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Encyclopedia > Isavirus

Infectious salmon anemia or anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) which affect fish farms in Canada, Norway and Scotland, causing severe losses to infected farms. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A bacteriophage virus A virus is a submicroscopic parasite that infects cells in biological organisms. ... A disease is an abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... Binomial name Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, from the Latin words Salmo meaning salmon, and salar meaning leaper) is a fish species of the Salmonidae family found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the Atlantic. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ...


The aetiological agent of ISA is the infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). ISAV is the only species in the genus "Isavirus" which is in the family Orthomyxoviridae. Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ...

Contents


Pathology

As the name implies, it causes severe anemia of infected fish. The fish develop pale gills, and may swim close to the water surface, gulping for air. However, the disease can also develop without the fish showing any external signs of illness, the fish maintain a normal appetite,and then they suddenly die. The disease can progress slowly throughout an infected farm and, in the worst cases, death rates may approach 100%. Post-mortem examination of the fish has shown a wide range of causes of death. The liver and spleen may be swollen, congested or partially already dead. The circulatory system may stop working, and the blood may be contaminated with dead blood cells. Red blood cells still present often burst easily and the numbers of immature and damaged blood cells are increased. This article discusses the medical condition. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: the most abundant species of fish in the world. ... gills of a Smooth Newt Gills inside of a tuna head In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ... The liver is one of the largest internal organs of the human body. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is not necessary for life but is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and removal of other debris from the bloodstream, and also in holding a reservoir of blood. ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ...


Infectious salmon anemia appears to be most like influenza viruses. Its mode of transfer and the natural reservoirs of infectious salmon anemia virus are not fully understood. Apart from Atlantic salmon, both sea-run Brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) can be infected, but do not become sick, so it is thought possible that these species may act as important carriers and reservoirs of the virus. Binomial name Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Salmo trutta fario Salmo trutta trutta The Brown Trout (Salmo trutta fario) and the Sea Trout (Salmo trutta trutta) are fish distinguished chiefly by the fact that the Brown Trout is largely a freshwater fish, while the Sea Trout shows anadromous reproduction, spawning... Binomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, a. ...


Spread of the disease

In the autumn of 1984, a new disease was observed in Atlantic salmon being farmed along the southwest coast of Norway. The disease, which was named Infectious salmon anemia, spreadd slowly. By June 1988 it had become sufficiently widespread and serious to require the Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food to declare it a notifiable disease. 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The functions of the King of Norway are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. ... Diseases which must, by law, be reported to governmental authorities by medical practitioners are called notifiable diseases or reportable diseases. ...


In the summer of 1996, a new disease appeared in Atlantic salmon being farmed in New Brunswick, Canada. The death rate of the fish on affected farms was very high and, following extensive scientific examination of the victims, the disease was named "hemorrhagic kidney syndrome." Although the source and distribution of this disease was not known, the results of studies by Norwegian and Canadian scientists showed conclusively that the same virus was responsible for both infectious salmon anemia and hemorrhagic kidney syndrome. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 11th 72 908 km² 71 450 km² 1 458 km...


In May 1998, a salmon farm at Loch Nevis on the west coast of Scotland reported its suspicions of an outbreak of infectious salmon anemia. The suspicions were confirmed, and by the end of the year, the disease had spread to an additional fifteen farms not only on the Scottish mainland but also on Skye and Shetland. 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (An t-Eilean Sgitheanach in Scottish Gaelic) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ...


Transmission

Transmission of the virus has been demonstrated to occur by contact with infected fish or their secretions. Contact with equipment or people who have handled infected fish also transmits the virus. The virus can survive in seawater and, not surprisingly, a major risk factor for any uninfected farm is its proximity to an already infected farm. More recently the sea-louse, a small crustacean parasite that attacks the protective mucous, scales and skin of the salmon has been shown to carry the virus passively on its surface and in its digestive tract, although transmission of the disease by sea lice has not been demonstrated. It is not known whether the Infectious salmon anemia virus can reproduce itself in the sea louse, although this is a remote possibility as viruses are usually very host specific unlike bacterial diseases that can replicate in ticks such as Lyme's disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... The word mucous is an adjective which means pertaining to mucus or having the qualities of mucus. ... In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek lepid, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animals skin to provide protection. ... Diagram of the layers of human skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. ...


Control and treatment

ISA is major threat to the viability of salmon farming and is now the first of the diseases classified on List One of the European Commission’s fish health regime. Amongst other measures, this requires the total eradication of the entire fish stock should an outbreak of the disease be confirmed on any farm. The economic and social consequences of both the disease and the measures used to control it are thus very far reaching. Infectious salmon anemia is currently regarded as a serious threat not only to farmed salmon, but also to dwindling stocks of wild salmon. Anecdotal evidence suggests that fish which survive the first infection become immune to the virus. Work is now underway to develop a vaccine against ISA. A recent report suggests that the North American virus may be slightly different to the Norwegian virus. This makes it unlikely that the sudden appearance of the disease, at least in Canada, was due to the importation of infected Norwegian fish. The possibility then is that a single vaccine might only be effective in a limited area and maybe only for a limited time. The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emmigration) are considered to be insignificant. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...


Reference

  • Ely, B. Infectious Salmon Anaemia. Mill Hill Essays, National Institute for Medical Research.

Raynard RS, Murray AG, Gregory A (2001) Infectious salmon anaemia virus in wild fish from Scotland, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 46: 93-100


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