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Encyclopedia > Ishmael
Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin
Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin

Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Yišmaʿel Tiberian Yišmāʿêl; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismā'īl) was Abraham's eldest son, born by his wife's handmaiden Hagar. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137 (Gn. 25:17).[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (812 × 1060 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait by Karel Dujardin (1622-1678), c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (812 × 1060 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait by Karel Dujardin (1622-1678), c. ... Karel Dujardin (1640-1678), Dutch wildlife and landscape painter. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... A handmaiden (or handmaid) is a female assistant (or slave) that waits at hand as a servant or attendant. ... The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ) is an Egyptian-born handmaiden of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ...


Judaism has generally viewed Ishmael as wicked though repentant.[2] Judaism maintains that Isaac (the father of the Jewish people) rather than Ishmael was the true heir of Abraham.[3] The New Testament contains few references to Ishmael. Biblically, Ishmael is used to symbolize the older - now rejected - Judaic tradition; Isaac symbolizes the new tradition of Christianity.[2] Islamic tradition, however, has a very positive view of Ishmael, giving him a larger and more significant role. The Qur'an views him as a prophet. According to the interpretation of certain early Islamic theologians whose view prevailed later, Ishmael was the actual son that Abraham was called on to sacrifice, as opposed to Isaac.[2][4] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Both Jewish and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael as the ancestor of Arab people. [2] Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...

Contents

Etymology and meaning

Cognates of Hebrew Yishm'e'l existed in various ancient Semitic cultures.[2] For example, it is known that the name was used in early Babylonian and in Minæan.[1] It is translated literally as "God has heard", suggesting that "a child so named was regarded as the fulfillment of a divine promise."[2] Hebrew Šimʿon is from the same root. Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... It has been suggested that Simon be merged into this article or section. ...


Hebrew Bible

See also: Account of Isaac in the Hebrew Bible An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ...

The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman
The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman
Expulsion of Ishmael and His Mother, from Gustave Doré's illustrated Bible of 1866.
Expulsion of Ishmael and His Mother, from Gustave Doré's illustrated Bible of 1866.

Chapters 16-25 of the book of Genesis contain the stories of Ishmael.[1] Historians and academics in the fields of linguistics and source criticism believe that the stories of Ishmael belong to the three strata of J, or Yahwist source, the P, or Priestly source, and the E, or Elohist source (See Documentary hypothesis). [1]For example, The narration in Genesis 16 is of J type and the narration in Genesis 21:8-21 is of E type. [5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1418, 358 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Hagar (Bible) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1418, 358 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Hagar (Bible) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (575x700, 437 KB) Summary Part of Art by Gustave Doré, originally uploaded by Neutrality. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (575x700, 437 KB) Summary Part of Art by Gustave Doré, originally uploaded by Neutrality. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ... The Priestly Source (P) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Elohist (E) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...

The account of the life of Ishmael according to the Hebrew Bible

According to the Bible, Sarah (Abraham's wife) was childless, yet desired a son. She offers her maidservant Hagar to Abraham as a surrogate. Customs of the time dictated that, although Hagar was the birth mother, any child conceived would belong to Sarah and Abraham. [3] [6] 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ) is an Egyptian-born handmaiden of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... Faces of mother and child; detail of sculpture at Soldier Field, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Female mallard duck and ducklings. ...


Hagar became pregnant and proud of herself, which resulted in harsh treatment by Sarah. Hagar fled and ran into the wilderness, where an angel appeared to her by a spring of water. [3] The angel of the Lord told her to return, adding that God would increase her descendants through a son whose name would be Ishmael. The angel told Hagar that Ishmael would become "a wild donkey of a man" and would be in constant struggle with others.[3]


