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Encyclopedia > Islam as a political movement
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Islam

History of Islam Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Image File history File links I made this. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ...

Beliefs and practices

Oneness of God
Profession of Faith
PrayerFasting
PilgrimageCharity This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic allāhu الله) is traditionally used by Muslims as the Arabic word for Singular God (not Gods personal name, but the equivalent of the Hebrew word El as opposed to YHWH). Both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars often... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ...

Major figures

Muhammad
AliAbu Bakr
Companions of Muhammad
Household of Muhammad
Prophets of Islam This list is poorly defined, permanently incomplete, or has become unverifiable or an indiscriminate list or repository of loosely associated topics. ... This article is about the prophet. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (or Asahaaba,الصحابه; both forms are plural--the singular is Sahaabi, which is Arabic for friend, or companion) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... This is an Arabic phrase literally translated as People of the House, or family. ... This article is over 200KB in length. ...

Texts & Laws

Qur'anHadithSharia
JurisprudenceTheology
Biographies of Muhammad // Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Sharia (Arabic: ; also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... This article is not about the group of British engineering companies called Sira; see Sira (group of British companies). ...

Branches of Islam

SunniShi'aSufi
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaah. ... Shia Islam or Shi`ism (from the Arabic word شيعة, short for the historic phrase shi`at `Ali شيعة علي, meaning the advocates of Ali) is the second-largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ...

Sociopolitical aspects

ArtArchitecture
CitiesCalendar
SciencePhilosophy
Religious leaders
Women in Islam
Political IslamJihad
Liberal Islam
Muslim holidays
Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Islamic architecture is the entire range of architecture that has evolved from Islam as a social, cultural, political and religious phenomenon. ... This is a list of cities that various groups regard as holy. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar, Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ... Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Islam. ... Islamic religious leaders are persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, perform a prominent role within their community or nation. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Friday is an important day in the life of a Muslim and it is believed that any devotional acts done on this day gain a higher reward. ...

See also

Vocabulary of Islam
Index of articles on Islam The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islam and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the United States, Europe, and Australia to describe Islamist groups. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... In the terminology of some scholars working in sociology, a political religion is a political ideology with cultural and political power equivalent to those of a religion, and often having many sociological and ideological similarities with religion. ...


A common theme in the 20th century was resistance to racism, colonialism, and imperialism, in the form of the Ottoman Empire and British Empire (though the Ottoman Empire itself was an Islamic political movement). This continues today as oil imperialism continues to challenge Islamic nationalism, especially through Western support for Israel and its settlement of the Palestinian West Bank. The end of socialism as a viable alternative with the end of the Soviet Union and the Cold War has increased the appeal of Islamic revolutionary movements, especially in the context of undemocratic and corrupt regimes all across the Muslim world. Islamism grew as a reaction to these trends, and as a desire to create a government based on the tenets of Islam. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water fountain at a racially segregated streetcar terminal in the United States in 1939. ... World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial conquest or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million... The British Empire was the worlds first global power and the largest empire in history. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... Socialism is an ideology with the core belief that society should exist in which certain not-for-profit popular collectives control the means of power, and therefore the means of production. ... For the generic term for high-tension and / or indirect struggle between states, falling short of actual open hostilities, see cold war (war). ... Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ...


Groups advocating Islam as a political movement are invariably responding to complex political and historical situations, usually with deep roots in the local environment. For example, the rise of the conservative Jamaat-e-Islami party in Bangladesh would not have been possible without widespread public reaction against the corruption of the secular Awami League government in that country. But this complex local political history is completely lost in the simplistic religious reductionism of terms like "Muslim fundamentalism". Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu/Arabic/Persian: جماعت اسلامي, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) was an Islamic political movement founded in India by Syed Abul Ala Maududi in 1941. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ...


In fact, the scope of Islamic politics is so broad that it encompasses any kind of revolutionary movement or party in any Islamic country. Invariably, this means that it lumps together such a variety of nationalist, Marxist and ethnic movements that it has no longer has any real ideological content. The only defining characteristic it has is that it is nationalism in a Muslim context; but this ultimately explains very little. // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each...


Liberal movements within Islam generally define themselves in opposition to Islamic political movements, but often embrace many of its anti-imperialist elements. Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ...


