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Encyclopedia > Islam and children

This article discusses childrens' rights given by Islam, children's duties towards their parents, parents' treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Foster care is a system by which adults care for minor children who are not able to live with their biological parents. ...

Islam
Mosque
Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs

AllahOneness of God
MuhammadSeal of Prophets
Prophets of IslamResurrection Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Tawīd (also Tawheed,Tauheed and other spellings; Arabic: ‎ ; Turkish: Tevhid) is the Islamic concept of monotheism In Islam, Tawhīd means to assert the unity of God. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Allah. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Seal of the Prophets (Khatam-an-Nabiyyin) is a title given to Muhammad by a verse in the Quran 33:40. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...

Practices

Profession of FaithPrayer
FastingCharityPilgrimage Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ... The shahadah (Arabic:  ) is the Islamic creed. ... For the Indian village, see Salat, Kulpahar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ...

History & Leaders

Muslim history
Ahl al-BaytSahaba
Rashidun CaliphsShia Imams
There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first purported visions in the 7th century. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( translit: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four caliphs that ruled after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws

Qur'anSunnahHadith
FiqhShariaKalamTasawwuf // Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Rule of sharia be merged into this article or section. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches

SunniShia
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Culture & Society

AcademicsArtPhilosophy
ScienceArchitectureMosques
Demographics • Women • Children
CalendarFestivalsPolitics Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a part of the Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Islam. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ... Most commentary on gender and politics in the Middle East and Muslim world assigns a central place to Islam, but there is little agreement about the analytic weight Islam carries on the topic of women in Islam, accounting for the subordination of women or the role it plays in relation... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to... Friday is an important day in the life of a Muslim and it is believed that any devotional acts done on this day gain a higher reward. ... - - - Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ...

See also

Criticism of Islam • Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms
Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Disability... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

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Contents

Rights of Children

  • Children have the right to be fed, clothed, and protected until they reach adulthood.[1]
  • Children have the right to enjoy love and affection from their parents.[1]
  • Children have the right to be treated equally, vis-a-vis their siblings in terms of financial gifts. A tradition reports:

    "It is narrated by Abu Bakr, who said that Allah's Apostle (Muhammad), was approached by one of his companions, Al-N'uman bin Basheer, who said: "O Prophet of Allah! I have granted a slave to one of my children (asking him to testify to that gift)." But Allah's Apostle asked him: "Did you grant the same to each and every child of yours?" When Allah's Apostle, was informed negatively about that, he said: "Fear Allah, the Almighty, and be fair and just to all your children. Seek the testimony of another person, other than me. I will not testify to an act of injustice."[citation needed] Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...

  • Children have the right to education.[1][2][3] A saying attributed to Muhammad relates:

    "A father gives his child nothing better than a good education."[4] For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...

  • Parents are recommended to provide adequately for children in inheritance.[5]
  • Umar summed up some of the rights of children in the following anecdote:

One day a man came to Umar Ibn AlKhattab to complain of disobedient son. So Umar had brought the boy to him and he blamed him for his disobedience. Then the boy addressed Umar by saying "O Commander of the faithful : Are there no rights for boy against his father?". Umar said "yes". Then the boy said "What are these rights O Commander of the Faithful?" Umar said, "To choose a good mother for him, to select good name to him and to teach him the Quran" Then the boy said :"O Commander of the faithful; my father has not accomplished any of these rights. As for my mother, she was a black slave for a Magian; As for my name, he has named me jual - A beetle; and he has not taught me even one letter from the Quran". Then Umar turned round to the man and said "you came to me complaining disobedience on the part of your son, whereas you have not given him his rights. So you have made mistakes against him before he has made mistakes against you".[6] For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...

Rights of Parents

With regard to Islam, some of the prerogative of parents with respect to children, and countervailing rights of children are:

  • The first and foremost right of the parents is to be obeyed and respected by their children.[7][8]

The Prophet said thrice, "Should I inform you out the greatest of the great sins?" They said, "Yes, O Allah's Apostle!" He said, "To join others in worship with Allah and to be undutiful to one's parents." The Prophet then sat up after he had been reclining (on a pillow) and said, "And I warn you against giving a false witness", and he kept on saying that warning till we thought he would not stop. (See Hadith No. 7, Vol. 8)[9]

  • The mother has the right to receive the best treatment than accorded to any other person, in addition the mother has the right of custody of the child in general circumstances.[10][11]

A man came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Who is more entitled to be treated with the best companionship by me?" The Prophet said, "Your mother." The man said. "Who is next?" The Prophet said, "Your mother." The man further said, "Who is next?" The Prophet said, "Your mother." The man asked for the fourth time, "Who is next?" The Prophet said, "Your father. "[12][13]