So Hagar returned to Abraham's house, and had a son whom she named Ishmael.[3] Abraham was 86 years old when Ishmael was born.[7] Abraham, obeying God's commandment, circumcised Ishmael when he was thirteen. [8] The next year, Abraham's wife Sarah became pregnant with his second son, Isaac.[3] One day Sarah was angered by seeing Ishmael mocking or playing with Isaac (the Hebrew word is ambiguous[9]),[1] and she asked Abraham to expel him and his mother, saying: "Get rid of that slave woman and her son, for that slave woman's son will never share in the inheritance with my son Isaac."[3] [10] Ishmael was very dear to Abraham and he initially refused to do as Sarah asked.[1] He finally gave in to his wife's request when God told him that He would take care of Ishmael, since he was a descendant of Abraham.[8][11] Abraham provided Hagar and her child with bread and a bottle of water and sent her into the desert.[8][12] Hagar, with her son, wandered in the wilderness and ran out of water. When they were reduced to great distress, an angel appeared and showed Hagar a spring of water saying "What is the matter, Hagar? Do not be afraid; God has heard the boy crying as he lies there. Lift the boy up and take him by the hand, for I will make him into a great nation."[8][13]


They lived in the wilderness of Paran, where Hagar's son became an expert in archery. His mother married him to an Egyptian woman.[8] According to the Bible, Ishmael had 12 sons who became twelve tribal chiefs. The twelve sons of Ishmael, were named Nebaioth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah (See Genesis 25) [1] Ishmael's sons settled everywhere from Havilah to Shur, i.e. from Assyria to the border of Egypt.[8] Ishmael also had a daughter named Mahalath who married Esau.[14]. Ishmael also appears with Isaac at the burial of Abraham.[8][15] Ishmael died at the age of 137. [1] It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ... Nebaioth נְבָיוֹת (Hebrew: Nevayot), (also written in English as Nebajoth or Nbioth), is mentioned at least five times in the Hebrew Bible according to which he was the firstborn son of Ishmael, and the name is among the eponyms of tribes mentioned in the Book of Genesis 25:13, and in... Kedar is an another name for Lord Shiva, one of the three major gods of Hindu religion, the other two being Brahma and Bishnu. ... This article describes minor characters who are named in the Book of Genesis, but about whom little else is known. ... . ... Dumah is an angel mentioned in Rabbinical literature. ... Multiple biblical characters with the names Hadad or Hadar existed. ... Iturea is the Greek name of a province, derived from the Biblical Jetur, name of a son of Ishmael ( Gen. ... Havilah is a Biblical place-name mentioned in Genesis 2:11: The name of the first [river] is the Pishon; it is the one that winds through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into taurus (constellation). ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Esau (Hebrew ‎, Standard Hebrew Esav, Tiberian Hebrew Ēśāw) is the oldest son of Isaac and Rebekah and the twin brother of Jacob in the biblical Book of Genesis. ...


Jewish traditions

see also Hagar in Jewish mysticism, Isaac in Jewish traditions

Judaism has generally viewed Ishmael as wicked though repentant.[2] According to the Haggadah Ishmael was as an idolater and a "brother-hater, who becomes ill from Sarah's evil eye."[16] Ishmael later repents and comes to revere his brother Isaac.[16] The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ) is an Egyptian-born handmaiden of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Haggadah for Passover, 14th century Haggadah in Hebrew means Telling. ... John Phillip, The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye The evil eye is a widely distributed element of folklore, in which it is believed that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate...


In some Rabbinic traditions Ishmael is said to have had two wives named Aisha and Fatima. Those names correspond to the Muslim tradition for the names of Muhammad's wife and daughter.[2] This is understood as a metaphoric representation of the Muslim world (first Arabs and then Turks) with Ishmael. [17]


The Israelites regarded the supposedly freedom-loving and bellicose descendants of Ishmael as inferior because Abraham had expelled Ishmael and his mother.[16][2] An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ...


