.M. Yusuf, a retired Judge from Calcutta High Court and Chairman of West Bengal Minority Commission, has said that the real percentage of Muslims in India is at least 20%.[7] pro Hindutva people say in their reports that the Muslim population has reached 30%.[8] [41] The largest concentrations-about 47% of all Muslims in India, according to the 2001 census--live in the 3 states of Uttar Pradesh (30.7 million) (18.5%), West Bengal (20.2 million) (25%), and Bihar (13.7 million) (16.5%). Muslims represent a majority of the local population only in Jammu and Kashmir (67% in 2001) and Lakshadweep (95%). High concentrations of Muslims are found in the eastern states of Assam (31%) and West Bengal (25%), and in the southern state of Kerala (25%) and Karnataka (12.2%). Muslims are generally more educated, urban, integrated and prosperous in the Western and Southern states of India than in the Northern and Eastern ones[citation needed]; this could be due to partition when the more affluent and educated population migrated over the border[citation needed], to Pakistan in the North and Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) in the East. India has the second largest Muslim population (after Indonesia) and also the third largest Shia Muslim population (after Iran and Pakistan) in the world.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (475x644, 66 KB) Summary Muslims praying by the Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (475x644, 66 KB) Summary Muslims praying by the Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there. ... Charminar (Nastaliq: چار مینار, Devanagari: चार मीनार, translation: Four Towers), or a mosque of the four minarets, is a monument located in the City of Hyderabad, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Mecca Masjid - Late 19th Century Mecca Masjid - Now Mecca Masjid, Hyderabad, India is one of the oldest and the biggest masjids in India. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... The Hindu is a leading English-language newspaper in South India, with its largest base of circulation in Tamil Nadu. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in north India. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


The analysis on religious data, among the six major religious communities, shows that the decadal growth of the Muslims was the highest (36.0%) in the 2001 census. This statistic suggested that while the growth rate for Hindus has fallen between 1991 and 2001 compared with 1981 and 1991, Muslims have actually grown faster in the last decade, this led Indian media[42] and different parties raising an alarm at the growing number of Muslims and expressing concern about the demographic imbalance and overpopulation, which the Indian government is desperately trying to stop democratically.[43] Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


A grave objection to this theory is the fact that the 1991 census did not include Jammu & Kashmir, the only Muslim majority state and strife-torn Assam, while the 2001 census does include Jammu & Kashmir. Adjusted for this, the Muslim growth rate plunges from 36 per cent to 29.3 per cent. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Jammu and Kashmir is a historic state in Asia which is currently disputed between India, Pakistan, and to a lesser extent, China. ...


Muslim population in Indian states according to 2001 Census.[44]

State Population Percentage
Lakshadweep 57,903 95.4707
Jammu & Kashmir 6,793,240 66.9700
Assam 8,240,611 30.9152
West Bengal 20,240,543 25.2451
Kerala 7,863,842 24.6969
Uttar Pradesh 30,740,158 18.4961
Bihar 13,722,048 16.5329
Jharkhand 3,731,308 13.8474
Karnataka 6,463,127 12.2291
Uttaranchal 1,012,141 11.9225
Delhi 1,623,520 11.7217
Maharashtra 10,270,485 10.6014
Andhra Pradesh 6,986,856 9.1679
Gujarat 4,592,854 9.0641
Manipur 190,939 8.8121
Rajasthan 4,788,227 8.4737
Andaman & Nicobar Islands 29,265 8.2170
Tripura 254,442 7.9533
Daman & Diu 12,281 7.7628
Goa 92,210 6.8422
Madhya Pradesh 3,841,449 6.3655
Pondicherry 59,358 6.0921
Haryana 1,222,916 5.7836
Tamil Nadu 3,470,647 5.5614
Meghalaya 99,169 4.2767
Chandigarh 35,548 3.9470
Dadra & Nagar Haveli 6,524 2.9589
Orissa 761,985 2.0703
Chhattisgarh 409,615 1.9661
Himachal Pradesh 119,512 1.9663
Arunachal Pradesh 20,675 1.8830
Nagaland 35,005 1.7590
Punjab 382,045 1.5684
Sikkim 7,693 1.4224
Mizoram 10,099 1.1365

Percentage distribution of population (adjusted) by religious communities : India – 1961 to 2001 Census (excluding Assam and J&K).[45]

Year Percentage
1951 10.1%
1971 10.4%
1981 11.9%
1991 12.7%
2001 14.4%

Percentage distribution (unadjusted) of population by religious communities India - 1961 to 2001 Census (without excluding Assam and J&K).[46]

Year Percentage
1961 10.7%
1971 11.2%
1981 11.4%
1991 12.1%
2001 16.4%
Table : Census information for 2001: Hindu and Muslim compared[α][β]
Composition Hindus[47] Muslims[48]
 % total of population 2001 80.46 16.4
10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01)[49][β] 20.3 36.0
Sex ratio* (avg. 933) 931 936
Literacy rate (avg. 64.8) 65.1 59.1
Work Participation Rate 40.4 31.3
Rural sex ratio[49] 944 953
Urban sex ratio[49] 894 907
Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs) 925 950

This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...