  • Parents have the right to spank those of their children above the age of ten years who neglect in performing Islamic prayers.[14]
  • Regarding those who would beat children a fatwa of the Mufti Kafaayatullah provides as follows:

    ‘Excluding the face and sensitive parts of the body, it is allowed to beat a child for the purposes of discipline so long as the limits are not transgressed. i.e. to beat the child in a manner that a wound is inflicted, or a bone fractured or broken, or a bruise appears or an internal disorder results (to the heart or brains, etc.). If the limits are transgressed as described above in any way, even by a single stroke, such a person will be regarded as sinful’[15]

  • Parents have the right to rebuke their children to protect them from physical or moral harm.[16]
  • Parents have the right to be looked after by their children, and to receive physical or financial help as necessary, especially in their old age.[17]

Muhammad and Children

Muhammad established laws and examples (sunnah) in respect of which it is obligatory for the Muslim community to follow. His behavior towards children was demonstrably kind. Instances of Muhammad professing affection for children are recorded in hadith(s): For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

I went along with Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) at a time during the day but he did not talk to me and I did not talk to him until he reached the market of Banu Qaynuqa. He came back to the tent of Fatimah and said, “Is the little chap (meaning Al-Hasan) there?” We were under the impression that his mother had detained him in order to bathe him and dress him and garland him with sweet garland. Not much time had passed that he (Al-Hasan) came running until both of them embraced each other, thereupon Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “O Allah, I love him; love him and love one who loves him.” (Sahih Muslim) The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ‎) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ...

Abu Hurairah reported: The Prophet (Muhammad) kissed his grandson Al-Hasan bin `Ali in the presence of Al-Aqra` bin Habis. Thereupon he remarked: "I have ten children and I have never kissed any one of them." Messenger of Allah (Muhammad) looked at him and said, "He who does not show mercy to others will not be shown mercy". (Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim). For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Sahih Bukhari is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers). ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ...

Another tradition relates his emphasis on treating children with respect and understanding:

Narrated `A’ishah: The Prophet took a child in his lap … and then the child urinated on him, so he asked for water and poured it over the place of the urine. (Bukhari) .... Embarrassed, the father sprang forward. “What have you done, you silly boy” he shouted. His arm shoved forward to grab the child away from the Muhammad, his red face showing his anger. Fear and confusion showed in the face of the child. Muhammad restrained the man, and gently hugged the child to him. “Don’t worry,” he told the over-zealous father. “This is not a big issue. My clothes can be washed. But be careful with how you treat the child” he continued. “What can restore his self-esteem after you have dealt with him in public like this?”".[18] For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...

Another tradition speaks of his shortening prayers on occasion out of consideration for mothers:

He said, “(It happens that) I start the prayer intending to prolong it, but on hearing the cries of a child, I shorten the prayer because I know that the cries of the child will incite its mother’s passions.” (Bukhari)

Muhammad forbade the killing of women and children, even in the battlefield: For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...

Narrated Ibn 'Umar: During some of the Ghazawat of Allah's Apostle, a woman was found killed, so Allah's Apostle forbade the killing of women and children. Sahih Bukhari 4:52:258 Ghazw or Ghazah (plural ghazawāt) (Arabic: غزو) is an Arabic term initially referring to the battles in which the Muslim prophet Muhammad personally participated. ... Sahih Bukhari is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers). ...

Marriage

Age of Marriage

No age limits have been fixed by Islam for marriage according to Levy,[19] and "quite young children may be legally married." The girl may not live with the husband however until she is fit for marital sexual relations.[20] The Hanafi madhhab of Islamic fiqh maintains that a wife must not be taken to her husband's house until she reaches the condition of fitness for sexual relations. Levy adds: Hanafi (Arabic حنفي): (its followers are sometimes known in English as Hanafites or Hanifites)-- (cf Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite for the other schools of thought)--.is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

"In case of a dispute on the matter between the husband and the bride's wali (her nearest male kinsman and her guardian), the judge (qadi) is to be informed and he is to appoint two matrons to examine the girl and report on her physical preparedness for marriage. If they decide she is too young, she must return to her father's house until she is judged fit. Betrothal may take place at any age. Actual marriage is later, but the age for it varies in different lands."[21] Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ...