Modern Islamic philosophy, Islamism, Militant Islam and Islamic terrorism deal with related topics. There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ... Militant Islam is a contentious term, often used by Western political commentators to describe the ideologies of groups viewed as participating in Islamic terrorism. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ...

Contents


The term 'Islamist'

Islamist or Islamic parties exist in almost every democracy with a Muslim majority. This term has many different meanings which this article will explore, along with links to other political trends. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... An Islamic party are those political parties that promote Islam as a political movement by running for elections in a democracy - of which there are several in the Islamic world. ...


The pejorative term Islamofacism is used mostly by non-Muslims to describe the political and religious philosophies of some militant Islamic groups. These terms lump together a large variety of groups with varying histories and contexts. The articles on militant Islamic groups, Islamic parties and modern Islamic philosophy explain some of their actual views in detail. The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area that examines the parallels and intersections between what are purported to be various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... An Islamic party are those political parties that promote Islam as a political movement by running for elections in a democracy - of which there are several in the Islamic world. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ...


The political character of Islam

Islam is a religion which has existed for over fourteen centuries in many different countries. As such, diverse political movements in many different contexts have used the banner of Islam to lend legitimacy to their causes. Not surprisingly, practically every aspect of Islamic politics is subject to much disagreement and contention between conservative Islamists and liberal movements within Islam. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ...


Muhammad, the Medinan state and Islamic political ideals

Islamists claim that the origins of Islam as a political movement are to be found in the life and times of Islam's prophet, Muhammad. In 622 CE, in recognition of his claims to prophethood, Muhammad was invited to rule the city of Medina. At the time the local Arab tribes of Aus and Kazraj dominated the city, and were in constant conflict. Medinans saw in Muhammad an impartial outsider who could resolve the conflict. Muhammad and his followers thus moved to Medina, where Muhammad drafted the Medina Charter. This document made Muhammad the ruler, and recognized him as the Prophet of Allah. During his rule, Muhammad instituted the laws of the Qur'an, considered by Muslims to be divine revelation. Medina thus became a state based on Islamic law, which is still a basic demand of most Islamic movements. Muhammad gained a widespread following and an army, and his rule expanded first to the city of Mecca and then spread through the Arabian peninsula through a combination of diplomacy and military conquest. On the extreme end of the political spectrum, militant Islamic groups consider Muhammad's own military policies against the pagan tribes of Arabia to legitimize jihad against non-Muslims. This article is about the prophet. ... Events Hegira - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - starting year of the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is geographically the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... This article is about the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the prophet. ... The word is the Arabic term for God. In other languages, it is often used to refer specifically to the Islamic concept of God: see Usage below. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a peninsula made up of a soury sweet penis concoction at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Militant Islam is a contentious term, often used by Western political commentators to describe the ideologies of groups viewed as participating in Islamic terrorism. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ...


However, the applicability of Muhammad's rule in Medina as a model for a modern state is questioned by Muslim liberals. They claim that the laws of the Qur'an were revealed to meet the needs of Muhammad's community, and are not necessarily applicable outside it. Regarding jihad, liberals point to the work of historians such as Montgomery Watt, which shows that Muhammad's military conquest had its origins in the pre-Islamic, bedouin Arab practice of ghazw (usually translated as "tribal raiding"; covering armed attacks for conquest, plunder or the capture of slaves). Liberals use such historical arguments to claim that Muhammad's religious warfare was dictated by his Arab tribal context, and is not necessarily applicable to modern societies. William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic , a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzī. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against either...


