FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Islam" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Islam
Muslims performing salah (prayer)
Muslims performing salah (prayer)

Part of a series on
Islam
Look up Islam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Faithful praying towards Makkah; Umayyad Mosque, Damascus. ... Faithful praying towards Makkah; Umayyad Mosque, Damascus. ... Salat redirects here. ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... In Islam, Prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and final Prophet of Allah. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

Islam (Arabic: الإسلام; al-'islām ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a seventh century Arab religious and political figure. The word Islam means "submission", or the total surrender of oneself to God (Arabic: الله, Allāh).[1] An adherent of Islam is known as a Muslim, meaning "one who submits (to God)".[2][3] There are between 1 billion to 1.8 billion Muslims, making Islam the second-largest religion in the world after Christianity.[4] Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Ar-al islam. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005 (Encyclopaedia Britannica). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad, God's final prophet, and regard the Qur'an and the Sunnah (words and deeds of Muhammad) as the fundamental sources of Islam.[5] They do not regard Muhammad as the founder of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Islamic tradition holds that Jews and Christians distorted the revelations God gave to these prophets by either altering the text, introducing a false interpretation, or both.[6] Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Seal of the Prophets (ar. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ...


Islam includes many religious practices. Adherents are generally required to observe the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five duties that unite Muslims into a community.[7] In addition to the Five Pillars, Islamic law (sharia) has developed a tradition of rulings that touch on virtually all aspects of life and society. This tradition encompasses everything from practical matters like dietary laws and banking to warfare and welfare.[8] Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ...


Almost all Muslims belong to one of two major denominations, the Sunni (85%) and Shi'a (15%). The schism developed in the late 7th century following disagreements over the religious and political leadership of the Muslim community. Islam is the predominant religion throughout the Middle East, as well as in parts of Africa and Asia. Large communities are also found in China, the Balkan Peninsula in Eastern Europe and Russia. There are also large Muslim immigrant communities in other parts of the world such as Western Europe. About 20% of Muslims live in Arab countries,[9] 30% in the Indian subcontinent and 15.6% in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country by population[10] Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...

Contents

Etymology and meaning

Main article: S-L-M

The word Islām, from the triliteral root s-l-m, is derived from the Arabic verb Aslama, which means "to accept, surrender or submit." Thus, Islam means acceptance of and submission to God, and believers must demonstrate this by worshipping him, following his commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word is given a number of meanings in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), the quality of Islam as an internal conviction is stressed: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[11] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[12] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[13] (س Ù„ Ù…) is the triconsonantal root of many Arabic words, and many of those words are used as names. ... In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic and some other Afro-Asiatic languages, a triliteral (Arabic: جذر ثلاثي, ǧaḏr thalathi) is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Deen (دين) is an Arabic word usually explained as way of life or complete code of life. It is not exclusive to Islam, as it also used by Arab Christians. ...


Articles of faith

Main articles: Aqidah and Iman

The Qur'an states that all Muslims must believe in God, his revelations, his angels, his messengers, and in the "Day of Judgment".[14] Also, there are other beliefs that differ between particular sects. The Sunni concept of predestination is called divine decree,[15] while the Shi'a version is called divine justice. Unique to the Shi'a is the doctrine of Imamah, or the political and spiritual leadership of the Imams.[16] Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Iman is an Arabic word meaning faith also a common name. ... Angels in Islam are light-based creatures, created by Allah to serve and worship him. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Qadr as an Islamic term is parallel to the western doctrines of Predestination. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Muslims believe that God revealed his final message to humanity through the Islamic prophet Muhammad via the angel Gabriel. For them, Muhammad was God's final prophet and the Qur'an is the revelations he received over more than two decades.[17] In Islam, prophets are men selected by God to be his messengers. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic prophets are considered to be the closest to perfection of all humans, and are uniquely the recipients of divine revelation—either directly from God or through angels. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[18] Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers since Adam preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. Islam is described in the Qur'an as "the primordial nature upon which God created mankind",[19] and the Qur'an states that the proper name Muslim was given by Abraham.[20] Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Nuh is a prophet in the Quran. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... // Musa (Musaceae), one of three genera in the family Musaceae that includes bananas and plantains MÅ«Å¡a, a river in Lithuania and Latvia Musa, a small village in Chhachh (Attock District) Musa Dağı a mountain peak in Turkey Abu Musa, an island in the Persian Gulf Jabal Musa, Sinai, a... Isa redirects here. ... This article is about the philosophical issues relating to a certain class of nominative words. ...


As a historical phenomenon, Islam originated in Arabia in the early 7th century.[21] Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as prophetic successor traditions to the teachings of Abraham. The Qur'an calls Jews and Christians "People of the Book" (ahl al-kitāb), and distinguishes them from polytheists. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[6] The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept in Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ...


God

Main article: God in Islam
See also: Oneness of God (Islam) and Allah

Islam's fundamental theological concept is tawhīd—the belief that there is only one god. The Arabic term for God is Allāh; most scholars believe it was derived from a contraction of the words al- (the) and ʾilāh (deity, masculine form), meaning "the god" (al-ilāh), but others trace its origin to the Aramaic Alāhā.[22] The first of the Five Pillars of Islam, tawhīd is expressed in the shahadah (testification), which declares that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is God's messenger. In traditional Islamic theology, God is beyond all comprehension; Muslims are not expected to visualize God but to worship and adore him as a protector. Although Muslims believe that Jesus was a prophet, they reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, comparing it to polytheism. In Islamic theology, Jesus was just a man and not the son of God;[23] God is described in a chapter (sura) of the Qur'an as "…God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."[24] Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Al- is not a permanent component of words, as shown here with , the Arabic for Bahrain. ... is the Arabic for deity. It is cognate to Northwest Semitic ’ēl and Akkadian ilu. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ...


Qur'an

Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
See also: Origin and development of the Qur'an
The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi
The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi

Muslims consider the Qur'an to be the literal word of God; it is the central religious text of Islam.[25] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the angel Gabriel on many occasions between 610 and his death on July 6, 632. The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph. The Qur'an in its present form is often considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants in Western academia has not yielded any differences of great significance and that historically controversy over the content of the Qur'an has never become a main point. [26] The Islamic holy books are the records believed from Muslims that were dictated by God to prophets. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim view and the later being a more skeptic view. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x1343, 225 KB) I found this picture at the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Quranfatihaazizefendi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x1343, 225 KB) I found this picture at the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Quranfatihaazizefendi. ... Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. ... Hattat Aziz Efendi (1871-1934) was an Ottoman calligrapher. ... Scripture redirects here. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (Asahaaba,الصحابه) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio...


The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[27] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[28] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[29] Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ...


The word Qur'an means "recitation". When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[30]


Angels

Main article: Angels in Islam

Belief in angels is crucial to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for Angels (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in perfect obedience.[31] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases…"[32] Angels in Islam are light-based creatures, created by Allah to serve and worship him. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Muhammad

Main article: Muhammad

Muhammad (c. 570 – July 6, 632) was an Arab religious, political, and military leader who founded the religion of Islam as a historical phenomenon. Muslims view him not as the creator of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others. In Muslim tradition, Muhammad is viewed as the last and the greatest in a series of prophets—as the man closest to perfection, the possessor of all virtues.[33] For the last 23 years of his life, beginning at age 40, Muhammad reported receiving revelations from God. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized and recorded by his companions.[34] Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...

The Masjid al-Nabawi ("Mosque of the Prophet") in Medina is the site of Muhammad's tomb.
The Masjid al-Nabawi ("Mosque of the Prophet") in Medina is the site of Muhammad's tomb.

During this time, Muhammad preached to the people of Mecca, imploring them to abandon polytheism. Although some converted to Islam, Muhammad and his followers were persecuted by the leading Meccan authorities. After 13 years of preaching, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad established his political and religious authority. Within years, two battles had been fought against Meccan forces: the Battle of Badr in 624, which was a Muslim victory, and the Battle of Uhud in 625, which ended inconclusively. Conflict with Medinan Jewish clans who opposed the Muslims led to their exile, enslavement or death, and the Jewish enclave of Khaybar was subdued. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.[35] By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless Conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 he ruled over the Arabian peninsula.[36] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 232 KB) Description : Masjid Nabawi. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 232 KB) Description : Masjid Nabawi. ... Masjid al-Nabawi or Mosque of the Prophet is the second holiest mosque in the Islamic world. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ansar is A Islamic term that literally means helper and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arival to the city after the Migration to Medina // Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy — chief [1] Sad ibn Ubadah, the chief of the Khazraj[2] Hassan ibn Thabit... Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... Arabia redirects here. ...


