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Encyclopedia > Isfahan (city)
Part of Shah Abbas' large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh "Four Gardens", is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. A central garden, originally including a water channel and fountains, divides the avenue into two lanes. Residences of noblemen once lined the avenue with pavilions overlooking the gardens.
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Part of Shah Abbas' large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh "Four Gardens", is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. A central garden, originally including a water channel and fountains, divides the avenue into two lanes. Residences of noblemen once lined the avenue with pavilions overlooking the gardens.
This article is about the city of Isfahan. For other uses, see Isfahan (disambiguation).

Isfahan or Eşfahān (historically also rendered as Ispahan, Old Persian Aspadana, Middle Persian Spahān, Persian: اصفهان‎ ​), located about 340 km south of Tehran, is the capital of Isfahan Province and Iran's third largest city (after Tehran and Mashhad). Isfahan has a population of about 1.5 million (2006 estimates). Chahar Bagh Blvd in winter. ... Chahar Bagh Blvd in winter. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song on Duke Ellingtons The Far East Suite Ispahan (rose) a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the city... Persian, also called Farsi or Parsi, is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population 7,160,094 (metropolitan: 14,000,000[citation needed]), and a land area of 658 square kilometers, is the capital city of Iran and the center of Tehran Province. ... // Isfahan province has enjoyed the benefit of being capital of Persia for 200 years during the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population 7,160,094 (metropolitan: 14,000,000[citation needed]), and a land area of 658 square kilometers, is the capital city of Iran and the center of Tehran Province. ... Mashhad (مشهد in Persian, is also spelled Mashad) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia world. ...


The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city also contains a wide variety of Islamic architectural sites ranging from the 11th century to the 19th. Naghsh-i Jahan Square: Ali Qapu (right), Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque (left) and Shah Mosque (front) Naghsh-i Jahan Square (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان ), also known as shah or imam square (maidan in Persian), situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran, is the one of largest city square in the world. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Islamic architecture, a part of the Islamic studies, is the entire range of architecture that has evolved within Muslim culture in the course of the history of Islam. ...


The beauty of Isfahan inspired jazz musician Duke Ellington and his collaborator Billy Strayhorn to write a song in its name, as part of The Far East Suite. Jazz is an original American musical art form that originated around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in African American musical styles blended with Western music technique and theory. ... Duke Ellington Edward Kennedy Duke Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974), also known simply as Duke (see Jazz royalty), was an American jazz composer, pianist, and bandleader. ... Billy Strayhorn, photographed by Carl Van Vechten on 14. ... The Far East Suite is an album by Duke Ellington and his orchestra, recorded in New York City on 19 December to 21 December 1966. ...

Contents

Geography

Chehel Sotoon is a famous tourism attraction.
Chehel Sotoon is a famous tourism attraction.

The city is geographically located at 32°38′N 51°29′E, in the lush Zayandeh Rud plain, at the foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The city enjoys a temperate climate and regular seasons. No obstacle exists as far as 90 km north of Isfahan and cool northern winds blow from this direction. Isfahan is located on the main north-south and east-west routes crossing Iran. It is situated at 1590 meters above sea level. It receives an average of 355 mm of rain per year, making it similar to Denver, Colorado in terms of altitude and precipitation. The temperature ranges between 2 and 28 degrees Celsius. The record high temperature was 42 degrees Celsius and the record low was −19 degrees Celsius. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2179x1915, 513 KB) Other versions originally uploaded on the en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2179x1915, 513 KB) Other versions originally uploaded on the en. ... Zayandeh Rud river as it passes under 33 pol in Isfahan. ... Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Colorado City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City 401. ...


The southern and western approaches of Isfahan are mountainous and it is bordered northward and eastward by fertile plains. Thus, Isfahan's climate is varied and occasionally rainy, with a precipitation average varying between 100 and 150 mm.


Isfahan was once one of the largest cities in the world. It flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th century under the Safavid dynasty, when it become the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. This led to the proverb Esfahān nesf-e jahān ast: "Esfahan is half of the world". Events Leofric becomes Bishop of Exeter Births Margrave Leopold II of Austria (d. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans) and beyond. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...