The early Caliphate and Islamic political ideals

After Muhammad's death, his community needed to appoint a new leader (giving rise to the title Caliph, meaning "successor"). Thus the subsequent Islamic empires were known as Caliphates. Alongside the growth of the Umayyad empire, the major political development within Islam in this period was the sectarian split between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims; this had its roots in a dispute over the succession of the Caliphate. The Shi'ites favoured a succession model based on the inheritance of Muhammad's authority by his family. However, the Sunni sect emerged as triumphant in most of the Muslim world, and thus most modern Islamic political movements (with the exception of Iran) are founded in Sunni thought. This article is about the prophet. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Muhammad's closest companions, the four "rightly guided" Caliphs who succeeded him, continued to expand the state to encompass Jerusalem, Ctesiphon, and Damascus, and sending armies as far as the Sindh [1]. The Islamic empire stretched from Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) to Persia under the reign of the Ummayad dynasty. The conquering Arab armies took the system of Shariah laws and courts to their new military camps and cities, and built mosques for Friday jam'at (community prayers) as well as [Madrasah]]s to educate local Muslim youth. These institutions resulted in the development of a class of ulema (classical Islamic scholars) who could serve as qadis (Shariah-court judges), imams of mosques and madrasah teachers. These classical scholars and jurists all owed their livelihood to the expansionary Islamic empire. Not surprisingly, these ulema gave legal and religious sanction to militarist interpretations of jihad. The political terminology of the Islamic state was all the product of this period. Thus, medieval legal terms such as khalifa, shar'iah, fiqh, maddhab, jizya, and dhimmi all remain part of modern Islamist rhetoric. Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis and various other groups. ... ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... // Mosque; Aswan, Egypt. ... The Ulema are Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies, responsible for interpreting the Sharia. ... In the Islamic world, Qadi Arabic قاضى is a judge. In countries where Sharia, the traditional law interpreted from the Quran or the Hadith, is the law, qadi refers to a judge according to the Sharia. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Khalifa (خليفة ) is Arabic for stewardship of nature and family, and is a key obligation of a Muslim. ... Sharia (Arabic: also SharÄ«ah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law also known as Allahs Law. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslim adult males. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Islamic religion. ...


Since the scholarly and legal traditions of the ulema were well-established by the time of of the Abbasids, the later Middle Eastern empires and kingdoms (including the Ayyubid, Seljuk, Fatimid, Mamluk and Mongol) had little impact on modern Islamist political ideals. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes, Mamlukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


The modern political ideal of the Islamic state

In addition to the legitimacy given by medieval scholarly opinion, nostalgia for the days of successful Islamic empire simmered under later Western colonialism. This nostalgia played a major role in the Islamist political ideal of Islamic state, which primarily means a state which enforces traditional Islamic laws. The Islamist political program is generally to be accomplished by re-shaping the governments of existing Muslim nation-states; but the means of doing this varies greatly across movements and circumstances. Many Islamist movements, such as the Jamaat-e-Islami in Bangladesh, have found that they can use the democratic process to their advantage, and so focus on votes and coalition-building with other political parties. Other more radical movements such as Jamatul Mujahideen Bangladesh embrace militant Islamic ideology, and may even resort to Islamist terrorism. Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu/Arabic/Persian: جماعت اسلامي, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) was an Islamic political movement founded in India by Syed Abul Ala Maududi in 1941. ... Jamatul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) is an Islamist terrorist organization in Bangladesh which was one of two Islamist groups banned by the government in 2005. ... Militant Islam is a contentious term, often used by Western political commentators to describe the ideologies of groups viewed as participating in Islamic terrorism. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