In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an.[37] In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Abu Abd Allah ash-Shafii (Arabic: ) ‎(767 [150 AH] - January 20, 820 [204 AH]) commonly called Imam Shafii (Arabic: إمام الشافعى) or fully, Muhammad ibn Idris ibn al ‘Abbas ibn ‘Uthman ibn Shafi’i ibn al Sa’ib ibn ‘Ubayd ibn Abd Yazid ibn Hashim ibn al Muttalib ibn ‘Abd... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


Resurrection and judgment

Main article: Qiyama

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", yawm al-Qiyāmah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of Islamic scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. It states that resurrection will be followed by the gathering of mankind, culminating in their judgment by God.[38] Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... Image:Durer Revelation Four Riders. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ...


The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, usury and dishonesty. Muslims view paradise (jannah) as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to a greater joy—acceptance by God (ridwān).[39] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[40] Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Predestination

Main articles: Predestination in Islam and Adalah

In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'…"[41] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. In Islamic theology, divine preordainment does not suggest an absence of God's indignation against evil, because any evils that do occur are thought to result in future benefits men may not be able to see. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[42] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ...


The Shi'a understanding of predestination is called "divine justice" (Adalah). This doctrine, originally developed by the Mu'tazila, stresses the importance of man's responsibility for his own actions. In contrast, the Sunni deemphasize the role of individual free will in the context of God's creation and foreknowledge of all things.[43] Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ...


Duties and practices

Five Pillars

Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
Islam's basic creed (shahadah) written on a plaque in the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
Islam's basic creed (shahadah) written on a plaque in the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
Rituals of the Hajj (pilgrimage) include walking seven times around the Kaaba in Mecca.
Rituals of the Hajj (pilgrimage) include walking seven times around the Kaaba in Mecca.

The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: اركان الدين) are five practices essential to Sunni Islam. Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the Five Pillars.[44] They are: Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... Image File history File links Arabic_Plaque,_Great_Mosque,_Xian. ... Image File history File links Arabic_Plaque,_Great_Mosque,_Xian. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques The Great Mosque of Xian (Chinese: 西安大清真寺), located near the Drum Tower (Gu Lou) on Huajue Lane of Xian, Shaanxi province, China, is one of the oldest and most renowned mosques in the country. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ...

  • The shahadah, which is the basic creed or tenet of Islam: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam (although technically the Shi'a do not consider the shahadah to be a separate pillar, just a belief). Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[45]
  • Salah, or ritual prayer, which must be performed five times a day. (However, the Shi'a are permitted to run together the noon with the afternoon prayers, and the evening with the night prayers). Each salah is done facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. In many Muslim countries, reminders called Adhan (call to prayer) are broadcast publicly from local mosques at the appropriate times. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[46]
  • Zakat, or alms-giving. This is the practice of giving based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all Muslims who can afford it. A fixed portion is spent to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. The zakat is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah). Many Shi'ites are expected to pay an additional amount in the form of a khums tax, which they consider to be a separate ritual practice.[47]
  • Sawm, or fasting during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must not eat or drink (among other things) from dawn to dusk during this month, and must be mindful of other sins. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[48]
  • The Hajj, which is the pilgrimage during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. When the pilgrim is about ten kilometers from Mecca, he must dress in Ihram clothing, which consists of two white seamless sheets. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the Black Stone, running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina. The pilgrim, or the hajji, is honored in his or her community, although Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God instead of a means to gain social standing.[49]

In addition to the khums tax, Shi'a Muslims consider three additional practices essential to the religion of Islam. The first is jihad, which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar. The second is Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf, the "Enjoining to Do Good", which calls for every Muslim to live a virtuous life and to encourage others to do the same. The third is Nahi-Anil-Munkar, the "Exhortation to Desist from Evil", which tells Muslims to refrain from vice and from evil actions and to also encourage others to do the same.[50] White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Adhan (Azaan) (أَذَان) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ... This is a sub-article of Zakat, Infaq and Mustahabb. ... Khums (خمس) is the Arabic word for One Fifth (1/5). ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ramadan (religious observances). ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... In the context of legality, able-bodied refers to an individuals physical capacity for gainful employment or military service. ... This is a sub-article of Ehram . ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ... Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (Safa and Marwah) (Arabic: الصفا AÅŸ-Åžafā ; المروة Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia between which Muslims travel back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. ... Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (Safa and Marwah) (Arabic: الصفا AÅŸ-Åžafā ; المروة Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia between which Muslims travel back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. ... Bold textStoning of the Devil or stoning of the jamarat (Arabic: ramy al-jamarāt) is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. ... Mina is a desert location situated some 5 kilometres to the east of the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ...


Law

Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh

The Sharia (literally: "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[51] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[52] This article is about negotiations. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic criminal jurisprudence and Blood money (term). ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Zakat, Infaq and Mustahabb. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fard also farida (arabic فرض obligation, duty) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... For the Islamic term for sanctuary, see Haram. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[53] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... Abu Abd Allah ash-Shafii (Arabic: ) ‎(767 [150 AH] - January 20, 820 [204 AH]) commonly called Imam Shafii (Arabic: إمام الشافعى) or fully, Muhammad ibn Idris ibn al ‘Abbas ibn ‘Uthman ibn Shafi’i ibn al Sa’ib ibn ‘Ubayd ibn Abd Yazid ibn Hashim ibn al Muttalib ibn ‘Abd...


Religion and state

Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the ulema function as both jurists and theologians. In practice, Islamic rulers frequently bypassed the Sharia courts with a parallel system of so-called "Grievance courts" over which they had sole control. As the Muslim world came into contact with Western secular ideals, Muslim societies responded in different ways. Turkey has been governed as a secular state ever since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.[54] “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...


Etiquette and diet

Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health, such as the circumcision of male offspring. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims, like Jews, are restricted in their diet, and prohibited foods include pig products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.[55] gadfglkjfdgvkleajbvgopigreogaerpo[gkaerokgkflgsgopsadfvgks;dfkgsdg;dlsfskgsdfgskgkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... As-Salāmu `Alaykum (السلام عليكم) is an Arabic language greeting used in both Muslim and Christian cultures. ... Phrases containing Allah Allah is Arabic for God and is the only god (monotheism) in the religion of Islam. ... Holy name redirects here. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... A lithographic painting depicting a muslim funeral procession in India, circa 1888 Islamic funeral or funeral rites in Islam is about specific rites followed in Islam for burying the dead. ... Salat al-Janazah (Arabic: ) is a prayer recited by Muslims at Islamic funerals after the wrapping of the body and before the procession. ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of an alcohol includes many other compounds. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ...


Jihad

Jihad means "to strive or struggle," (..in the way of God) and is considered the "sixth pillar of Islam" by a minority of Muslim authorities.[56] Jihad, in its broadest sense, is classically defined as "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation." Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the devil, and aspects of one's own self, different categories of Jihad are defined.[57] Jihad when used without any qualifier is understood in its military aspect.[58][59] Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.[60] Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.[61] For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Islamic military jurisprudence consists of the basic religious laws governing warfare and the military conduct of those who participate in it. ... The term Sixth pillar of Islam refers to an addition to the Five Pillars of Islam; the five pillars of Islam explain the basic tenets of the Sunni Islam faith, Shia Islam uses other concepts. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants in the defense or expansion of the Islamic state, the ultimate purpose of which is to universalize Islam. Jihad, the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law, may be declared against apostates, rebels, highway robbers, violent groups, unIslamic leaders or states which refuse to submit to the authority of Islam.[62][63] Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare: the external Jihad includes a struggle to make the Islamic societies conform to the Islamic norms of justice. [64] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There are two types of armed religious warfare in Islam, namely the defensive Jihad and the offensive Jihad. ... There are two types of armed religious warfare in Islam, namely the defensive Jihad and the offensive Jihad. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Under most circumstances and for most Muslims, jihad is a collective duty (fard kifaya): its performance by some individuals exempts the others. Only for those vested with authority, especially the sovereign (imam), does jihad become an individual duty. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.[63] For most Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation in 868 AD. [65] Fard (Arabic: ) also farida (Arabic: ) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mobilization (or mobilisation in British English) is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... There are two types of armed religious warfare in Islam, namely the defensive Jihad and the offensive Jihad. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Shia twelver conception of the term. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ...