Islamic traditions in South Asia

The Qawwali is the art of Singing a Song in the Praise of Islamic Personalities.
A Huge Majority of Indian muslims Visit Dargahs of Sufi Saints for Dua.

A large number of Indian Muslims follow Sunni Barelwi (Sufi) traditions attached to the memory of great Sufi saints. Sufism is a mystical path (tarika) as distinct from the legalistic path of the sharia. A Sufi attains a direct vision of oneness with God, often on the edges of orthodox behavior, and can thus become a Pir (living saint) who may take on disciples (murids) and set up a spiritual lineage that can last for generations. Orders of Sufis became important in India during the thirteenth century following the ministry of Moinuddin Chishti (1142-1236), who settled in Ajmer, Rajasthan, and attracted large numbers of converts to Islam because of his holiness. His Chishtiyya order went on to become the most influential Sufi lineage in India, although other orders from Central Asia and Southwest Asia also reached to India and played a major role in the spread of Islam. In this way, they created a large literature in regional languages that embedded Islamic culture deeply into older South Asian traditions. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Barelwi (Hindi: बरैल्वि, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sunni Islam in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelwi). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam which encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... A Murid (Arabic: مريد meaning committed one. ... Moinuddin Chishti dargah, Ajmer, India Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti (Persian: خواجہ معین الدین چشتی ) was born in 1141 and died in 1230 CE, also known as Gharib Nawaz (Persian: غریب نواز ), is the most famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order of South Asia. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... , Ajmer   (Hindi: अजमेर ) is a city in Ajmer District in Indias Rajasthan state. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... The Chishti Order was founded by Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami (the Syrian) (d. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ...


The leadership of the Muslim community pursued various directions in the evolution of Indian Islam during the twentieth century. The most conservative wing has typically rested on the education system provided by the hundreds of religious training institutes (madrasa) throughout the country, which have tended to stress the study of the Qur'anand Islamic texts in Arabic and Persian but little else. Several national movements have emerged from this sector of the Muslim community. The Jamaati Islami (Islamic Party), founded in 1941, advocates the establishment of an overtly Islamic government. The Tablighi Jamaat (Outreach Society) became active after the 1940s as a movement, primarily among the ulema (religious leaders), stressing personal renewal, prayer, a missionary spirit, and attention to orthodoxy. It has been highly critical of the kind of activities that occur in and around Sufi shrines and remains a minor if respected force in the training of the ulema. Conversely, other ulema have upheld the legitimacy of mass religion, including exaltation of pirs and the memory of the ProphetSallallahu walaihuwa sallum]. A powerful secularising drive led by Syed Ahmad Khan resulted in the foundation of Aligarh Muslim University (1875 as the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College)-with a broader, more modern curriculum, and other major Muslim universities. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu/Arabic/Persian: جماعت اسلامي, Islamic Party) is a political party in Pakistan. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Tablighi Jamaat (Conveying[1] Group) (Arabic: تبليغ جماعة, also Tabliq) is a Muslim missionary and revival movement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817 - 1898) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur (October 17, 1817, Delhi - March 27, 1898, Aligarh), was an Indian Muslim educator, jurist, and author, who led the Aligarh Movement which resulted in the formation of the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later became Aligarh Muslim University, at... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University was established by the Indian Muslims and the Act of Indian Parliament made it University. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... MAO College MAO College (or Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College) was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the leader of Muslim renaissance in Indian subcontinent, in 1875 at Aligarh. ...


Indo Islamic art and architecture

The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa
The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa
Taj Mahal mosque or masjid
Taj Mahal mosque or masjid
The Khas Mahal.
The Khas Mahal.
Jehangiri Mahal.
The Delhi Fort, also known as the Red Fort, is one of the popular tourist destinations in Delhi.
The Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal

Indian architecture took new shape with the advent of Islamic rule in India towards the end of the 12th century AD. New elements were introduced into the Indian architecture that include: use of shapes (instead of natural forms); inscriptional art using decorative lettering or calligraphy; inlay decoration and use of coloured marble, painted plaster and brightly coloured glazed tiles. Image File history File links Jamamasjid. ... Image File history File links Jamamasjid. ... Image File history File links Charminar_Hyderabad. ... Image File history File links Charminar_Hyderabad. ... Charminar (Nastaliq: چار مینار, Devanagari: चार मीनार, translation: Four Towers), or a mosque of the four minarets, is a monument located in the City of Hyderabad, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Image File history File links TajMosque. ... Image File history File links TajMosque. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x821, 224 KB)A picture of Khas Mahal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x821, 224 KB)A picture of Khas Mahal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (977x631, 95 KB)Jehangirs Palace in Agra Fort File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (977x631, 95 KB)Jehangirs Palace in Agra Fort File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Lahore Gate of the Red Fort. ... The Lahore Gate of the Red Fort. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750...