In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh refers to a person who has reached maturity, puberty or adulthood and has full responsibility under Islamic law. Legal theorists assign different ages and criteria for reaching this state for both males and females.[22] In marriage baligh is related to the Arabic legal expression, hatta tutiqa'l-rijal, which means that the a wedding may not take place until the girl is physically fit to engage in sexual intercourse. In comparison, baligh or balaghat concerns the reaching of sexual maturity which becomes manifest by the menses. The age related to these two concepts can, but need not necessarily, coincide. Only after a separate condition called rushd, or intellectual maturity to handle one's own property, is reached can a girl receive her bridewealth.[23] This article is about law in society. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Sexual maturity is the stage at which an organism can reproduce. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ...


Shia View

The Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mosavi Khomeini, who represents Shi'a Islam, has defined the following limits and consequences for adult sexual activity with children relevant to Islam: Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...

"A man can marry a girl younger than nine years of age, even if the girl is still a baby being breastfed. A man, however is prohibited from having intercourse with a girl younger than nine, while other sexual acts such as foreplay, rubbing, and kissing are allowed. A man having intercourse with a girl younger than nine years of age has not committed a crime, but only an infraction, if the girl is not permanently damaged. If the girl, however, is permanently damaged, the man must provide for her all her life. But this girl will not count as one of the man's four permanent wives. He also is not permitted to marry the girl's sister."[24][25][26]

Forced Marriages

All Sunni schools of thought agree that forced marriges are strictly forbidden in Islam, as Islamic Marriages are contracts between two consenting parties referred to as mithaq.[27] It has been quoted from Muhammad: For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...

"The widow and the divorced woman shall not be married until their order is obtained, and the virgin shall not be married until her consent is obtained."

In addition, Muhammad gave women the power to annul their marriages if it was found that they had been married against their consent. For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...

"When a man gives his daughter in marriage and she dislikes it, the marriage shall be annulled." Once a virgin girl came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said that her father had married her to a man against her wishes. The Prophet gave her the right to repudiate the marriage.[27]

In Islam, marriage is essentially a contract. However, the distinction between sacred and secular was never explicit in Islam. Any action or transaction in Islam has religious implications. It is not quite accurate, therefore, to designate marriage in Islam simply as a secular contract.


For a valid marriage, the following conditions must be satisfied, this is in accordance with all schools of thought[28]

  • There must be a clear proposal.[28]
  • There must be a clear acceptance.[27][28]
  • There must be at least two competent witnesses. This is necessary to exclude illicit sex and to safeguard legitimacy of progeny. It is recommended that marriage should be widely publicized. [28]
  • There must be a marriage gift, little or more, by the bridegroom to the bride. [28]

Maliki school of thought gives the right of Ijbar to the guardian. Ijbar is defined as the annullment of marriage due to objection by male guardian.[29] According to Imam Malik, children due to thier immaturity may choose an unsuitable partner for themselves, hence, the power of Ijbar has been given to the guardian so that he may overrule the child to marry someone he thinks is unsuitable for her. This is the legal right given to the guardian for girls by Maliki school of thought.[30] In addition, Islam requires that parents be followed in almost every circumstances, hence parents may ask thier children to divorce a certain person, but this cannot be upheld in an Islamic court of law and is not a legal right of the parent.[31]


Orphans and Adoptees

By a verse in the Qur'an, Muhammad instructed adoptive parents to refer to their adoptive children by the names of their biological parents, if known: Alternative uses: see orphan (typesetting), and orphan process in computing. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent (or parents) other than the birth parents. ...

... Nor has He made your adopted sons your (biological) sons. Such is (only) your (manner of) speech by your mouths. But Allah tells (you) the Truth, and He shows the (right) Way. Call them by (the names of) their fathers; that is juster in the sight of Allah. But if you know not their father's (names, call them) your brothers in faith, or your trustees. But there is no blame on you if you make a mistake therein. (What counts is) the intention of your hearts. And Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful. (Qur'an 33:4-5)

The guardian/child relationship under Islamic law regarding is slightly different than the guardian/adoptee relationship under the civil law. Islamic adoption is termed kafala, originating from a word meaning "to feed." In essence, it describes more of a foster-parent relationship. Some other Islamic customs surrounding this relationship are: Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent (or parents) other than the birth parents. ...

  • An adopted child inherits from his or her biological parents, not automatically from the adoptive parents.
  • When the child is grown, members of the adoptive family are not considered blood relatives, and are therefore not muhrim to him or her. "Muhrim" refers to a specific legal relationship that regulates marriage and other aspects of life. Essentially, members of the adoptive family would be permissible as possible marriage partners, and rules of modesty exist between the grown child and adoptive family members of the opposite sex.[citation needed]
  • If the child is provided with property/wealth from the biological family, adoptive parents are commanded to take care and not intermingle that property/wealth with their own. They serve merely as trustees.