History

Main articles: Muslim history and Spread of Islam

Islam's historical development resulted in major political, economic, and military effects inside and outside the Islamic world. Within a century of Muhammad's first recitations of the Qur'an, an Islamic empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. This new polity soon broke into civil war, and successor states fought each other and outside forces. However, Islam continued to spread into regions like Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. The Islamic civilization was one of the most advanced in the world during the Middle Ages, but was surpassed by Europe with the economic and military growth of the West. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Islamic dynasties such as the Ottomans and Mughals fell under the sway of European imperial powers. In the 20th century new religious and political movements and newfound wealth in the Islamic world led to both rebirth and conflict.[66] Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamization. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Rise of the caliphate (632–750)

Further information: Succession to MuhammadMuslim conquests, and Arab caliphate

Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[67] The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... The Arab Caliphate could refer to: The Umayyad Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate Category: ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Arabs are a semitic race. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ...

The territory of the Caliphate in 750
The territory of the Caliphate in 750

His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. These four are known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian and Byzantine territories.[68] Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


When Umar was assassinated in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. After fighting off opposition in the first civil war (the "First Fitna"), Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. Following this, Mu'awiyah, who was governor of Levant, seized power and began the Umayyad dynasty.[69] When `Umar was wounded by Abu Luluah and he saw that it was difficult for him to survive because of the deep wound, he formed a consultative committee and nominated for it `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan, `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr ibn al... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ...


These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the three rulers prior to Ali, and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that Ali was the only rightful successor; they became known as the Shi'a.[70] After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflict over succession broke out again in a civil war known as the "Second Fitna". Afterward, the Umayyad dynasty prevailed for seventy years, and was able to conquer the Maghrib and Al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula, former Visigothic Hispania) and the Narbonnese Gaul} in the west as well as expand Muslim territory into Sindh and the fringes of Central Asia.[71]. While the Muslim-Arab elite engaged in conquest, some devout Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life, emphasizing rather poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Devout Muslim ascetic exemplars such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Sufism.[72] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... al-Hasan al-Basri (Arabic:الحسن البصري) (Abu Said al-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Yasar al-Basri), (642 - 728 or 737), was a well-known Arab theologian and scholar of Islam who was born at Medina. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


For the Umayyad aristocracy, Islam was viewed as a religion for Arabs only;[73] the economy of the Umayyad empire was based on the assumption that a majority of non-Muslims (Dhimmis) would pay taxes to the minority of Muslim Arabs. A non-Arab who wanted to convert to Islam was supposed to first become a client of an Arab tribe. Even after conversion, these new Muslims (mawali) did not achieve social and economic equality with the Arabs. The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented mawali, poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them with the help of their propagandist and general Abu Muslim, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.[74] Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished in the "Islamic Golden Age", with its capital at the cosmopolitan city of Baghdad.[75] A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ... al-Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, (566–652) was an uncle and Sahaba of Muhammad. ... Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khurasani (Persian:أبو مسلم خراساني)(Arabic:أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني) (ca. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many...


Golden Age (750–1258)

Main article: Islamic Golden Age
Artistic depiction of the Battle of Hattin in 1187, where Jerusalem was recaptured by Saladin's Ayyubid forces
Artistic depiction of the Battle of Hattin in 1187, where Jerusalem was recaptured by Saladin's Ayyubid forces

By the late 9th century, the Abbasid caliphate began to fracture as various regions gained increasing levels of autonomy. Across North Africa, Persia, and Central Asia emirates formed as provinces broke away. The monolithic Arab empire gave way to a more religiously homogenized Muslim world where the Shia Fatimids contested even the religious authority of the caliphate. By 1055 the Seljuq Turks had eliminated the Abbasids as a military power, nevertheless they continued to respect the caliph's titular authority.[76] During this time expansion of the Muslim world continued, by both conquest and peaceful proselytism even as both Islam and Muslim trade networks were extending into sub-Saharan West Africa, Central Asia, Volga Bulgaria and the Malay archipelago.[2] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x698, 193 KB) Painting of the Battle of Hattin from an unidentified medieval manuscript. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x698, 193 KB) Painting of the Battle of Hattin from an unidentified medieval manuscript. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of originally Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... This article is about the Muslim concept. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ...


The Golden Age saw new legal, philosophical, and religious developments. The major hadith collections were compiled and the four modern Sunni Madh'habs were established. Islamic law was advanced greatly by the efforts of the early 9th century jurist al-Shafi'i; he codified a method to establish the reliability of hadith, a topic which had been a locus of dispute among Islamic scholars.[77] Philosophers Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Al-Farabi sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like the 11th century theologian Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali argued against them and ultimately prevailed.[78] Finally, Sufism and Shi'ism both underwent major changes in the 9th century. Sufism became a full-fledged movement that had moved towards mysticism and away from its ascetic roots, while Shi'ism split due to disagreements over the succession of Imams.[79] The Six major Hadith collections are the works of some individuals Islamic scholars who by their own initiative started collecting sayings that people attributed to Muhammad approximately 200 years after his death. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


The spread of the Islamic dominion induced hostility among medieval ecclesiastical Christian authors who saw Islam as an adversary in the light of the large numbers of new Muslim converts. This opposition resulted in polemical treatises which depicted Islam as the religion of the antichrist and of Muslims as libidinous and subhuman.[80] In the medieval period, a few Arab philosophers like the poet Al-Ma'arri adopted a critical approach to Islam, and the Jewish philosopher Maimonides contrasted Islamic views of morality to Jewish views that he himself elaborated.[81] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Abu al-Ala Ahmed ibn Abd Allah ibn Sullaiman al-Tanookhy al-Maarri (Arabic: أبو العلاء أحمد بن عبد الله بن سليمان التنوخي المعري. December 26, 973 - May 10 or May 21, 1057) was a blind Arab[1] philosopher poet and writer. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


Starting in the 9th century, Muslim conquests in the West began to be reversed. The Reconquista was launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia, and Muslim Italian possessions were lost to the Normans. From the 11th century onwards alliances of European Christian kingdoms mobilized to launch a series of wars known as the Crusades, bringing the Muslim world into conflict with Christendom. Initially successful in their goal of taking the Holy land, and establishing the Crusader states, Crusader gains in the Holy Land were later reversed by subsequent Muslim generals such as Saladin; who recaptured Jerusalem during the Second Crusade.[82] In the east the Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbassid dynasty at the Battle of Baghdad in 1258, as they overran in Muslim lands in a series of invasions. Meanwhile in Egypt, the slave-soldier Mamluks took control in an uprising in 1250[83] and in alliance with the Golden Horde were able to halt the Mongol armies at the Battle of Ain Jalut. Mongol rule extended across the breadth of almost all Muslim lands in Asia and Islam was temporarily replaced by Buddhism as the official religion of the land. Over the next century the Mongol Khanates converted to Islam and this religious and cultural absorption ushered in a new age of Mongol-Islamic synthesis that shaped the further spread of Islam in central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... Norman conquests in red. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land. ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Ottomans and Islamic empires in India (1258–1918)

The Seljuk Turks conquered Abbassid lands and adopted Islam and become the de facto rulers of the caliphate. They captured Anatolia by defeating the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, thereby precipitating the call for Crusades. They however fell apart rapidly in the second half of the 12th century giving rise to various semi-autonomous Turkic dynasties. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Ottoman empire (named after Osman I) emerged from among these "Ghazi emirates" and established itself after a string of conquests that included the Balkans, parts of Greece, and western Anatolia. In 1453 under Mehmed II the Ottomans laid siege to Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium. The Byzantine fortress succumbed shortly thereafter, having been overwhelmed by superior Ottoman troops and to a lesser extent, cannonry.[84] This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Balkan redirects here. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ...


Beginning in the 13th century, Sufism underwent a transformation, largely as a result of the efforts of al-Ghazzali to legitimize and reorganize the movement. He developed the model of the Sufi order—a community of spiritual teachers and students.[85] Also of importance to Sufism was the creation of the Masnavi, a collection of mystical poetry by the 13th century Persian poet Rumi. The Masnavi had a profound influence on the development of Sufi religious thought; to many Sufis it is second in importance only to the Qur'an.[86] Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi (Persian: مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Rumi redirects here. ...