In contrast to the indigenous Indian architecture which was of the trabeate order i.e. all spaces were spanned by means of horizontal beams, the Islamic architecture was arcuate i.e. an arch or dome was adopted as a method of bridging a space. The concept of arch or dome was not invented by the Muslims but was, in fact, borrowed and further perfected by them from the architectural styles of the post-Roman period. Muslims used a cementing agent in the form of mortar for the first time in the construction of buildings in India. They further put to use certain scientific and mechanical formulae, which were derived by experience of other civilizations, in their constructions in India. Such use of scientific principles helped not only in obtaining greater strength and stability of the construction materials but also provided greater flexibility to the architects and builders. One fact that must be stressed here is that, the Islamic elements of architecture had already passed through different experimental phases in other countries like Egypt, Iran and Iraq before these were introduced in India. Unlike most Islamic monuments in these countries, which were largely constructed in brick, plaster and rubble, the Indo-Islamic monuments were typical mortar-masonry works formed of dressed stones. It must be emphasized that the development of the Indo-Islamic architecture was greatly facilitated by the knowledge and skill possessed by the Indian craftsmen, who had mastered the art of stonework for centuries and used their experience while constructing Islamic monuments in India.


Islamic architecture in India can be divided into two parts: religious and secular. Mosques and Tombs represent the religious architecture, while palaces and forts are examples of secular Islamic architecture. Forts were essentially functional, complete with a little township within and various fortifications to engage and repel the enemy.


Mosques: The mosque or masjid is a representation of Muslim art in its simplest form. The mosque is basically an open courtyard surrounded by a pillared verandah, crowned off with a dome. A mihrab indicates the direction of the qibla for prayer. Towards the right of the mihrab stands the mimbar or pulpit from where the Imam presides over the proceedings. An elevated platform, usually a minaret from where the Faithful are summoned to attend prayers is an invariable part of a mosque. Large mosques where the faithful assemble for the Friday prayers are called the Jama Masjids.


Tombs: Although not actually religious in nature, the tomb or maqbara introduced an entirely new architectural concept. While the masjid was mainly known for its simplicity, a tomb could range from being a simple affair (Aurangazeb’s grave) to an awesome structure enveloped in grandeur (Taj Mahal). The tomb usually consists of a solitary compartment or tomb chamber known as the huzrah in whose centre is the cenotaph or zarih. This entire structure is covered with an elaborate dome. In the underground chamber lies the mortuary or the maqbara, in which the corpse is buried in a grave or qabr. Smaller tombs may have a mihrab, although larger mausoleums have a separate mosque located at a distance from the main tomb. Normally the whole tomb complex or rauza is surrounded by an enclosure. The tomb of a Muslim saint is called a dargah. Almost all Islamic monuments were subjected to free use of verses from the Holy Koran and a great amount of time was spent in carving out minute details on walls, ceilings, pillars and domes. Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ...


Islamic architecture in India can be classified into three sections: Delhi or the Imperial style (1191 to 1557AD); the Provincial style, encompassing the surrounding areas like Jaunpur and the Deccan; and the Mughal style (1526 to 1707AD).[50]


Literature

  • Elliot and Dowson: The History of India as told by its own Historians, New Delhi reprint, 1990.
  • Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, Bombay, 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973.
  • M K A Siddiqui (ed.), Marginal Muslim Communities In India, Institute of Objective Studies, New Delhi (2004) (review)
  • Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad (1957). "Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India". Studia Islamica 8: 51-69. 

The History of India as told by its own Historians is book in eight volumes by H.M. Elliot and J. Dowson. ... Studia Islamica is an Islamic studies journal focusing on the history, religion, law, literature and language of primarily south-western Asia and Mediterranean lands. ...

See also

A beary woman clad in traditional Kuppaya and Tuni The Beary (also known as Byari) (Kannada: ಬ್ಯಾರಿ) is a small, vibrant Muslim community concentrated mostly in coastal South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada) district of Karnataka state in India, having its own unique traditions, and distinct cultural identity. ... Location of Dakshina Kannada district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... South Asia has three large nation states that constituted the former British India (now India, Pakistan and Bangladesh). ... NCERT Logo The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an apex resource organisation set up by the Government of India, with headquarters at New Delhi, to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on academic matters related to school education. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... Muslims constitute 88. ... The Mappilas (historically called Moplahs in Malayalam :മാപ്പിള) are a Syrian Malabar Nasrani and Muslim community in Kerala and neighbouring states and territories of India. ... See Bombay (disambiguation) for other uses. ... Muslims in India are 13. ... Raza Academy is the most prominent Sunni organization of Indian Muslims. ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