In the face of the tremendous poverty, corruption and disillusionment with conventional politics, the political ideal of the Islamic state has been criticized by liberal movements within Islam as being utopian and not offering real solutions. Ziauddin Sardar wrote in 1994 that "In recent times, a number of Muslim countries declared themselves to be Islamic states and ostensibly established the shariah. But what is actually put into practice is a small number of classical juristic rulings concerning punishments, status of women and other spectacular aspects of classical jurisprudence. Thus, great show is made of 'Islamic punishments' or hudud laws, and floggings and amputations are advertised. These are in fact 'outer limit' laws to be carried out only under extreme conditions and after certain basic requirements of social justice, distribution of wealth, responsibilities of the state towards its citizens, mercy and compassion are fulfilled. What we thus get is an austere state operating on the basis of obscurantist and extremist law, behaving totally contrary to the teachings of the Qur'an and spirit of Islam, yet justifying its oppressions in the name of Islam! The self-declared Islamic states are thus nothing more than cynical instruments to justify the rule of a particular class, family, or the military." As an example, he notes that "traditional Muslim thought has been very unkind and oppressive to women. While religious scholars constantly recite the list of women's rights in Islam, they have been systematically undermining these very rights for centuries... For example, the Qur'anic advice about modesty in behaviour.. has been interpreted exclusively in terms of the behaviour of women. 'Modest' and 'decent' behaviour for women in public has been interpreted as a rigid dress code despite the...deliberate vagueness which [is] meant to allow all the time-bound changes that are necessary for social and moral growth of a society. In a total perversion of the Qur'anic advice, dressing modestly has thus been interpreted to mean dressing like a nun, covered from head to foot, showing only a woman's face (in some circles only the eyes), wrists and feet. An injunction meant to liberate from the oppressions of 'beauty' and 'fashion' ends as an instrument of oppression." Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Utopian, in its most common and general positive meaning, refers to the human efforts to create a better, or perhaps perfect society. ... Professor Ziauddin Sardar (1951 - ), who has lived in Saudi Arabia (1975-1980) and is now based in London, is a prominent writer regarding the future of Islam and science and technology. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... sexual abuse is the practice of imposing something unpleasant on a wrongdoer as a response to something unwanted that the wrongdoer has done. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated Hadud, Hudood; plural for Hadh, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... Social Justice is a concept that has fascinated philosophers ever since Plato rebuked the young Sophist, Thrasymachus, for asserting that justice was whatever the strongest decided it would be. ... Wealth is an abundance of items of economic value, or the state of controlling or possessing such items, and encompasses money, real estate and personal property. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Clothing has various sociological functions, including: conspicuous consumption stating or claiming identity establishing, maintaining and defying sociological group norms Thus wearing specific types of clothing or the manner of wearing clothing can convey messages about class, income, belief and attitude. ... Many see natural beauty in the folded petals of a rose. ... The term fashion applies to a characteristic means of expression or presentation, especially in clothing; fashions may follow trends, in which they gain or lose popularity. ... Oppression is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the arbitrary and cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ...


Islam as a political movement in the 20th century

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and the subsequent dissolution of the Caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (founder of Turkey), many Muslims perceived that the political power of their religion was in retreat. There was also concern that Western ideas and influence were spreading throughout Muslim societies. Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world conflict... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


There was some minor resentment of Jewish immigration and influence on the European empires, although this was not due to the Balfour Declaration as such. Feisal Hussein, the Grand Sherif's son, in 1919 "asserted the claim to independence of all Asian Arabia - the Hejaz, Nejd, Transjordan, Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia - on the grounds that geographically and racially these areas were inseparable. He raised no difficulties about the Balfour_Declaration and affirmed he was all for Jewish immigration into Palestine, although opposed to the concept of a Jewish state on the same grounds of the inseparability of Palestine from the rest of the Arab world." (Nutting, ibid). When French and colonial interests prevailed, resentment of all forces that had conspired to deny Arabs control of their own lands increased, and was exacerbated when Hitler indirectly gained control of Syria via Vichy France in 1940. The Baath Party was created in Syria and in Iraq as a movement to resist and harry the British, using some elements of Nazi, Islamic, socialist doctrines, and anti-Semitic propaganda. After the war, this party shifted to the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. Stalin had by then become an opponent of Zionism, having like the Arabs initially found it compatible, and then rejected it as bourgeois, racist, and colonial. The name Balfour Declaration is applied to two key British government policy statements associated with Conservative statesman Arthur Balfour. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; Arabic: al-Ḥiǧāz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Map of the territory of Transjordan The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour on behalf of the British government, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Presidential flag of Vichy France Vichy France, or the Vichy regime was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II. Now known in French as the Régime de Vichy or Vichy, during its existence it referred to itself as L... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ...


After the Second World War


Any Arab tendency to anti-semitism was drastically magnified after World War II when Israel was created, at literally the crossroads of all traditional Arab lands. The fact that the Jews had not fought for the land, but the Arabs had, and that the promise made to Arabs had been broken, while that to Jews had been kept, was often ascribed to racism. A religious focus for rhetoric became more common, and more mullahs became involved in politics. The Palestinian Diaspora stressed social structures in Arab states, which expelled many Jews. Zionism was identified as the opponent, and some argued a coherent Islamism was required as a response. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water fountain at a racially segregated streetcar terminal in the United States in 1939. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ...