The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, that was built under Mughal
The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, that was built under Mughal[87]

In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia and established Shi'a Islam as an official religion there, and despite periodic setbacks, the Safavids remained powerful for two centuries. Meanwhile, Mamluk Egypt fell to the Ottomans in 1517, who then launched a European campaign which reached as far as the gates of Vienna in 1529.[88] After the invasion of Persia, and sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, Delhi became the most important cultural centre of the Muslim east. [89] Many Islamic dynasties ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent starting from the 12th century. The prominent ones include the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal empire (1526–1857). These empires helped in the spread of Islam in South Asia, but by the mid-18th century the British empire had ended the Mughal dynasty.[90] In the 18th century the Wahhabi movement took hold in Saudi Arabia. Founded by the preacher Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Wahhabism is a fundamentalist ideology that condemns practices like Sufism and the veneration of saints as un-Islamic.[91] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... St. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b. ...


By the 17th and 18th centuries, despite attempts at modernization, the Ottoman empire had begun to feel threatened by European economic and military advantages. In the 19th century, the rise of nationalism resulted in Greece declaring and winning independence in 1829, with several Balkan states following suit after the Ottomans suffered defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The Ottoman era came to a close at the end of World War I.[92] With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ... Combatants  Russian Empire Romania Serbia Bulgaria Montenegro  Ottoman Empire Commanders Mikhail Skobelev Mikhail Loris-Melikov Ivan Lazarev Carol I of Romania Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Russia preparing to release the Balkan dogs of war, while Britain warns him to take care. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


In the 19th century, the Salafi, Deobandi and Barelwi movements were initiated. This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Barelvi (Hindi: बरेलवी, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sufism in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelvi). ...


Modern times (1918–present)

After World War I losses, the remnants of the empire were parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. Since then most Muslim societies have become independent nations, and new issues such as oil wealth and relations with the State of Israel have assumed prominence.[93] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ...


The 20th century saw the creation of many new Islamic "revivalist" movements. Groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan advocate a totalistic and theocratic alternative to secular political ideologies. Sometimes called Islamist, they see Western cultural values as a threat, and promote Islam as a comprehensive solution to every public and private question of importance. In countries like Iran and Afghanistan (under the Taliban), revolutionary movements replaced secular regimes with Islamist states, while transnational groups like Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda engage in terrorism to further their goals. In contrast, Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".[94] The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... Jamaat-e-Islami (Arabic: جماعتِ اسلامی, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) is an Islamic political movement founded in Lahore by Syed Abul Ala Maududi on 26 August 1941. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about secularism. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المتقدمة or Progressive Islam). These generally denote religious outlooks which depend mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Modern critique of Islam includes accusations that Islam is intolerant of criticism and that Islamic law is too hard on apostates. Critics like Ibn Warraq question the morality of the Qu'ran, saying that its contents justify the mistreatment of women and encourage antisemitic remarks by Muslim theologians.[95] Such claims are disputed by Muslim writers like Fazlur Rahman,[96] Syed Ameer Ali,[97] Ahmed Deedat,[98] and Yusuf Estes.[99] Others like Daniel Pipes and Martin Kramer focus more on criticizing the spread of Islamic fundamentalism, a danger they feel has been ignored.[100] Montgomery Watt and Norman Daniel dismiss many of the criticisms as the product of old myths and polemics.[101] The rise of Islamophobia, according to Carl Ernst, had contributed to the negative views about Islam and Muslims in the West.[102] (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ... Fazlur Rahman Malik (Urdu: فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988) was a well-known scholar of Islam; M. Yahya Birt of the Association of Islam Researchers described him as probably the most learned of the major Muslim thinkers in the second-half of the twentieth century, in terms of both... Syed Ameer Ali was an Indian Muslim religious scholar and teacher at the Aligarh Muslim University, who is credited for his contributions to education of Indian Muslims, as well as development of political philosophy for Muslims. ... Sheikh Ahmed Hussein Deedat (July 1, 1918 - August 8, 2005) was a Muslim scholar of Comparative religion, an author, lecturer, and an orator. ... Shaikh Yusuf Estes Yusuf Estes, PhD. (born 1944), is an American convert to Islam and Chairman of the Muslim Foundation International, which is an Islamic Promotional and Missionary Organization dedicated to spreading the message of al-Islam according to the Quran, Sunnah. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Martin Kramer (b. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Carl W. Ernst is a scholar of Islamic studies. ...


Community

Main article: Muslim world
Muslim percentage of population by country
Muslim percentage of population by country

Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Demographics

See also: Islam by country and Demographics of Islam

Commonly cited estimates of the Muslim population in 2007 range from 1 billion to 1.8 billion. Approximately 85% are Sunni and 15% are Shi'a, with a small minority belonging to other sects. Some 30–40 countries are Muslim-majority, and Arabs account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide. South Asia and Southeast Asia contain the most populous Muslim countries, with Indonesia, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh having more than 100 million adherents each.[103] According to U.S. government figures, in 2006 there were 20 million Muslims in China.[104] In the Middle East, the non-Arab countries of Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.[103] Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries.[105] Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Mosques

Main article: Mosque
Eid prayers on the holiday of Eid al-Fitr at the Badshahi Mosque, Pakistan. The days of Eid are important occasions on the Islamic calendar.

A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`). Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[106] The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (584 × 870 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (584 × 870 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Places of worship are buildings or other locations where religious persons may worship their deity, regularly or not. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Canterbury Mosque, New Zealand; June 2006. Built over 1984-85 it was the world's southern-most mosque until 1999.
Canterbury Mosque, New Zealand; June 2006. Built over 1984-85 it was the world's southern-most mosque until 1999.

Family life

See also: Women and Islam

The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. The father is seen as financially responsible for his family, and is obliged to cater for their well-being. The division of inheritance is specified in the Qur'an, which states that most of it is to pass to the immediate family, while a portion is set aside for the payment of debts and the making of bequests. The woman's share of inheritance is generally half of that of a man with the same rights of succession.[107] Marriage in Islam is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.[108] The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Islam, marriage is a legal and social bond and contract between a man and a woman as prompted by the Sharia. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ...


A man may marry up to four wives if he believes he can treat them equally, while a woman may marry one man only. In most Muslim countries, the process of divorce in Islam is known as talaq, which the husband initiates by pronouncing the word "divorce".[109] Scholars disagree whether Islamic holy texts justify traditional Islamic practices such as veiling and seclusion (purdah). Starting in the 20th century, Muslim social reformers argued against these and other practices such as polygamy, with varying success. At the same time, many Muslim women have attempted to reconcile tradition with modernity by combining an active life with outward modesty. Certain Islamist groups like the Taliban have sought to continue traditional law as applied to women.[110] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Higab” redirects here. ... Ladies of Caubul (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in zenana areas. ... This is a sub-article to Polygyny and Islamic marital jurisprudence In Islam, polygamy is allowed and practised under certain restricted conditions. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ...


Calendar

Main article: Islamic calendar

The formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen to be the Hijra in 622 CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. The assignment of this year as the year 1 AH (Anno Hegirae) in the Islamic calendar was reportedly made by Caliph Umar. It is a lunar calendar, with nineteen ordinary years of 354 days and eleven leap years of 355 days in a thirty-year cycle. Islamic dates cannot be converted to CE/AD dates simply by adding 622 years: allowance must also be made for the fact that each Hijri century corresponds to only 97 years in the Christian calendar.[111] The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... For other uses, see Hijra. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ...


The year 1428 AH coincides almost completely with 2007 CE.


Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the pilgrimage to Mecca.[112] For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... Different Seasons (1982) is a novella collection by Stephen King containing the following stories: Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption (subtitled: Hope Springs Eternal) Apt Pupil (subtitled: Summer of Corruption) The Body (subtitled: Fall From Innocence) The Breathing Method (subtitled: A Winters Tale) Three movies, The Shawshank Redemption (based on... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) marks the end of Ramadan. ... Shawwal is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) is second in the series of Eid festivals that Muslims celebrate. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ...


Other religions

A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in both Islam and Judaism that has been a source of controversy
A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in both Islam and Judaism that has been a source of controversy
The Al-Aqsa Mosque congregation building. Muslims believe that Muhammad ascended to heaven on this site.
The Al-Aqsa Mosque congregation building. Muslims believe that Muhammad ascended to heaven on this site.