Of all Iranian cities, Isfahan is perhaps the most popular for tourists.


History

A Persian Rug depicting an old scene from the turquoise blue mosque of Isfahan.
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A Persian Rug depicting an old scene from the turquoise blue mosque of Isfahan.

A rug depicting the great mosque of Isfahan. ... A rug depicting the great mosque of Isfahan. ...

Prehistory

The history of Isfahan can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent Archaeological discoveries, archaeologist have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages.


From the Elamites to the Arab conquest

Ancient Isfahan was part of the Elamite empire. Under the name of Aspandana it became one of the principal towns of the Median dynasty, when Iranian Medes settled there. Subsequently the province became part of the Achaemenid Empire and after the liberation of Iran from Macedonian occupation by the Arsacids, it became part of Parthian Empire. Isfahan was the centre and capital city of a large province, which was administered by Arsacid governors. In the Sassanid era, Isfahan was governed by "Espoohrans" or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had important royal positions, and served as the residence of these noble families as well. Moreover, in this period Isfahan was a military centre with strong fortifications. There were large population of Jews and christians concentrated around Isfahan at this time. This city was occupied by Arabs after the final defeat of Iranians. The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...


The Islamic Era

Isfahan, like other cities of Iran, fell under the rule of Arabs until the Abbasid era, only being attended to by Al-Mansur. In the 10th century, under the Buwayhid Dynasty, Isfahan regained its importance. In the reign of Malik Shah I of the Seljuk dyansty, Isfahan was again selected as capital and commenced another golden age. In this period, Isfahan was one of the most thriving and important cities of the world. The famous Persian philosopher Avicenna lived and taught there in the 11th century. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Abu Jafar Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712 - 775) (Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله ابن محمد المنصور) was the Abbasid Caliph who founded Baghdad in 762. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Ibn Sina or Avicenna was a Persian (Tājīk) physician, philosopher, and scientist who was born in 980 (370 AH) [1] in Afshana near Bukhara, now in Uzbekistan (then Persia), and died June 1037 (428 AH) [1] in Hamadan, Persia (Iran). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


This city was raided and massacred by The Mongols in the 13th century, followed by Timur in 1387. However, as the result of its suitable geographic situation, Isfahan flourished again especially in Safavid dynasty, which developed considerably. Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405) in Central Asia and... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ...

The entrance to Shah Mosque or Shah Jame' Mosque in Isfahan. This mosque is the most glorious sign of flourishing architecture during the Safavid dynasty.
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The entrance to Shah Mosque or Shah Jame' Mosque in Isfahan. This mosque is the most glorious sign of flourishing architecture during the Safavid dynasty.

The Golden Age of Isfahan arrived in the 16th century under Shah Abbas the Great (1587-1629), who made it the new capital of the Safavid dynasty. During the reign of Shah Abbas I, who unified Persia, Isfahan reached its pinnacle of briskness. Isfahan had parks, libraries and mosques that amazed Europeans, who had not seen anything like this at home. The Persians called it Nesf-e-Jahan, half the world; meaning that to see it was to see half the world. In its heyday it was also one of the largest with a population of one million; 163 mosques, 48 religious schools, 1801 shops and 263 public baths. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 260 KB) Beschreibung Friday Mosque in Isfahan, lokated at the place Meidan-e-Imam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 260 KB) Beschreibung Friday Mosque in Isfahan, lokated at the place Meidan-e-Imam. ... Shah Mosque is a mosque in Isfahan,Iran standing in soyth side of Naghsh-i Jahan square. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


In 1722, it was raided by the Afghans after a long siege, which left much of the city in ruins. Although the Afghans were a primary cause of Isfahan's decline, this can also be attributed to the development of maritime commerce by European merchants from such countries such as the Netherlands. Isfahan's wealth originated in its role as a chief waystation along the trans-Asia trade route, but trade dwindled as the cheaper sea routes increased in popularity for transporting commodities between Asia and Europe. // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


Culture

Architecture of Isfahan

 View of Ali Qapu Palace.
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View of Ali Qapu Palace.