However, Islam was still not the dominant trend in resisting colonialism or even Zionism. During the 1960s, the predominant ideology within the Arab world was pan-Arabism which deemphasized religion and emphasized the creation of socialist, secular states based on Arab nationalism rather than Islam. However, governments based on Arab nationalism have found themselves facing economic stagnation and disorder. Increasingly, the borders of these states were seen as artificial colonial creations - which they were, having literally been drawn on a map over tea by people who lived in London. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ...


Modern debates

Once the common opposition to colonialism, corruption and racism was established as a focus, debates on political Islam became generally focused on three core questions through the 1970s: World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water fountain at a racially segregated streetcar terminal in the United States in 1939. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...

  • status of women and integration of priorities of feminism into a renewed fiqh
  • Islamic economics and the role of debt in oppression and stagnation of Muslim states
  • Zionism and the capacity of Muslims for self-governance, control of oil revenues, etc.

United Nations cooperation was pivotal in this view - as was cooperation with secular forces and allies. The agenda of secular and Islamist movements during this period was all but indistinguishable. However, some rural movements were finding progress made here to be symbolic and unsatisfactory. In 1979 the political situation drastically changed, with Egypt making peace with Israel, the Iranian Revolution, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan - all three events had wide-ranging effects on how Islam was perceived as a political phenomenon. Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women, especially in terms of their social, political, and economic situation. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Debt is that which is owed. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... Main article: League of Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


To understand this, consider the variety of attitudes Muslims with a fervent belief in Islam as a universal solution to political problems, took to the events of the 1980s and the 1990s: Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, the last decade of the 20th Century. ...


Perception of persecution

Some Muslims place the blame for all flaws in Muslim societies on the influx of "foreign" ideas including debt-based capitalism, communism, and even feminism; a return to the principles of Islam is seen as the natural cure. This is however interpreted in very many ways: socialism and Marxism as a guide to adapting Islam to the modern world was in decline by the 1980s as the USSR invaded Afghanistan and polarized attitudes against Communism and other secular variants of socialism. Capitalism was often discredited by plain corruption. In common usage, the word capitalism means an economic system in which the means of production are primarily privately owned and operated for profit, with private investment of capital, and where production, distribution, and the prices of goods, services, and labor are affected by the forces of supply and demand... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women, especially in terms of their social, political, and economic situation. ... Socialism is an ideology with the core belief that society should exist in which certain not-for-profit popular collectives control the means of power, and therefore the means of production. ... Marxism is the social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... In common usage, the word capitalism means an economic system in which the means of production are primarily privately owned and operated for profit, with private investment of capital, and where production, distribution, and the prices of goods, services, and labor are affected by the forces of supply and demand...


One persistent theme that both proponents and opponents of Islam as a political movement note is that Muslims are actively persecuted by the West and other foreigners. This view is of course not distinguishable from a critique of imperialism including oil imperialism, since many Muslim nations are sitting on relatively vast oil reserves. Colonialism is often identified as the force which is 'against Islam', and seems to neatly encompass British Empire experiences as well as those of modern times - the long Ottoman domination being more or less forgotten. Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial conquest or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... The British Empire was the worlds first global power and the largest empire in history. ...


Reactive Islam

It was largely through reactive measures that the movement that is labelled Islamist came to be visible to the West, where it was labelled as being a distinct movement from Islam, pan-Arabism and resistance to colonization. The legitimacy of this kind of distinction is very much in doubt. Olivier Roy, a top advisor to French President Jacques Chirac, holds that the primary motive of all of this activity is resistance to colonialism and control of the Islamic World by outsiders. In this view, the movement called Islamist is wholly reactive and incidental, just a convenient rationale used to justify what is in fact resistance of a cultural and economic sort. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... As of 2000, Dr. Olivier Roy was Research Director in the Humanities & Social Sciences sector of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris. ... ▶ (help· info), (born November 29, 1932 in Paris) is a French politician who is currently President of the French Republic. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


However, there are many overt similarities. Those militants who follow a version of shariah based on the classical fiqh ("jurisprudence") as interpreted by local ulema ("jurists"), were the most prominent of several competing trends in modern Islamic philosophy in the 1970s and 1980s. It was at this time that they became visible - and a concern - to the West, as they challenged the modernist dictators that the West had generally put trust in. Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Jurisprudence is the scientific study of law through a philosophical lens. ... The Ulema are Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies, responsible for interpreting the Sharia. ... JURIST is an online legal news and research service hosted by the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, edited by Professor Bernard Hibbitts and a staff of more than 20 law students. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...