According to Islamic doctrine, Islam was the primordial religion of mankind, professed by Adam.[113] At some point, a religious split occurred, and God began sending prophets to bring his revelations to the people.[114] In this view, Abraham, Moses, Hebrew prophets, and Jesus were all Prophets in Islam, but their message and the texts of the Torah and the Gospels were corrupted by Jews and Christians. Similarly, children of non-Muslim families are born Muslims, but are converted to another faith by their parents.[115] The idea of Islamic supremacy is encapsulated in the formula "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it."[116] Pursuant to this principle, Muslim women may not marry non-Muslim men, defamation of Islam is prohibited, and the testimony of a non-Muslim is inadmissible against a Muslim.[117] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... The Temple Mount A reconstruction of Herods Temple in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Islamic law divides non-Muslims into several categories, depending on their relation with the Islamic state. Christians and Jews who live under Islamic rule are known as dhimmis ("protected peoples"). According to this pact, the personal safety and security of property of the dhimmis were guaranteed in return for paying tribute (jizya) to the Islamic state and acknowledging Muslim supremacy. Historically, dhimmis enjoyed a measure of communal autonomy under their own religious leaders, but were subject to legal, social and religious restrictions meant to highlight their inferiority.[118] The status was extended to Zoroastrians and sometimes to polytheists (such as Hindus), but not to atheists or agnostics.[119] Those who live in non-Muslim lands (dar al-harb) are known as harbis, and upon entering into an alliance with the Muslim state become known as ahl al-ahd. Those who receive a guarantee of safety while residing temporarily in Muslim lands are known as ahl al-amān. Their legal position is similar to that of the dhimmi except that they are not required to pay the jizya. The people of armistice (ahl al-hudna) are those who live outside of Muslim territory and agree to refrain from attacking the Muslims.[120][121] Apostasy is prohibited, and is punishable by death.[122][123] A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... Dar al-Harb (Arabic: house of war) is a term used in many Islamic countries to refer to those areas outside Muslim rule. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ...


The Alevi, Yazidi, Druze, Ahmadiyya, Bábí, Bahá'í, Berghouata and Ha-Mim movements either emerged out of Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam. Some consider themselves separate while others still sects of Islam though controversial in certain beliefs with mainstream Muslims. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late fifteenth century Punjab, incorporates aspects of both Islam and Hinduism.[124] Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler Kurdish: ) are a religious, sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey numbering in the millions. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (Arabic: الجماعة الأحمدية; transliterated: ) is one of two communities arising from the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (1835-1908). ... The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... Ha-Mim, after the beginning of a Quranic surah, or chapter, is the short form of the name Ha-Mim ibn Mann-Allah ibn Harir ibn Umar ibn Rahfu ibn Azerwal ibn Majkasa, also known as Abu Muhammad; he was a member of the Majkasa sub-tribe of the Ghomara... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore in present-day Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Denominations

Main article: Divisions of Islam

Islam consists of a number of religious denominations that are essentially similar in belief but which have significant theological and legal differences. The primary division is between the Sunni and the Shi'a, with Sufism generally considered to be a mystical inflection of Islam rather than a distinct school. According to most sources, approximately 85% of the world's Muslims are Sunni and approximately 15% are Shi'a, with a small minority who are members of other Islamic sects.[125] The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...


Sunni

Main article: Sunni
Divisions of Islam
Divisions of Islam

Sunni Muslims are the largest group in Islam. In Arabic, as-Sunnah literally means "principle" or "path". The Sunnah (the example of Muhammad's life) as recorded in the Qur'an and the hadith is the main pillar of Sunni doctrine. Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him, those leaders had to be elected. Sunnis recognize four major legal traditions, or madhhabs: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali. All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim might choose any one that he or she finds agreeable, but other Islamic sects are believed to have departed from the majority by introducing innovations (bidah). There are also several orthodox theological or philosophical traditions within Sunnism. For example, the recent Salafi movement sees itself as restorationist and claims to derive its teachings from the original sources of Islam.[126] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (544x843, 53 KB) Summary -- Ben Aveling Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Divisions of Islam Talk:Divisions of Islam ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (544x843, 53 KB) Summary -- Ben Aveling Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Divisions of Islam Talk:Divisions of Islam ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... In the Arabic language, Bidah means innovation. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ...


Shi'a

Main article: Shi'a
See also: Succession to Muhammad

The Shi'a, who constitute the second-largest branch of Islam, believe in the political and religious leadership of infallible Imams from the progeny of Ali ibn Abi Talib. They believe that he, as the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, was his rightful successor, and they call him the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs. To them, an Imam rules by right of divine appointment and holds "absolute spiritual authority" among Muslims, having final say in matters of doctrine and revelation.[127][128] Although the Shi'a share many core practices with the Sunni, the two branches disagree over the proper importance and validity of specific collections of hadith. The Shi'a follow a legal tradition called Ja'fari jurisprudence.[129] Shi'a Islam has several branches, the largest of which is the Twelvers (iṯnāʿašariyya), while the others are the Ismaili, the Seveners, and the Zaidiyyah.[130] Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... Infallibility is the ability to be free from error (obtain certainty). ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Seveners are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a madhhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally, Fivers by Sunnis). ...


Sufism

Main article: Sufism

Not strictly a denomination, Sufism is a mystical-ascetic form of Islam. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[131] Sufism and Islamic law are usually considered to be complementary, although Sufism has been criticized by some Muslims for being an unjustified religious innovation. Most Sufi orders, or tariqas, can be classified as either Sunni or Shi'a.[132] Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... In the Arabic language, Bidah means innovation. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Others

The Kharijites are a sect that dates back to the early days of Islam. The only surviving branch of the Kharijites is Ibadism. Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers. The Imamate is an important topic in Ibadi legal literature, which stipulates that the leader should be chosen solely on the basis of his knowledge and piety, and is to be deposed if he acts unjustly. Most Ibadi Muslims live in Oman.[133] Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