The architecture of Isfahan is made up of eight traditional forms which taken together form the foundation in the same way that music was once based on a finite number of notes. These are modulated by the use of colors and textures to leaven the surfaces and are held together in an overall construction akin to that of a sonata in which connection leads to culmination through a transition space. To appreciate the skill of the architects and designers fully, it is necessary to have an appreciation of these fundamental concepts i.e. garden, platform, porch, gateway, dome, arched chamber, and minaret, although in the geometry and architecture of the buildings they are woven together to present a seamless whole. A full discussion of the underlying principles can be found in the paper entitled "The Alchemy of the Mosque", given to a joint meeting of the School of Architecture and the Islamic Society of the University of Manchester in 1997. Ali-qapu palace at Isfahans central square, early 17th century. ... Ali-qapu palace at Isfahans central square, early 17th century. ... Ali Qapu (the Sublime Gate) is a grand palace in Isfahan, Iran. ...


Historical sites

Interior view of the dome, Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque
Interior view of the dome, Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque
Squares and Streets
  • Naqsh-e Jahan Square also known as "Shah Square" or "Imam Square" - 1602.
  • Meydan Kohne (Old Square)
  • Shahshahan Square
  • Chaharbagh Boulevard - 1596.
  • Chaharbagh-e-khajou Boulevard
Palaces
Madressa (religious schools)
Mosques
Caravanserais
  • Shah Carvanserai
Bridges
Khaju Bridge over Zayandeh rud River.
Khaju Bridge over Zayandeh rud River.
  • Pol-e Shahrestan (The Shahrestan Bridge) - 11th Century. sharestan bridge
  • Pol-e Khaju (Khaju Bridge) - 1650.khajoo bridge
  • Si-o-Seh Pol (The Bridge of 33 Arches) - 1602.
  • Pol-e-Joui or Choobi (Joui bridge).
Churches and Cathedrals
  • Vank Cathedral - 17th century.Vank Cathedral
  • Kelisaye Maryam (Maryam Church).
Other sites
  • Atashgah Atashgah- a Zoroastrian fire temple.
  • Buqe'h-ye Ibn-Sina (Avicenna's Dome) - 12th Century.
  • The Tombs of Nizam al-Mulk & Malek Shah - 12th & 18th Century.
  • New Julfa (The Armenian Quarter).
  • The Bathhouse of Sheikh Bahai.
  • Pigeon Towers - 17th Century.Pigeon_house
  • Manar jonban

Shah Mosque is a mosque in Isfahan,Iran standing in soyth side of Naghsh-i Jahan square. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque can be seen on the left. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x639, 171 KB) Photo courtesy of Iranian Cultural & Information Center If used outside Wikipedia, please credit: Photo courtesy of Iranian Cultural & Information Center Khaju Bridge, Isfahan, Iran. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x639, 171 KB) Photo courtesy of Iranian Cultural & Information Center If used outside Wikipedia, please credit: Photo courtesy of Iranian Cultural & Information Center Khaju Bridge, Isfahan, Iran. ... Zayandeh Rud river as it passes under 33 pol in Isfahan. ... 33 Pol outer view. ... The most visited cathedral in isfahan built in early safavid period in jolfa district of Isfahan. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Yazd Atash Behram A Fire Temple (also Dar-e Mihr, or Atash Kadeh in Iran, Agiary in India, and various names in North America) is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ... New Julfa is a quarter of Isfahan, Iran, located on the outskirts of the city. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Rugs of Isfahan

Main article: Isfahan rug
An old master of hand-printed carpets in Isfahan bazaar.

Isfahan has long been one of the centers for production of the famous Persian Rug. Weaving in Isfahan flourished in the Safavid era. But when the Afghans invaded Iran, ending the Safavid dynasty, the craft also became stagnant. A traditional rug mender in Isfahan The Iranian city of Isfahan (also spelt Esfahan) has long been one of the centers for production of the famous Persian Rug. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1982 KB) Summary Market of Esfahan, Iran, 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1982 KB) Summary Market of Esfahan, Iran, 2004. ... A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. ...


