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Encyclopedia > Isauria

Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. It derives its name from the contentious Isaurian tribe and twin settlements Isaura Nea (Isaura Nova) and Isaura Palaea (Isaura Vetus). Isaurian marauders were fiercely independent mountain people who created havoc in neighboring districts under Macedonian and Roman occupations. Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... shows the Location of the Province Antalya Cities and Districts of the Province Antalya Antalya is a province in southwest Turkey. ... The Taurus Mountains or simply the Taurus, (Turkish Toros, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range, forming the rugged southeastern rim of the Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates River descends into Syria. ...


The permanent nucleus of Isauria was north of the Taurus range which lies directly to south of Iconium and Lystra. Lycaon had all the Iconian plain; but Isauria began as soon as the foothills were reached. Its two original towns, Isaura Nea and Isaura Palaea, lay, one among these foothills (Doria) and the other on the watershed (Zengibar Kale). Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Doria, originally de Auria (from de filiis Auriae), meaning the sons of Auria, and then de Oria or dOria, is the name of an old Genoese family whose history is indistiguishable from that of the Republic of Genoa from the 12th century to the 16th century. ... A water divide, or watershed, is relatively high ground between water basins. ...


In the 4th century BC, Isauria began as it would end, and became the wild district about Isaura Palaea and the heads of the Calycadnus. When the capital, Isaura (also known as Isaura Vetus or Isaura Palaea), a strongly fortified city at the foot of Mt. Taurus, was besieged by Perdiccas, the Macedonian regent after Alexander the Great's death, the Isaurians set the place alight and let it perish in flames rather than submit to capture. Perdiccas (d. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: [1], Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of the known world before his death; he is frequently included in a...


Roman domination

When the Romans first encountered the Isaurians (early in the 1st century BC), they regarded Cilicia Trachea as part of Isauria, which thus extended to the sea; and this extension of the name continued to be in common use for two centuries. The whole basin of the Calycadnus was reckoned Isaurian, and the cities in the valley of its southern branch formed what was known as the Isaurian Decapolis. The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... In ancient geography, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) formed a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... The Göksu (Geuk Su, Goksu Nehri, Saleph, Calycadnus) is a river in Cilicia (Turkey). ...


The Isaurians were brought partially under control (76–75 BC) by the Romans. During the war of the Cilician and other pirates against Rome, the Isaurians took so active a part that the proconsul P. Servilius deemed it necessary to follow them into their rugged strongholds, and compel the whole people to submission, an exploit for which he received the title of Isauricus (75 BC). The Isaurians were afterwards placed for a time under the rule of Amyntas, king of Galatia; but it is evident that they continued to retain their predatory habits and virtual independence. In the 3rd century they sheltered the rebel emperor Trebonianus Gallus. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Trebonianus Gallus on a coin celebrating Aeternitas. ...


In the early 4th century all Cilicia was detached by order of Diocletian for administrative purposes from the northern slope of Taurus, and we find a province called at first Isauria-Lycaonia, and later Isauria alone, extending up to the limits of Galatia, but not passing Taurus on the south. Pisidia, part of which had hitherto been included in one province with Isauria, was also detached, and made to include Iconium. In compensation Isauria received the eastern part of Pamphylia. Emperor Diocletian. ... Pisidia was an inland region in southern Anatolia. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ...


In the 4th century they were still described by Ammianus Marcellinus as the scourge of the neighbouring provinces of Asia Minor but they were said to have been effectually subdued in the reign of Justinian I. Ammianus Marcellinus is a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ...


This comparatively obscure people produced two Byzantine emperors, Zeno, whose native name was Traskalisseus Rousoumbladeotes, and Leo III, who ascended the throne of Constantinople in 718, reigned until 741, and became the founder of a dynasty of three generations. The empire used Isaurians as soldiers, general and at one point they even formed part of the emperor's personal guard; The Isaurian guard. The region had not been completely subdued until the arrival in the 11th century of the Seljuk Turks whose descendants have now coalesced with the local population and formed a settled people; these are thought to be the ancestors of the Kurds. Zeno on a coin celebrating his victories. ... :For homonyms, see Leo III Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian (c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Later history

The site contains ruins of the town and its fortifications. The ruins of Isaura Palaea are mainly remarkable for their fine situation, fortifications and tombs. Those of Isaura Nea has disappeared, but numerous inscriptions and many sculpture stelae, built into the houses of Doria, prove the site. It was the latter, and not the former town, that Servilius reduced by cutting off the water supply. J. S. Sterrett explored in the highland of Isauria in 1885 but it was not exhaustive. The site was identified by W. M. Ramsay in 1901. Doria, originally de Auria (from de filiis Auriae), meaning the sons of Auria, and then de Oria or dOria, is the name of an old Genoese family whose history is indistiguishable from that of the Republic of Genoa from the 12th century to the 16th century. ... Sir William Mitchell Ramsay (March 15, 1851 - April 20, 1939) was a British archaeologist. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Isauria - LoveToKnow 1911 (608 words)
ISAURIA, in ancient geography, a district in the interior of Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods.
When the Romans first encountered the Isaurians (early in the 1st century B.C.), they regarded Cilicia Trachea as part of Isauria, which thus extended to the sea; and this extension of the name continued to be in common use for two centuries.
The whole basin of the Calycadnus was reckoned Isaurian, and the cities in the valley of its southern branch formed what was known as the Isaurian Decapolis.
Isauria (300 words)
The exact extent of Isauria is difficult to ascertain, but it was not a large region.
The central parts of Isauria were in the Esenler Mountains 75 km directly south of modern Konya and 150 km northeast of modern Antalya, both Turkey.
Early 5th century: Tarasicodissa is born in Isauria; he would become Byzantine emperor 474-491 under the name of Zeno, bringing with him Isaurian notables into the imperial administration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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