New Testament

see also Hagar in the New Testament, Isaac in New Testament

According to the Genesis account, Ishmael and his mother were expelled at the instigation of Sarah, in order to make sure that Isaac would be Abraham's heir. In the book of Galatians, Paul uses the incident "to symbolize the relationship between Judaism, the older but now rejected tradition, and Christianity." (Gal 4:21-31)[2] In Galatians 4:28-31,[18] Hagar is associated with the Sinai covenant, while Sarah is associated with the covenant of grace (into which her son Isaac enters).[19] The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ) is an Egyptian-born handmaiden of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Hagar can refer to: Hagar (Bible), in the Book of Genesis, the handmaiden of Sarah and wife of Abraham Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, title name taken from the above lady Hagar (company), an Icelandic retailer company, part of the Baugur Group Hägar the Horrible, the comic... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Islam

see also: Hagar in Islamic traditions

Ishmael (Arabic: Ismā'īl) is a prophet in Islam. The Qur'an considers him to be a son of Abraham.[20] His name appears twelve times in the Qur'an mostly in a list[21] with other prophets "as part of a litany of remembrances in which the pre-Islamic prophets are praised for their resolute steadfastness and obedience to God, often in the face of adversity."[22] In Islam, Ishmael is known as the first-born son of Abraham (Ibrahim in Arabic) from Hagar, and as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ) is an Egyptian-born handmaiden of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Jahiliyyah is an Islamic concept referring to the spiritual condition of pre-Islamic Arabian society. ...


Both Jewish and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael as the ancestor of Arab people. According to the Muslim tradition, Muhammad was a descendant of Ishmael through his son Kedar.[8]

Picture of the Kaaba taken in 1880
Picture of the Kaaba taken in 1880

Abraham and Ishmael are said to have built the foundations of the Ka'aba ("They were raising the foundations of the House", Qur'an 2:127).[22] Islamic traditions hold that the Ka'aba was first built by the first man, Adam. Abraham and Ishmael rebuilt the Kaaba on the old foundations. [23] Image File history File links Kaba. ... Image File history File links Kaba. ... The Kaaba or Kaaba, in the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah), is the holiest place in Islam. ... The Kaaba or Kaaba, in the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah), is the holiest place in Islam. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ...


The Qur'an states that Abraham was commanded to sacrifice his son. The son is not named in the Qur'an (see Qur'an 37:99-113) and in early Islam, there was a fierce controversy over the son's identity. However the belief later prevailed that the son was Ishmael, and this view is now endorsed by Muslim scholars.[24] The argument of those early scholars who believed in the Ishmael theory was that "the promise to Sarah of Isaac followed by Jacob (Qur'an 11:71-74) excluded the possibility of a sacrifice of Isaac."[24] The other party held that the son of sacrifice was Isaac since "God's perfecting his mercy on Abraham and Isaac (in Qur'an 12:6) referred to his making Abraham his friend and saving him from the burning bush and to his rescuing Isaac."[24] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sacrifice by Robert Sherman (1983). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


According to Bruce Metzger and Michael Coogan, professors of Religious Studies, the circumcision of Muslims has its roots in the tradition that Ishmael was circumcised.[25] Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the...


Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í writings state that it was Ishmael, and not Isaac, who was the son of Abraham that was almost sacrificed.[26] However, the Bahá'í writings also state that the name is unimportant as either could be used: the importance is that both were symbols of sacrifice.[27] The Bahá'í writings also consider Ishmael an ancestor of Muhammad and the Arabs.[28] Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Baháí House of Worship attracts an average of four million visitors a year (around 13,000 each day). ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Hagar." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  4. ^ William Montgomery Watt, Encyclopedia of Islam, Ishaq
  5. ^ S. Nikaido(2001), p.1
  6. ^ Gn 16:2
  7. ^ Personalities biography of Abraham at Who2, LLC
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Jewish Encyclopedia, Ishmael
  9. ^ Hagar, Jewish Encyclopedia
  10. ^ Genesis 21:8-10
  11. ^ Genesis 21:11-13
  12. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia, Ishmael
  13. ^ Genesis 21:17-21
  14. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Mahalath
  15. ^ Genesis 25:9
  16. ^ a b c Yvonne Domhardt,"Ishmael, Ishmaelites", Brill's New Pauly
  17. ^ Shalom Paul in The Oxford Dictionary of Jewish Religion, p.358
  18. ^ Galatians 4:28-31
  19. ^ Encyclopedia of Christianity(Ed. John Bowden), Isaac
  20. ^ Certain Western scholars have suggested that Muhammad was not aware of this connection in the early period of his preaching. Their argument is that in the early verses of the Qur'an, Ishmael appears in lists mentioning prophets like Jonah, Lot and Idris without any association with Abraham. (e.g. see Qur'an 6:86,Qur'an 21:85, Qur'an 38:48). Reuven Firestone in Encyclopedia of the Qur'an says that there is some evidence to the contrary of claim of those western scholars.
  21. ^ The Qur'an generally lists Ishmael in the formula: “Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes” (e.g. see Qur'an 2:136, Qur'an 3:84), sometimes as "Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac". In verse Qur'an 2:133 Ishmael is mentioned as “Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac” and in some other lists Ishmael's name is absent from the list :"Abraham, Isaac and Jacob" such as Qur'an 6:84;Qur'an 12:38 cf Ishmael, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  22. ^ a b Ishmael, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  23. ^ Azraqi, Akhbar Makkah, vol. 1, pp. 58-66
  24. ^ a b c
  25. ^ Bruce M Metzger and Michael D Coogan (1993), pp. 329 (Under 'Ishmael').
  26. ^ Bahá'u'lláh (1976). Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, pp. 75-76. ISBN 0877431876. 
  27. ^ Cole, Juan R.I. (1995). "Interpretation in the Bahá'í Faith". Baha'i Studies Review 5. 
  28. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá [1904-06] (1981). Some Answered Questions. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, p. 13. ISBN 0877431906. 

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... Lot is: Place Specific - A French département, see Lot (département) A French river, a tributary of the Garonne, see Lot River A Belgian town, see Lot, Belgium A Polish Airline, see LOT Polish Airlines Character Specific - A Biblical figure, the nephew of Abraham, see Lot (Biblical) Lot, a... Idris may mean: Idris (prophet), a prophet of Islam, named Enoch in Christianity Idris I, the founder of the Idrisid dynasty in Maghreb Idris I of Libya Idris (or Idries) Shah, a Sufi author Idris Shah II of Perak, a sultan of Perak Idris (operating system) a Unix-like operating... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...

References

Books and journals
  • Bruce, M Metzger; Michael D Coogan (1993). The Oxford Companion To The Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195046458. 
  • Nikaido, S. (2001). "Hagar and Ishmael as Literary Figures: An Intertextual Study". Vetus Testamentum 51. 
  • Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi; Geoffrey Wigoder (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508605-8. 
Encyclopedias
  • Brill's New Pauly- Antiquity. (2005). Ed. Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978 9004122703. 
  • The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th). (2000). Ed. Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton. Gale Group. ISBN 978-1593392369. 
  • Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st). (2005). Ed. John Bowden. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522393-4. 
  • Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd). (2005). Ed. Lindsay Jones. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657332. 
  • The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica, Incorporated; Rev Ed edition. ISBN 978-1593392369. 
  • Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. (2005). Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9004123564. 

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ...

See also

Prophets of Islam in the Qur'an
Adam Idris Nuh Hud Saleh Ibrahim Lut Ismail Is'haq Yaqub Yusuf Ayub
آدم ادريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط اسماعيل اسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب
Adam Enoch Noah Eber Shelah Abraham Lot Ishmael Isaac Jacob Joseph Job

Shoaib Musa Harun Dhul-Kifl Daud Sulayman Ilyas Al-Yasa Yunus Zakariya Yahya Isa Muhammad
شعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود سليمان إلياس اليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى محمد
Jethro Moses Aaron Ezekiel David Solomon Elijah Elisha Jonah Zechariah John Jesus Paraclete
v  d  e