Not until 1920s, between two world wars, was weaving again taken seriously by the people of Isfahan. They started to weave Safavid designs and once again became one of the most important nexus of the Iranian rug weaving industry. Isfahani carpets today are among the most wanted in world markets, having many customers in western countries. There have been two World Wars, now more commonly known as World War I or First World War (from 1914 to 1918), and World War II or Second World War (from 1939 to 1945). ...


Isfahani rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. Isfahani rugs and carpets often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos. These rugs and carpets usually have excellent quality.







Famous people from Isfahan

Artist
  • Mohammad-Ali Shirdarreh, famous photographer and artist
  • Mahmood Farshchian, famous miniatorist
  • Alireza Eftekhari, Singer
Politician or government related
Religious
Sportsmen
Writer and poet
Tomb of Arthur Pope and his wife in Isfahan.
Tomb of Arthur Pope and his wife in Isfahan.
Other
  • Jahangir Khan Ghashghaei
  • Ostad Jalaldin Homaei

Also, Isfahan is where Arthur Pope, famous American archaeologist and historian of Persian art and his wife Phyllis Ackerman are buried. Their tomb is near Khaju Bridge. Mohsen Nourbakhsh (born May 18, 1948 in Isfahan, died March 23, 2003) was an Iranian economist, most famous as Governor of the Central Bank of Iran. ... Sepahbod Amir Ahmadi Sepahbod Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi was a military leader and cabinet Minister of Iran. ... Hosein Fatemi is regarded as an Iranian patriot in history Hosein Fatemi, PhD, was a famous politician of Iran. ... Mohammad Baqer Majlesi, (علامه مجلسی) (1616 - 1689) known as Allameh Majlesi, was a famous Iranian Shia cleric of the Safavid era. ... Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei is a Grand Marja of Shia Islam. ... Ayatollah-al-ozma Haj Agha Rahim Arbab (b. ... Mohammad Beheshti Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Rahman Rezaei (رحمان رضايي in Persian, born February 20, 1975 in Esfahan) is an Iranian football player who plays for A.S. Livorno in the Serie A Italian league, as well as the Iranian national squad in the central back position. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Houshang Golshiri (هوشنگ گلشیری; in Persian; March 16, 1938 — June 6, 2000) was an Iranian fiction writer, critic and editor Golshiri was born in Isfahan in 1938 and raised in Abadan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Arthurpope. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Arthurpope. ... Pope and Ackerman are both buried here, in Isfahan. ... Mirza Abbas Khan Sheida, or Sheida-ye-Esfahani (b. ... Pope and Ackerman are both buried here, in Isfahan. ...


Isfahan today

Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF), Isfahan. Here, uranium oxides, uranium hexafluoride, and other uranium compounds are produced. This fuel fabrication assembly is a vital part of Iran's nuclear fuel cycle.
Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF), Isfahan. Here, uranium oxides, uranium hexafluoride, and other uranium compounds are produced. This fuel fabrication assembly is a vital part of Iran's nuclear fuel cycle.

Today Isfahan, the third largest city in Iran, produces fine carpets, textiles, steel, and handicrafts. Isfahan also has nuclear experimental reactors as well as facilities for producing nuclear fuel (UCF). Isfahan has one of the largest steel producing facilities in the entire region, as well as facilities for producing special alloys. Isfahans Uranium Conversion Facility, Iran. ... Isfahans Uranium Conversion Facility, Iran. ... Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium. ... Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


At Isfahan uranium is converted into Uranium hexafluoride UF6, which in its gaseous form is spun at high speed in the centrifuges to extract the fissile isotope. Isfahan is Iran's only domestic source of UF6. According to IAEA Iran is building hardened bunkers under Isfahan to protect UF6 production. (telegraph.co.uk January 25, 2006 1145) Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


The cities of Najaf-abad, Khaneh Isfahan, Khomeini-shahr, Shahin-shahr, Zarrin-shahr, and Fulad-e Mobarakeh all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan. The city has an international airport and is in the final stages of constructing its first Metro line. Metro is: a general term, synonymous with rapid transit, subway or underground, for an urban underground rail public transit system (see list of rapid transit systems); any of several specific public transport systems, including: Bi-State Development Agency in Missouri and Illinois, d/b/a Metro since 2003 Buffalo Metro...