Islam Portal
Further information: List of Islamic and Muslim-related topics

Image File history File links Portal. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam and modernity is about the relation and compatibility between the phenomenon of modernity, its related concepts and ideas, and the religion of Islam. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamization (also spelt Islamisation, see spelling differences) or Islamification means the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or a neologism meaning an increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... Islām (Arabic الإسلام, submission (to God)) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This page is a list of Muslims in various professions and fields. ... The following is a list of notable converts to Islam. ... This is a list of notable people who have been Muslims sometime during their lives but no longer are. ... Islam in the world. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Animal welfare in Islam refer to the rights on how animals should be treated by fellow human beings in accordance to the Islamic teachings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
  2. ^ a b L. Gardet; J. Jomier "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  3. ^ Lane's lexicon. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
  4. ^ Major Religions of the World—Ranked by Number of Adherents (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
  5. ^ See:
  6. ^ a b See:
    • Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it.
    • Esposito (1998), pp.6,12
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.9
    • F. Buhl; A. T. Welch "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • Hava Lazarus-Yafeh "Tahrif". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  7. ^ Esposito (2002b), p.17
  8. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.111,112,118
    • "Shari'ah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  9. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), p.21
    • Esposito (2004), pp.2,43
  10. ^ See these figures
  11. ^ Qur'an 6:125, Qur'an 61:7, Qur'an 39:22
  12. ^ Qur'an 5:3, Qur'an 3:19, Qur'an 3:83
  13. ^ See:
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  14. ^ Qur'an 2:4, Qur'an 2:285, Qur'an 4:136
  15. ^ Sahih Muslim 1:1
  16. ^ See:
    • Farah (2003), p.109
    • Momen (1987), p.176
  17. ^ Esposito (2004), pp.17,18,21
  18. ^ See:
    • Momem (1987), p.176
    • "Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-20. 
  19. ^ Qur'an 30:30
  20. ^ See:
    • "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religion
  21. ^ "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religion
  22. ^ See:
    • "Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allāh.
    • L. Gardet "Allah". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  23. ^ David Thomas "Tathlith, Trinity". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. : Contrary to Muslim understanding, some scholars have suggested that the Qur'an only opposes certain deviant forms of Trinitarian belief.
  24. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.74–76
    • Esposito (2004), p.22
    • Griffith (2006), p.248
    • D. Gimaret "Allah, Tawhid". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  25. ^ "Qur'an". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  26. ^ See:
    • William Montgomery Watt in The Cambridge History of Islam, p.32
    • Richard Bell, William Montgomery Watt, Introduction to the Qur'an, p.51
    • F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5: "Few have failed to be convinced that … the Quran is … the words of Muhammad, perhaps even dictated by him after their recitation."
  27. ^ See:
    • "Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
    • "Qur'an". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  28. ^ Esposito (2004), p.79
  29. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.79–81
    • "Tafsir". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  30. ^ See:
    • Teece (2003), pp.12,13
    • C. Turner (2006), p.42
    • "Qur'an". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. : The word Qur'an was invented and first used in the Qur'an itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation.
  31. ^ Qur'an 21:19-20, Qur'an 35:1
  32. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.26–28
    • W. Madelung "Malā'ika". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • Gisela Webb "Angel". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  33. ^ See:
    • Esposito (1998), p.12
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.9
    • "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  34. ^ See:
    • F. Buhl; A. T. Welch "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  35. ^ See:
    • F.E.Peters(2003), pp.78,79,194
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.23–28
  36. ^ F. Buhl; A. T. Welch "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  37. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p.666
    • J. Robson "Hadith". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • D. W. Brown "Sunna". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  38. ^ See:
    • "Resurrection", The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2003)
    • "Avicenna". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. : Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sīnā is known in the West as "Avicenna".
    • L. Gardet "Qiyama". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  39. ^ Qur'an 9:72
  40. ^ See:
    • Smith (2006), p.89; Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, p.565
    • "Heaven", The Columbia Encyclopedia (2000)
    • Asma Afsaruddin "Garden". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
    • "Paradise". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  41. ^ See:
    • D. Cohen-Mor (2001), p.4: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen: 'Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us…" ' "
    • Ahmet T. Karamustafa "Fate". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. : The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".
  42. ^ See:
    • Farah (2003), pp.119–122
    • Patton (1900), p.130
  43. ^ Momen (1987), pp.177,178
  44. ^ See:
    • Momem (1987), p.178
    • "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  45. ^ See:
    • Farah (1994), p.135
    • Momen (1987), p.178
    • "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals(2004)
  46. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.18,19
    • Hedáyetullah (2006), pp.53–55
    • Kobeisy (2004), pp.22–34
    • Momen (1987), p.178
  47. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), p.90
    • Momen (1987), p.179
    • "Zakat". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
    • "Zakat". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  48. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.90,91
    • "Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • For whom fasting is mandatory. Compendium of Muslim Texts. USC-MSA. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  49. ^ See:
    • Farah (1994), pp.145–147
    • Goldschmidt (2005), p.48
    • "Hajj". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  50. ^ Momen (1987), p.180
  51. ^ "Shari'ah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  52. ^ See:
    • Menski (2006), p.290
    • B. Carra de Vaux; J. Schacht, A.M. Goichon "Hadd". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • N. Calder; M. B. Hooker "Sharia". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  53. ^ Weiss (2002), pp.xvii,162
  54. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), p.84
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.502–507,845
    • Lewis (2003), p.100
  55. ^ See:
  56. ^ Esposito (2003), p.93
  57. ^ Firestone (1999) pp. 17-18
  58. ^ Reuven Firestone (1999), The Meaning of Jihād, p. 17-18
  59. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Jihad
  60. ^ See:
    • Brockopp (2003) pp. 99–100
    • Esposito (2003), p.93
    • "jihad". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. 
  61. ^ See:
    • Firestone (1999) p.17
    • "Djihad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
  62. ^ Firestone (1999) p.17
  63. ^ a b "Djihād". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  64. ^ Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror, Mary R. Habeck, Yale University Press, p.108-109, 118
  65. ^ cf. Sachedina (1998) p. 105 and 106
  66. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.50,112,197,380,489,578,817
    • Lewis (2004), pp.29,51–56
  67. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.57
    • Hourani (2003), p.22
    • Lapidus (2002), p.32
    • Madelung (1996), p.43
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
  68. ^ See
    • Holt (1977a), p.74
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  69. ^ Holt (1977a), pp.67–72
  70. ^ Waines (2003) p.46
  71. ^ Donald Puchala, ‘’Theory and History in International Relations,’’ page 137. Routledge, 2003.
  72. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.90,91
    • "Sufism". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
  73. ^ Hawting (2000), p.4
  74. ^ Lapidus (2002), p.56; Lewis (1993), pp. 71–83
  75. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), pp.80,92,105
    • Holt (1977b), pp.661–663
    • Lapidus (2002), p.56
    • Lewis (1993), p.84
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  76. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.103–143
    • "Abbasid Dynasty". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  77. ^ Lapidus (2002), p.86
  78. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.160
    • Waines (2003) p.126,127
  79. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.44–45
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.90–94
    • "Sufism". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  80. ^ Tolan (2002) xv, xvi, 41
  81. ^ See:
    • Novak (February 1999)
    • Sahas (1997), pp.76–80
  82. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.288–290,310
  83. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.292
    • "Islamic World". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  84. ^ See
    • Holt (1977a), p.263
    • Lapidus (2002), p.250
    • "Istanbul". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  85. ^ Esposito (2004), pp.104,105
  86. ^ "Islamic Art". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  87. ^ Esposito (2004), p.65
  88. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.198,234,244,245,254
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  89. ^ Ikram, S. M. 1964. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press
  90. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.358,378–380,624
  91. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.572
    • Watt (1973), p.18: Wahhabism should not be confused with the early Kharijite sect of Wahabiyya, which was named after Abd-Allah ibn-Wahb ar-Rasibi, who opposed Ali at Nahrawan.
  92. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.380,489–493
  93. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.281–282,380,489–493,556,578,823,835
  94. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.118,119,179
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.823–830
  95. ^ See:
  96. ^ For example see Major Themes of the Qur'an by Fazlur Rahman in which he argues against the treatment of the Qur'an as either a piecemeal or an evolutionary progression of ideas. See review by William A. Graham (1983), p.446.
  97. ^ For example see The Spirit of Islam by Syed Ameer Ali (1849-1928). It is described by David Samuel Margoliouth (1905) as "probably the best achievement in the way of an apology for Mohammed". See Margoliouth, preface Mohammed and the Rise of Islam.
  98. ^ Westerlund (2003)
  99. ^ Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu. "Ramadan Awareness Event Designed To Debunk Negative Images", Advance, University of Connecticut, 11-17-2003. 
  100. ^ Bernstein, Richard. "Experts on Islam Pointing Fingers At One Another", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-05-14. 
  101. ^ See:
    • Seibert (1994), pp.88–89
    • Watt (1974), p.231
  102. ^ Ernst (2004), p.11
  103. ^ a b Number of Muslim by country. nationmaster.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  104. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2006—China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau). U.S. department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  105. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004) pp.2,43
    • "Islamic World". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents. Adherents.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  106. ^ See:
    • J. Pedersen; R. Hillenbrand, J. Burton-Page, et al. "Masdjid". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • "Mosque". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  107. ^ "al-Mar'a". Encyclopaedia of Islam
  108. ^
    • Waines (2003) pp. 93–96
    • The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2003), p.339
    • Esposito (1998) p. 79
  109. ^ *"Talak". Encyclopaedia of Islam
  110. ^
    • Esposito (2004), pp.95,96,235–241
    • Harald Motzki "Marriage and Divorce". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 
    • Lori Peek "Marriage Practices". Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 
  111. ^ See:
    • Adil (2002), p.288
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.67
    • B. van Dalen; R. S. Humphreys, Manuela Marín, et al. "Tarikh̲". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  112. ^ Ghamidi (2001): Customs and Behavioral Laws
  113. ^ Friedmann (2003), pp. 14–16
  114. ^ Friedmann (2003), pp. 18–19
  115. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 18
  116. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 35
  117. ^ See:
    • Friedmann (2003), p. 35;
    • Lewis (1984), p. 39
  118. ^ See:
    • Lewis (1984), pp.9, 27, 36;
    • Friedmann (2003), p. 37;
  119. ^ Lewis (2001), p.273
  120. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 55
  121. ^ "Aman", Encyclopaedia of Islam
  122. ^ A woman who apostasizes is to be executed according to some jurists, or imprisoned according to others.
  123. ^ "Murtadd", Encyclopedia of Islam
  124. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, "Sikhs"
  125. ^ See:
  126. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2003), pp.275,306
    • "Shariah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • "Sunnite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  127. ^ See
    • Lapidus (2002), p.46
    • "Imam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    • "Shi'ite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  128. ^ Imamat, by Naser Makarem Shirazi
  129. ^ See:
    • Ahmed (1999), pp.44–45
    • Nasr (1994), p.466
  130. ^ See:
    • Kramer (1987), Syria's Alawis and Shi'ism pp.237–254
    • Shia branches
  131. ^ Trimingham (1998), p.1
  132. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2003), p.302
    • Malik (2006), p.3
    • B. S. Turner (1998), p.145
    • Afghanistan: A Country Study. Country Studies 150. U. S. Library of Congress (Federal Research Division). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  133. ^ See:
    • IBADI ISLAM: AN INTRODUCTION
    • J. A. Williams (1994), p.173
    • "al-Ibāḍiyya". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, á¹£aḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the literary magazine. ... David Samuel Margoliouth (October 17, 1858 - March 22, 1940) was the UK orientalist. ... The University of Connecticut is the State of Connecticuts land-grant university. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi is one of the most important and influential Ayatollahs currently in Iran. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Books and journals