See militant Islam for a detailed review of some modern movements that are often labelled Islamist by their opponents. This article is only about the reactive definition of the West, leading to the label. Trends which led to this are summarized by Ziauddin Sardar as follows: Militant Islam is a contentious term, often used by Western political commentators to describe the ideologies of groups viewed as participating in Islamic terrorism. ... Professor Ziauddin Sardar (1951 - ), who has lived in Saudi Arabia (1975-1980) and is now based in London, is a prominent writer regarding the future of Islam and science and technology. ...


"1. The excesses of modernist leaders who have maintained their power in Muslim societies largely by coercive means and have ruthlessly persecuted the traditional leadership, including imprisonment, torture and execution of religious leaders and thinkers." Many of whom sought to refine and spread a more modern Islamic philosophy and an associated modern polity including most norms respected in democracy. There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ...


"2. The spectacular failure of the economic and development policies of the modernist leaders which have led to the accumulation of wealth in fewer and fewer hands." Usually in direct defiance of traditional Islamic economics and obligations such as zakat and khalifa. Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... Khalifa (خليفة ) is Arabic for stewardship of nature and family, and is a key obligation of a Muslim. ...


"3. The continuous abuse and ridicule since the 1950s of traditional thought, lifestyle and everything associated with it." This is often symbolized by the modern dress of secular folk which is viewed as scandalous by traditionals. // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ...


"4. The policies of Western powers to deliberately undermine Islamic oppositions in Muslim countries, demonize Islamic leaders, prop up oppressive, westernised regimes, and reduce Muslim states to economic paupers and debt-ridden societies." Which is very similar to accusations made against globalization in general by anti-globalization movement and advocates of creditary economics (which includes Islamic economics). Globalization is the term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that result from dramatically increased international trade and cultural exchange. ... Anti-WEF grafiti in Lausanne. ... Creditary economics is a broad and inclusive term for all theories of economics and political economy that drastically de-emphasize or deny altogether a role for debt and assumptions of fixed yield for such financial capital instruments. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ...


Cold War exploitation

But such cross-cultural exchanges, polite activism and moderate views were very often suppressed by the funders of more militant strains who sought to exploit them against the Soviet Union. The United States, for instance, in the 1980s supplied university-authored textbooks to the mujahedeen of Afghanistan that encouraged militant attitudes and even taught arithmetic using examples involving hand grenades and "dead infidels". The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) in common usage is a branch of (or the forerunner of) mathematics which records elementary properties of certain operations on numerals, though professional mathematicians often treat arithmetic as a synonym for number theory. ... An infidel Is an unbeliever with respect to a particular religion, especially Christianity or Islam. ...


There was also pressure against secular socialism in the Islamic World, and especially in Iraq, Syria and Iran, until the Iranian Revolution of 1979 proved it could well be counter-productive and lead to a backlash that put regimes in place that would be hostile to the Western, secular, world. Socialism is an ideology with the core belief that society should exist in which certain not-for-profit popular collectives control the means of power, and therefore the means of production. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...


Role in terrorism

Some militant Islamist forces have been implicated in terrorism and have become targets in a series of military initiatives justified by the US rhetoric of "War on Terrorism", which has been adopted by Russia, Israel and other countries. This has led Muslims and the opponents of these initiatives (in the peace movement) to characterize it sometimes as actually a War on Islam. The exact definition of terrorism is highly controversial. ... The War on Terrorism or War on Terror (in U.S. foreign policy circles, the global war on terrorism or GWOT ) is a campaign by the United States government and some of its allies with the stated goal of ending worldwide terrorism by stopping terrorist groups and ending state sponsorship... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of all believers in Islam, who are known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


As part of this war, they claim, literally every political interpretation of Islam, from classical fiqh to Marxist to such moderate views as those of Dr. Shakir, are all being classified as part of one "enemy" movement. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, the subject-object problem arises out of the metaphysics of Hegel. ...


Movements described as 'Islamist'

See main article at Islamism.

The following are considered by most Western governments to be Islamist movements. Some of them have formal ties, some have suspected ties, and some deny ties: Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ...