Over 2000 companies are working in the area using Isfahan's economic, cultural, and social potentials. Isfahan contains a major oil refinery and a large airforce base. HESA, Iran's most advanced aircraft manufacturing plant (where the AN-140 aircraft is made), is located nearby.[1]


Sports

Isfahan has two football (soccer) clubs that have been title contenders in Iran's Premier Football League. These are: Irans Premier Football League known as the Iran Premier League(IPL) and now officially as the Persian Gulf Cup is the most important football league in Iran. ...

Sepahan ( سپاهان in Persian) is one of the teams in Irans Premier Football League. ... Zob Ahan (ذوب‌آهن in Persian) is a football team based in the city of Isfahan, Iran. ...

Colleges and universities

Aside from the seminaries and religious schools, the major universities of the Isfahan metropolitan area are:

  1. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  2. Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan University of Technology ranks among the top 5 universities of Iran.
  3. University of Isfahan
  4. Isfahan University of Art
  5. Isfahan University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
  6. Islamic Azad University of Isfahan
  7. Islamic Azad University of Khomeinishahr
  8. Islamic Azad University of Khorasegan
  9. Islamic Azad University of Mobarakeh
  10. Islamic Azad University of Najaf Abad
  11. Ashrafi Isfahani Academic Institute
  12. Malek Ashtar University of Technology
  13. University of Defence Sciences and Technologies

There are also more than 50 Technical and Vocational Training Centers under administration of Isfahan TVTO which provide non-formal training programs freely over the province: School of Dentistry Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, is a large medical school of Iran. ... Logo of Isfahan university of technology Isfahan University of Technology, I.U.T., (دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان in Persian) is one of the major universities in Iran for the sciences, technology, and agriculture. ... The University of Isfahan is the largest university in Isfahan Province in Iran. ... A University in Isfahan, Iran. ...

 Isfahan Technical and Vocational Training Organization 

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Country Italy Region Tuscany Province Florence (FI) Mayor Leonardo Domenici Elevation 50 m Area 102 km² Population  - Total (as of 2006-06-02) 366,488  - Density 3,593/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Fiorentini Dialing code 055 Postal code 50100 Frazioni Galluzzo, Settignano Patron St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Freiburg city from Schlossberg Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Breisgau region, on the western edge of the southern Black Forest (German: Schwarzwald) with about 214,000 inhabitants. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: , translated the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Yerevan (Armenian: ÔµÖ€Õ¥Ö‚Õ¡Õ¶ or ÔµÖ€Ö‡Õ¡Õ¶; sometimes written as Erevan; former names include Erebuni and Erivan) (population: 1,088,300 (2004 estimate) [1]) is the largest city and capital of Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Nickname: KL Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Peace and progress) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Federal Territory Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Mayor Ruslin Hasan Area    - City 243. ...

Further References

  • Reza Abouei, Urban Planning of Isfahan in the Seventeenth Century, Sheffield, 2004, article available on planum.net

Gallery

See also

Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, is the second largest square in the world and arguably the gem of Persian architectural masterpieces. ... // Isfahan province has enjoyed the benefit of being capital of Persia for 200 years during the 17th and 18th centuries. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Municipality or other government related websites
  • Municipality of Isfahan
  • Isfahan Official website
    • region 1 site region 2 site region 3 site region 4 site region 5 site region 6 site region 7 site region 8 site region 9 site region 10 site region 11 site
  • Isfahan Metro
Other websites
  • Photos of Isfahan Cultural Places
  • Pictures of Isfahan from Iranchamber.com
  • Isfahan Cultural Heritage Organization
  • Isfahan photos, attractions, hotels
  • A Quicktime animation about the architecture of Isfahan
  • Isfahan entries in the Encyclopædia Iranica

 
 

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