  • Accad, Martin (2003). "The Gospels in the Muslim Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I)". Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 14 (1). ISSN 0959-6410. 
  • Adil, Hajjah Amina; Shaykh Nazim Adil Al-Haqqani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani (2002). Muhammad: The Messenger of Islam. Islamic Supreme Council of America. ISBN 978-1930409118. 
  • Ahmed, Akbar (1999). Islam Today: A Short Introduction to the Muslim World, 2.00, I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1860642579. 
  • Brockopp, Jonathan E. (2003). Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia. University of South Carolina press. ISBN 1570034710. 
  • Cohen-Mor, Dalya (2001). A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195133986. 
  • Curtis, Patricia A. (2005). A Guide to Food Laws and Regulations. Blackwell Publishing Professional. ISBN 978-0813819464. 
  • Eglash, Ron (1999). African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2614-0. 
  • Ernst, Carl (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5577-4. 
  • Esposito, John; John Obert Voll (1996). Islam and Democracy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510816-7. 
  • Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path, 3rd, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195112344. 
  • Esposito, John; Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad (2000a). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513526-1. 
  • Esposito, John (2000b). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. 978-0195107999. 
  • Esposito, John (2002a). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195168860. 
  • Esposito, John (2002b). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3. 
  • Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4. 
  • Esposito, John (2004). Islam: The Straight Path, 3rd Rev Upd, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195182668. 
  • Farah, Caesar (1994). Islam: Beliefs and Observances, 5th, Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0812018530. 
  • Farah, Caesar (2003). Islam: Beliefs and Observances, 7th, Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0764122266. 
  • Firestone, Reuven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019-5125800. 
  • Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521026994. 
  • Ghamidi, Javed (2001). Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690. 
  • Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur; Lawrence Davidson (2005). A Concise History of the Middle East, 8th, Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813342757. 
  • Griffith, Ruth Marie; Barbara Dianne Savage (2006). Women and Religion in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801883709. 
  • Hawting, G. R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 0415240735. 
  • Hedayetullah, Muhammad (2006). Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1553698425. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977b). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291372. 
  • Hourani, Albert (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0674010178. 
  • Humphreys, Stephen (2005). Between Memory and Desire. University of California Press. ISBN 052-0246918. 
  • Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar (2004). Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith and Helping the People. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0313324727. 
  • Koprulu, Mehmed Fuad; Leiser, Gary (1992). The Origins of the Ottoman Empire. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791408191. 
  • Kramer, Martin (1987). Shi'Ism, Resistance, and Revolution. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813304533. 
  • Kugle, Scott Alan (2006). Rebel Between Spirit And Law: Ahmad Zarruq, Sainthood, And Authority in Islam. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253347114. 
  • Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies, 2nd, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521779333. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0462-0. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1993). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1928-5258-2. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1997). The Middle East. Scribner. ISBN 978-0684832807. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2001). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East, 2nd, Open Court. ISBN 978-0812695182. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2003). What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East, Reprint, Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0060516055. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 978-0812967852. 
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1996). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960. 
  • Malik, Jamal; John R Hinnells, Inc NetLibrary (2006). Sufism in the West. Routledge. ISBN 0415274087. 
  • Menski, Werner F. (2006). Comparative Law in a Global Context: The Legal Systems of Asia and Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521858593. 
  • Mohammad, Noor (1985). "The Doctrine of Jihad: An Introduction". Journal of Law and Religion 3 (2). 
  • Momen, Moojan (1987). An Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi`ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300035315. 
  • Nasr, Seyed Muhammad (1994). Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7). HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06067-700-7. 
  • Novak, David (February 1999). "The Mind of Maimonides". First Things. 
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. ISBN 0-87196-129-6. 
  • Patton, Walter M. (April 1900). "The Doctrine of Freedom in the Korân". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 16 (3). Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004103147. 
  • Peters, F. E. (1991). "The Quest for Historical Muhammad". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 
  • Peters, F. E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11553-2. 
  • Peters, Rudolph (1977). Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-04854-5. 
  • Rippin, Andrew (2001). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd, Routledge. ISBN 978-0415217811. 
  • Ruthven, Malise (2005). Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning. Oxford University Press. ISBN 01-92-80606-8. 
  • Sahas, Daniel J. (1997). John of Damascus on Islam: The Heresy of the Ishmaelites. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9004034952. 
  • Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1998). The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195119150. 
  • Seibert, Robert F. (1994). "Review: Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (Norman Daniel)". Review of Religious Research 36 (1). 
  • Sells, Michael Anthony; Emran Qureshi (2003). The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231126670. 
  • Smith, Jane I. (2006). The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195156492. 
  • Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 1-82760-198-1. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; R. Campbell (translator) (2002). Islamic teachings: An Overview and a Glance at the Life of the Holy Prophet of Islam. Green Gold. ISBN 0-922817-00-6. 
  • Teece, Geoff (2003). Religion in Focus: Islam. Franklin Watts Ltd. ISBN 978-0749647964. 
  • Tolan, John V. (2002). Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. Columbia University Press. 
  • Trimingham, John Spencer (1998). The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195120582. 
  • Tritton, Arthur S. [1930] (1970). The Caliphs and their Non-Muslim Subjects: A Critical Study of the Covenant of Umar. London: Frank Cass Publisher. ISBN 0-7146-1996-5. 
  • Turner, Colin (2006). Islam: the Basics. Routledge (UK). ISBN 041534106X. 
  • Turner, Bryan S. (1998). Weber and Islam. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0415174589. 
  • Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521539064. 
  • Warraq, Ibn (2000). The Quest for Historical Muhammad. Prometheus. ISBN 978-1573927871. 
  • Warraq, Ibn (2003). Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus. ISBN 1-59102-068-9. 
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1973). The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. University Press Edinburgh. ISBN 0-85-224254-X. 
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, New, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4. 
  • Weiss, Bernard G. (2002). Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic publishers. ISBN 9004120661. 
  • Williams, John Alden (1994). The Word of Islam. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-79076-7. 
  • Williams, Mary E. (2000). The Middle East. Greenhaven Pr. ISBN 0737701331. 

Encyclopedias

  • Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. (2005). Ed. William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0974309101. 
  • Catholic Encyclopedia. (1910). Ed. Gabriel Oussani. 
  • The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th). (2000). Ed. Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton. Gale Group. ISBN 978-1593392369. 
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. 
  • Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st). (2001). Ed. Erwin Fahlbusch, William Geoffrey Bromiley. Eerdmans Publishing Company, and Brill. ISBN 0-8028-2414-5. 
  • Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st). (2005). Ed. John Bowden. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522393-4. 
  • Encyclopedia of the Future. (1995). Ed. George Thomas Kurian, Graham T. T. Molitor. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028972053. 
  • Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. (2003). Ed. Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028656038. 
  • Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Brill Academic Publishers. 
  • Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd). (2005). Ed. Lindsay Jones. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657332. 
  • Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals (1st). (2004). Ed. Salamone Frank. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415941808. 
  • The Encyclopedia of World History Online (6th). (2000). Ed. Peter N. Stearns. Bartleby. 
  • Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. (2005). Ed. Josef W. Meri. Routledge. ISBN 041-5966906. 
  • Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. (1999). Ed. Wendy Doniger. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 087-7790442. 
  • New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. (2003). Ed. Glasse Cyril. AltaMira Press. ISSN 978-0759101906. 
  • Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1st). (1998). Ed. Edward Craig. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415073103. 