What these groups have in common tends to be opposition to the United States and Israel. They vary widely in terms of the form of Islamic Law they prefer: Hamas for instance is close to secular in tone, the Taliban nearly medieval. Some include Saudi Arabia's dominant ideology, Wahhabism, on this list, but, interestingly, not the nominally Islamic governments of Pakistan or Turkey. This appears to be largely motivated by geopolitics, and a purely Western idea of "who we can work with, and who not." Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Osama bin Laden in a photo from the 1990s Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957; Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden, or Usama bin Laden, (Arabic: ), is the founder of the militant organization al-Qaeda. ... For other uses of this term, see Taliban (disambiguation) Flag flown by the Taliban. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ... Al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya (Arabic for the Islamic Group; also transliterated Gamaat Islamiya, Jamaat al Islamiya, etc. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... Composite satellite image of South Asia Map of South Asia. ... Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu/Arabic/Persian: جماعت اسلامي, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) was an Islamic political movement founded in India by Syed Abul Ala Maududi in 1941. ... Jammu and Kashmir is the northern-most state of the Republic of India, with Srinagar as its summer capital and Jammu as its winter capital. ... Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: آزاد کشمیر), is part of the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, along with the Northern Areas. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... For other uses of this term, see Taliban (disambiguation) Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Wahhabism (Arabic الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism) is a fundamentalist Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ...


Another profound bias of such classifications is that it is quite rare to include nominally Christian or Jewish or Buddhist guerillas in any analysis of those faiths' views of politics, but quite common if it is Islam under discussion—and likely being criticized.


Globalization

Along with many other cultural phenomena, Islamic political thought has undergone its own globalization as adherents of many different strains have come together. Even in such strictly controlled, secretive groups as Al-Qaida, there were believing Muslims of drastically varying backgrounds coming together, some of whom accepted the tactics and priorities of the group, and some not. While violent fanatics deployed by cynical leaders (who often act more like gangsters than political leaders) make highly visible attacks on Western interests and even on 'homelands', this is thought by many to be no more than backlash for an entire 20th century full of cynical attempts by German, British, and American Empires to deploy Islamic idealists as a mere tactic. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


When Russia joined the Council of the Islamic Conference in 2003, it emphasized that it had a long history of successful co-existence with Muslims, and a large integrated population of Muslims (few of which are in any sense Islamist). President Vladimir Putin, despite a long and bloody confrontation with rebels in Chechnya, offered to act as a bridge or neutral broker in dealings between Muslims and NATO, the EU and USA. This was a quite different rhetoric, a more pragmatic one likely reflecting the reality that the ex-Soviet republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan had substantial Islamic political movements - similar to those in Turkey and Pakistan, relatively modern in tone and willing to participate in the US War on Terrorism to some degree, although not as direct combatants. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин, ▶ (help· info), Pútin; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician, and the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 78th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th - est. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4... The War on Terrorism or War on Terror (in U.S. foreign policy circles, the global war on terrorism or GWOT ) is a campaign by the United States government and some of its allies with the stated goal of ending worldwide terrorism by stopping terrorist groups and ending state sponsorship...


Some analysts believe that the old Cold War battlelines have been redrawn, with Russia choosing new allies - those with a record of success in forcing US withdrawals from strategic territories (Beirut, Somalia and - depending on interpretation - Afghanistan and Iraq) with Muslim populations. In this view, the old Marxist alliance against colonialism is the dominant rhetoric. Central Beirut (2004) Beirut (Arabic: , transliterated Bayrūt - the French name, Beyrouth, was also commonly used in English in the past) is the capital, largest city and chief seaport of Lebanon. ...