Harsh treatment of orphans is forbidden by another verse of the Qur'an:

Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter? And He found you wandering, and He gave you guidance. And He found you in need, and made you independent. Therefore, treat not the orphan with harshness, nor drive away a petitioner (unheard). But the bounty of the Lord - rehearse and proclaim.

—(Qur'an 93:6-11)

Slavery

Main article: Islam and slavery

Islam accepts certain circumstances of child enslavement. The children of the marriage of two slaves are born enslaved, as the property of the owner of the woman. If a free man marries a female slave not his own, any children they have will be enslaved from birth as the property of the woman's master.[32] The same is true same is true for the child born of a slave parent from an 'irregular union'.[33] The children of the married slave girl not born from her owner likewise will be enslaved to him/her. If a child is born of a master and his slave, the child in that case is automatically free however his/her inheritance is reduced an amount representing the sale value of his/her slave parent.[34] Bilal ibn Ribah, a freed black slave, calls the people to prayers as the first Muezzin. ...


See also

For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... The situation of human rights in Saudi Arabia is generally considered to be woeful. ... Bilal ibn Ribah, a freed black slave, calls the people to prayers as the first Muezzin. ... Slavery in the Sudan has a long history, beginning in ancient Egyptian times and continuing up to the present. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c By I. A. Arshed. Parent-Child Relationship in Islam. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  2. ^ The Rights of Children In Islam
  3. ^ "Imam Al-Ghazali’s views on children's education"
  4. ^ from Hadith collections compiled by Tirmidhi (#4977) and Baihaqi
  5. ^ ibid.
  6. ^ Ulwan, Abd-Allah Nasih (2000). Child Education in Islam. Dar Al Salam. ISBN 977-342-000-0. 
  7. ^ When asked about the major sins, Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) replied." To associate another god with Allah, to disobey the parents, to kill unlawfully and to give false testimony."
  8. ^ Parents' rights in Islam
  9. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 48, Number 822
  10. ^ Mother in Qur'an & Sunnah
  11. ^ "Who has more right to custody in Islam?"
  12. ^ Mother in Qur'an & Sunnah
  13. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 2
  14. ^ http://www.jamiat.org.za/al-jamiat/v34children.html 'Disciplining of Children - An Islamic Perspective' by Mufti Z. Bhayat, citing Abu Dawood and Durr-Manthoor
  15. ^ ibid., citing the named author.
  16. ^ ibid.
  17. ^ ibid.
  18. ^ Kassamali, Tahera. Raising Children. Tayyiba Publishers & Distr. 
  19. ^ Levy, p.106
  20. ^ Levy, p.106
  21. ^ Levy, p.107
  22. ^ John Esposito, Islam, Oxford University Press 2003
  23. ^ Masud, Islamic Legal Interpretation, Muftis and Their Fatwas, Harvard University Press, 1996
  24. ^ Ayatollah Khomeini in Tahrirolvasyleh, Fourth Edition, Darol Elm, Qom
  25. ^ http://www.homa.org/Details.asp?ContentID=2137352748
  26. ^ http://www.al-shia.com/html/ara/books/tahrir/tahrir25.htm#a4 Original(in Arabic)
  27. ^ a b c Prof. Abdur Rahman I. Doi Professor and Director, Center for Islamic Legal Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaira, Nigeria. Marriage - The Free Consent of the Parties. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  28. ^ a b c d e "Hannan, Social Laws in Islam"
  29. ^ Prof. Abdur Rahman I. Doi Professor and Director, Center for Islamic Legal Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaira, Nigeria. Marriage - Ijbar: A Safety Valve. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  30. ^ ibid
  31. ^ "Sahih Bukhari Volume 8, Book 73, Number 8"
  32. ^ p.79 Levy 1969, The Social Structure of Islam, by Reuben Levy - Professor of Persian in the University of Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
  33. ^ Levy, p.79
  34. ^ page 11 of 'Abd. Brunschvig. - Encyclopedia of Islam'

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ... Professor John Esposito John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940, Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) , is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. One of the eight Ivies, it was founded in 1636. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ...

References

  • Juynboll (1910). Handbuch des Islamischen Gesetzes. 
  • Khalil bin Ishaq. Mukhtasar tr.Guidi and Santillana (Milan, 1919). 
  • Levy, Reuben (1969). The Social Structure of Islam. UK: Cambridge Univerisity Press. 
  • Sachau (1897). Muhammedanisches Recht. 

External links

  • Islamic Relief
  • Marriage in Islam

 
 

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