Carl W. Ernst is a scholar of Islamic studies. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... The Oxford Dictionary of Islam is a dictionary of Islam, with John Esposito as editor-in-chief. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Caesar E. Farah is a professor of history at the University of Minesota. ... Caesar E. Farah is a professor of history at the University of Minesota. ... Prof. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Gerald R. Hawting (b. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Albert Habib Hourani (Arabic: ألبرت حبيب حوراني) (March 31, 1915 – January 17, 1993) was a prominent scholar of Middle Eastern history through much of the 20th century. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... First Things is a monthly ecumenical journal concerned with the creation of a religiously informed public philosophy for the ordering of society (First Things website). ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... F.E. Peters is Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, History, and Religion at New York University. ... F.E. Peters is Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, History, and Religion at New York University. ... Sir Rudolph Albert Peters (13 April 1889 - 29 January 1982) was a British biochemist. ... Andrew Rippin is Professor of History and Dean of Humanities at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. ... Abdulaziz Sachedina is a Islamic studies professor at the Univesity of Virginia. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Arthur Stanley Tritton, D. Litt. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... The Encyclopaedia of the Quran (EQ) is a scholarly work with essays on the most important themes and subjects, and an encyclopaedic dictionary of Quran terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis. ... Dr. Josef (Yousef) Waleed Meri (born 1969) is a leading specialist in Islam in the pre-modern period, Islamic cultural and social history and interfaith relations. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Wendy Doniger (born November 20, 1940) is an American professor of religion, active in international religious studies since 1973. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...

Further reading

  • Arberry, A. J. (1996). The Koran Interpreted: A Translation, 1st, Touchstone. ISBN 978-0684825076. 
  • Hawting, Gerald R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyard Caliphate AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 0415240727. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Muhsin; Al-Hilali Khan, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din (1999). Noble Quran, 1st, Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-9960740799. 
  • Kramer (ed.), Martin (1999). The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Syracuse University. ISBN 978-9652240408. 
  • Kuban, Dogan (1974). Muslim Religious Architecture. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004038132. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1993). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East. Open Court. ISBN 978-0812692174. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1994). Islam and the West. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195090611. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1996). Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195102833. 
  • Mubarkpuri, Saifur-Rahman (2002). The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1591440710. 
  • Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). History of Islam. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1591440345. 
  • Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices, New Edition, Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253216274. 
  • Rahman, Fazlur (1979). Islam, 2nd, University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70281-2. 
  • Walker, Benjamin (1998). Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith. Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 978-0720610383. 

Arthur John Arberry (1905 - 1969) was a respected scholar of Arabic and Islamic studies. ... Gerald R. Hawting (b. ... Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Arabic and Urdū: محمد محسن خان; born 1927) is a contemporary Saudi Salafi Islamic scholar, most notable for his English translation of Sahih Bukhari and the Quran. ... Martin Kramer (b. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... The Sealed Nectar (Arabic: al-Raheeq Al-Makhtum) is an authoritative and popular biography of the Prophet Muhammad, written by Shaikh Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri. ... Fazlur Rahman Malik (Urdu: فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988) was a well-known scholar of Islam; M. Yahya Birt of the Association of Islam Researchers described him as probably the most learned of the major Muslim thinkers in the second-half of the twentieth century, in terms of both... Benjamin Walker (November 25, 1913) is the truncated pen name of George Benjamin Walker, who also writes under the pseudonym Jivan Bhakar. ...

External links

Find more about Islam on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
Academic resources
  • University of Southern California Compendium of Muslim Texts
  • Encyclopedia of Islam (Overview of World Religions)
  • Unit on Islam from the NITLE Arab Culture and Civilization Online Resource
  • Islam, article at Enyclopaedia Britannica Online
Directories
Islam - text, audio and video
  • Three Translations of The Koran (Al-Qur'an) side by side
  • Kur'an audio (recordings of many Qur'an recitals - easy to stream and play)
  • Quranic auido downloadable or streamable by different reciters
  • Qur'an audio and reading material in numerous languages
Islam and the arts
  • BBC Islam Focus
  • Islamic Art at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art
  • Muslim Heritage (Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation, UK)
  • Islamic Architecture (IAORG) illustrated descriptions and reviews of a large number of mosques, palaces, and monuments.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE) is an incubated entity or initiative of Ithaka Harbors, Inc. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Cordoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Sharia is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... In Islam, Prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and final Prophet of Allah. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005 (Encyclopaedia Britannica). ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Ayyavazhi (IPA: )(Tamil:அய்யாவழி [1] -Path of the father) is a dharmic belief system[2] which originated in South India in the 19th century. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Yarsan or Ahl-i Haqq (Kurdish:Yarsan/Yaresan or Kakeyi, Arabic,Persian:اهل حق, Ahl-e Haqq, derived from an Arabic phrase translatable as People of the Truth and as Men of God[1]) is a religious sect, and its followers are primarily found in western Iran. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... A traditional representation of The Vinegar Tasters, an allegorical image representing Buddhists, Confucianists and Taoists. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Taoism (or Daoism) refers to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Tenrikyo Headquarters, Tenri Tenrikyo (天理教; Tenrikyō, lit. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Ethnic religions may include officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy, but they are characterized in that adherents generally are defined by their ethnicity, and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation to the people in question. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of the Caribbean Islands and Latin America, as well as parts of the southern United States. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Ancient Semitic religion spans the polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Hellenistic religion refers to any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the Eurasian peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (ca. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Roman polytheism was the religion of the Etruscans, Romans, and most of their subjects. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Religious disaffiliation means leaving a faith, or a religious group or community. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Truth. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article covers various areas of the interaction between religion and politics. ... Christianity - Percentage by country Islam - Percentage by country Buddhism - Percentage by country Hinduism - Percentage by country The table above is compiled from the relevant Wikipedia pages listing Religions by Country. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... There are several different religions claimed to be the “fastest growing religion”. Such claims vary due to different definitions of “fastest growing”, and whether the claim is worldwide or regional. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Christian Left or Religious Left are terms used to describe those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing, liberal, or socialist ideals. ... Minority religion is the religion held by a minority of the population of a country, state, or region. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fascist (epithet). ... This article is about secularism. ... The criticism of religion includes criticism of the concept of religion, the validity of religion, the practice of religion, and the consequences of religion for humanity. ... Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ... Atheist redirects here. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about secularization. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Jacques Derrida Deconstruction-and-religion -- also known as weak theology and religion without religion -- is a nontheistic mode of thought that proceeds from a theological and deconstructive framework. ... The field of secular theology, a subfield of liberal theology advocated by Anglican bishop John A. T. Robinson somewhat paradoxically combines secularism and theology. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ... For a more comprehensive list, see List of religious topics Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that (generally) involve a faith in a spiritual nature and a study of inherited ancestral traditions, knowledge and wisdom related to understanding human life. ... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... The list of people considered to be deities consists of those notable human beings who were considered deities by themselves or others. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions, however it excludes modern religions, which can be found in list of new religious movements. ... This List of new religious movements (NRMs), lists groups founded after 1800 that either identify themselves as religious, ethical or spiritual organizations or are generally seen as such by religious scholars, which are independent of older denominations, churches, or religious bodies. ... This list contains groups referred to as cults or sects by reliable sources. ... The following figures are believed to have founded or inspired religions or religious philosophies, or to have been the founders of specific churches or denominations or first codifiers or best-known proponents of older known religious tradition. ... The following is a list of religion scholars. ... This is a list of the largest historic gatherings of people for a single event. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions, however it excludes modern religions, which can be found in list of new religious movements. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Islam (Concept) (285 words)
Islam, an Arabic word which, since Mohammed's time, has acquired a religious and technical significance denoting the religion of Mohammed and of the Koran, just as Christianity denotes that of Jesus and of the Gospels, or Judaism that of Moses, the Prophets, and of the Old Testament.
In its fourth form (aslama), the infinitive of which is islam, it acquires the sense of "to resign", "to submit oneself" or "to surrender".
Hence the Mohammedan theological axiom "Islam is with the tongue, and Iman is with the heart." According to the Hanafites (another of the four above-mentioned schools), however, no distinction is to be made between the two terms, as Iman, according to them, is essentially included in Islam.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m