Others accept the Russian pledge as sincere, and believe that Islamist movements of all stripes will eventually come to accommodation with domestic secular forces, and Islam as a global anti-corruption, anti-colonialism, and anti-racism movement, less focused on Zionism and Palestine. George W. Bush for instance has noted the real need as economic development in Muslim countries, to break the cycle of poverty that tends to feed into extremist movements. In Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey and Iraq, the Bush administration has worked closely with nominally Islamic forces and ruling political parties in government. It denies intensely that it is involved in a War on Islam. However, polls of Muslim nations indicate these denials are not trusted. Any accommodation will not be quick in coming. For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... In economics and sociology, the cycle of poverty, or poverty cycle is a social phenomena whereby poverty-stricken individuals exhibit a tendency to remain poor throughout their lifespan and in many cases across generations. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of all believers in Islam, who are known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


The Internet is also playing a role in the globalization of Islam as a political movement - in Iran in particular, Shia clerics respond to many thousands of requests for fatwa, or rulings on religious matters, by email. A younger generation of Shia clerics in Iran and Iraq are actively involved in politics, and seeking to restate the principles of the Islamic revolution of 1979, perhaps more in line with the modern debates that took place in the 1970s, prior to the interjection of the prolonged West Bank occupation, American provocateurs and funding for extremists (including Osama bin Laden) in Afghanistan in the 1980s, Collapse of the Soviet Union, and other distractions that have tended to reinforce only the more extreme movements. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... Osama bin Laden in a photo from the 1990s Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957; Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden, or Usama bin Laden, (Arabic: ), is the founder of the militant organization al-Qaeda. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


See article on anti-globalization movement. Anti-WEF grafiti in Lausanne. ...


See also

Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements which claim to represent and seek to advance the interests of particular groups in society, the members of which often share and unite around common experiences of actual or perceived social injustice. ... Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ... The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area that examines the parallels and intersections between what are purported to be various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ...

Sources

The following sources generally prescribe to the theory that there is a distinct 20th century movement called Islamism that exists independently of Jewish/Christian observers and motivations:

  • "Children of Abraham: An Introduction to Islam for Jews" Khalid Duran with Abdelwahab Hechiche, The American Jewish Committee and Ktav, 2001
  • "The Islamism Debate" Martin Kramer, 1997, which includes the chapter The Mismeasure of Political Islam
  • "Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook" Charles Kurzman, Oxford University Press, 1998
  • "The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam and the New World Disorder" Bassam Tibi, Univ. of California Press, 1998

However, the following sources very strongly challenge that assertion: 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Martin Kramer (born 1954, Washington, DC) is the Wexler-Fromer Fellow at The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...

  • Edward Said, Orientalism
  • Merryl Wyn Davies, Beyond Frontiers: Islam and Contemporary Needs
  • G. H. Jansen, Militant Islam, 1980
  • Hamid Enyat, Modern Islamic Political Thought

These authors in general locate the issues of Islamic political intolerance and fanaticism not in Islam, but in the generally low level of awareness of Islam's own mechanisms for dealing with these, among modern believers, in part a result of Islam being suppressed prior to modern times. Edward Wadie Said (November 1, 1935 – September 24, 2003; Arabic: ) was a well-known American literary theorist, critic, and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Orientalism (1978; 25th-anniversary edition 2003 ISBN 0671502484) is a 328-page study by Edward Said of a mostly British and French tradition, cultural apparatus, or style of thought based on the Orient/Occident distinction. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...



The next articles focus on the timely issue of democracy in the Middle East, the role of Islamist political parties, and the war on terrorism.

October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Evaluating the Islamist movement - written by Greg Noakes, an American Muslim who works at the Washington Report
  • Muslim scholars face down fanaticism - written by Aicha Lemsine, an Algerian journalist and author.

Opposing viewpoints

  • International Coalition Against Political Islam
  • No to Political Islam

  Results from FactBites:
 
Islam as a political movement - encyclopedia article about Islam as a political movement. (6690 words)
Fundamentalist Islamic political movements tend to be called Islamist; such political movements adopt traditional views of Islamic law by ascribing to one of the four madhabs of fiqh that originated in Arabia, during the late medieval era.
Islam as a political force in that war was not unified, as the Ottoman Turks were resented oppressors of Arab populations.
A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam.
Encyclopedia: Islam as a political movement (2242 words)
The Hajj or Haj (Arabic:) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam.
As scholars of this movement have carefully outlined, in a very great variety of works up to and through the 1970s, there is little tactically in common in the various movements that seek to apply Islam as a solution, or use its terms to rationalize their solutions, to issues in the modern Islamic World.
Given the variety of the movements, and their varying goals, it is almost always advisable when referring to a specific political movement, to avoid generalizations and refer to it by its name.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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