An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Many given names in the English language refer to El, a Hebrew word meaning God, and have their origin in the Bible. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Adam is the first Prophet of Islam and mentioned in the Quran as the husband of Eve (Hawwa). ... Idris (Arabic: إدريس ) is a Prophet in Islam. ... Nuh is a prophet in the Quran. ... Hud (Arabic هود) is a prophet in the Quran. ... Saleh (Arabic: صالح) is a prophet of Islam and is mentioned in the Quran. ... For information on the racehorse, see Ibrahim (horse) (Arabic: ), the biblical patriarch Abraham, is an important prophet in Islam, son of Azar, and the father of the Prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... Lut (Arabic: لوط ) was a prophet mentioned in the Quran and known as Lot in the Bible. ... In Islam, Ishmael is known as the first-born son of Abraham (Ibrahim in Arabic) from Hagar, and as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... In Islam, Isaac is known as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... Yaqub (in Syriac: ܝܰܥܩܽܘܒ) is a common Syriac and Arabic name. ... Yusuf (Arabic: يوسف, also Yousef, Yousuf, Youssef, Yusef, Yossef or Yosef) is a prophet in the Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam. ... In Islam, Job is known as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... Image File history File links Mosque. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Shelah or Shela (שֵׁלָה Petition, Standard Hebrew Šela, Tiberian Hebrew Šēlāh) is the name of two persons in the Bible: The son of Arpachshad, and thus the grandson of Shem. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... It has been suggested that Lut be merged into this article or section. ... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... Shoaib (Arabic: ‎ ; also ShuÊ•ayb, ShuÊ•aib, Shuaib, literally Who Shows the Right Path), is traditionally associated with the biblical figure Jethro. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Harun (Arabic: هارون ) was a prophet of Islam mentioned in the Quran. ... Dhul-Kifl (Arabic ذو الكفل ) is considered by Muslims to be either a prophet of Islam or simply a righteous man mentioned in the Quran. ... In Islam, David is known as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... Sulayman (Süleyman, Sulaiman, Suleyman, Suleiman) (Arabic: سليمان) is a prophet in the Quran, which assumes that he is King Solomon of the Bible. ... Ilyas is a prophet in the Quran. ... Al-Yasa is a prophet in the Quran. ... Yunus (Jonah) is one of the prophets of Islam whose story is recounted in the Quran. ... Zakariya (Arabic: زكريا), the New Testament priest Zechariah or Zacharias, is one of the prophets mentioned in the Quran. ... Yahya (يحيى) (traditionally associated with the biblical figure John the Baptist) is a Jewish prophet of Islam mentioned in the Quran. ... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Jethro (Hebrew: יִתְרוֹ, Standard Yitro Tiberian ; His Excellence/Posterity) is a figure from the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ... Image:David and russel by Caravaggio. ... Artists depiction of Solomons court (Ingobertus, c. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... Elisha (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; My God is salvation) is a Biblical prophet. ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

External links

Sons of Ishmael in order of birth (Genesis)
Nebaioth Kedar Adbeel Mibsam Mishma Dumah Massa Hadad Tema Jetur Naphish Kedemah

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ishmael - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1880 words)
In the Qur'an, Ishmael is considered one of the prophets of Islam.
In Islam, Ishmael is known as the first-born son of Abraham (Ibrahim in Arabic) from his second wife Hagar, and an appointed prophet of God.
Ishmael is mentioned in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, Founder of the Bahá'í Faith, and is considered a lesser Prophet.
Ishmael (novel) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2252 words)
Ishmael begins by telling the man that his life, which began in the wild, was spent mostly in a zoo and a menagerie, and since had been spent in the gazebo of the man that extricated him from physical captivity.
Ishmael proceeds to tease from his pupil the premises of the story being enacted by the Takers: that they are the pinnacle of evolution (or creation), that the world was made for man, and that man is here to conquer and rule the world.
Ishmael and his student go on to discuss how, for the ancient Semetic herders among whom the tale originated, the story of Cain killing Abel symbolizes the Leavers being killed off and their lands taken so that it could be put under cultivation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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