References

  1. ^ Census of India. Govt. site with detailed data from 2001 census.
  2. ^ >Divided we celebrate
  3. ^ ISBN 81-86050-79-5 Ancient and Medieval History of India]
  4. ^ Sturrock, J.,South Canara and Madras District Manual (2 vols., Madras, 1894-1895)
  5. ^ ISBN 81-85843-05-8 Cultural Heritage of India Vol. IV
  6. ^ http://www.jaihoon.com/watan/indarbmappilacommunity.htm -Genesis and Growth of the Mappila Community]
  7. ^ -Cheraman Juma Masjid A Secular Heritage
  8. ^ Bahrain tribune World’s second oldest mosque is in India
  9. ^ -A mosque from a Hindu king
  10. ^ - Genesis and Growth of the Mappila Community
  11. ^ a b c d e f der Veer, pg 27-29
  12. ^ a b c d Eaton, Richard M. The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993.Online version last accessed on 1 May 2007
  13. ^ Durant, Will. "The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage" (page 459). 
  14. ^ Elst, Koenraad. "Was there an Islamic "Genocide" of Hindus?", Kashmir Herald, 2006-08-25. Retrieved on 2006-08-25. 
  15. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath. How the Muslims forcibly converted the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam. 
  16. ^ Caste in Indian Muslim Society
  17. ^ Aggarwal, Patrap (1978). Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar. 
  18. ^ Maddison, Angus (2006). The Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD. Oxford University Press. 
  19. ^ Biraben, Jean-Noël (2003). "The rising numbers of humankind", Populations & Societies 394.
  20. ^ Islam and the sub-continent - appraising its impact
  21. ^ The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937 Vakilno1.com
  22. ^ India, Republic of Emory School of Law
  23. ^ India's Great Divide. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ Organised riots & structured violence in India. The Hindu. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
  26. ^ India's Great Divide. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
  27. ^ India's Great Divide. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
  28. ^ Demand for CBI probe into Zaheera's u-turn.The Hindu. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
  29. ^ [2]
  30. ^ No report on Godhra: Nanavati Commission. The Hindustan Times. Retieved on April 4, 2007.
  31. ^ a b Fearful Muslims adopt Hindu IDs, The Toronto Star, August 15, 2007
  32. ^ Summarised Sachar Report on Status of Indian Muslims
  33. ^ Sachar report to be implemented in full
  34. ^ The Missing Muslim, the Sunday Express. Full coverage on Sachar Report
  35. ^ [3]
  36. ^ Media Response to Sachar Report, Dasu Krishnamoorthy
  37. '^ Sachar Report, Myth and reality,Rediff.com
  38. ^ a b BJP criticized govt on Sachar report,Rediff.com
  39. ^ BJP leader criticized Sachar report,The Hindu
  40. ^ Frontline Magazine, pay. Hindu.com. This article is based on Sachar Report.
  41. ^ [4], although the Hindutva organizations generally gain from portraying the Muslims as a demographic threat. [Anand, Dibyesh, The Violence of Security: Hindu Nationalism and the Politics of Representing 'the Muslim' as a Danger, The Round Table, Vol. 94, No. 379 (April 2005): 208]
  42. ^ The Muslim growth rate and the media
  43. ^ - The population bogey Frontline Coverstory Volume 21 - Issue 20, Sept. 25 - Oct. 08, 2004
  44. ^ Indian Census 2001 - Religion
  45. ^ Indian Census. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
  46. ^ Indian Census. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
  47. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Hindus (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  48. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  49. ^ a b c A snapshot of population size, distribution, growth and socio economic characteristics of religious communities from Census 2001 (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION pp1–9. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  50. ^ (Courtesy: Culturopedia.com)

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jadunath Sarkar (Bengali: ) was a Bengali Indian historian born on 10 December 1870 in Karchamaria, Natore (part of current day Bangladesh). ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Hindu is a leading English-language newspaper in South India, with its largest base of circulation in Tamil Nadu. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Hindu is a leading English-language newspaper in South India, with its largest base of circulation in Tamil Nadu. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Articles
  • Indian Muslims are descendants of locals, says scientific study
  • Overview of Islamism in India - by Husain Haqqani, Hudson Institute
  • Indian Muslims Inc, Their Market & Global Business Impact, Special Report by DinarStandard.com
  • The Missing Muslim, the Sunday Express. Full coverage on Sachar Report
  • Frontline Magazine, pay. Hindu.com
  • India Muslims have lowest rank, BBC
  • Why India's 150m Muslims are missing out on the country's rise, Economist
  • Muslim India struggles to escape the past, Guardian Unlimited
  • India's Great Divide, Time

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