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Encyclopedia > Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton at 46 in
Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait
Born 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1]
Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England
Died 31 March 1728 (aged 85) [OS: 20 March 1727][1]
Kensington, London, England
Residence  England
Nationality English
Field Theologian, Physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist
Institutions University of Cambridge
Royal Society
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge
Known for Newtonian mechanics
Universal gravitation
Infinitesimal calculus
Classical optics

In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the calculus. He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. â€œLeibnizâ€ redirects here. ... // The method of integration can be traced back to the Egyptians, in the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus circa 1800 BC, which gives the formula for finding the volume of a pyramidal frustrum. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, the binomial theorem is an important formula giving the expansion of powers of sums. ... In numerical analysis, Newtons method (also known as the Newtonâ€“Raphson method or the Newtonâ€“Fourier method) is an efficient algorithm for finding approximations to the zeros (or roots) of a real-valued function. ... Graph of example function, The mathematical concept of a function expresses the intuitive idea of deterministic dependence between two quantities, one of which is viewed as primary (the independent variable, argument of the function, or its input) and the other as secondary (the value of the function, or output). A... In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form where the coefficients an, the center c, and the argument x are usually real or complex numbers. ...

In a 2005 poll of the Royal Society of who had the greatest effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed more influential than Albert Einstein.[2] For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ...

Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 â€“ 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 â€“ 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Knellers 1689 portrait The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton, the English mathematician and scientist, author of the Principia. ... Isaac Newton (Godfrey Kneller, National Portrait Gallery London, 1702) // Newton and Gottfried Leibniz developed calculus independently, using their own unique notations (as most great mathematicions do. ... During his residence in London, Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. ... The years 1685 and 1686 will ever be memorable in the history of science. ... Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Knellers 1689 portrait The law of gravity became Sir Isaac Newtons best-known discovery. ... The unpublished work of Isaac Newton included much that would now be classified as occult studies. ...

### Early years

Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller.

Newton is believed by some researchers to have suffered from Asperger's Syndrome, a form of autism.[4][5] Indeed it is believed that like other historical geniuses Asperger's may have been the very cause of Newton's intellect. Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS, or the more common shorthand Aspergers), is characterized as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders, and is commonly referred to as a form of high functioning autism. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...

According to E.T. Bell and H. Eves: Newton began his schooling in the village schools and was later sent to The King's School, Grantham, where he became the top student in the school. At King's, he lodged with the local apothecary, William Clarke and eventually became engaged to the apothecary's stepdaughter, Anne Storer, before he went off to the University of Cambridge at the age of 19. As Newton became engrossed in his studies, the romance cooled and Miss Storer married someone else. It is said he kept a warm memory of this love, but Newton had no other recorded "sweet-hearts" and never married.[6] For other persons named Eric Bell, see Eric Bell (disambiguation). ... The Kings School, is an English educational institution in Grantham, Lincolnshire with an unbroken history on the same site since the date of its endowment as one of the last acts of Richard Foxe in 1528. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... William Clarke was the apothecary who provided lodgings for a young Sir Isaac Newton whilst he attended Grantham grammar school. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...

He is suspected to have been a virgin throughout his life.[7] However, Bell and Eves' sources for this claim, William Stukeley and Mrs. Vincent (the former Miss Storer — actually named Katherine, not Anne), merely say that Newton entertained "a passion" for Storer while he lodged at the Clarke house.

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He was, by later reports of his contemporaries, thoroughly unhappy with the work. It appears to have been Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, who persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. This he did at the age of eighteen, achieving an admirable final report. The Kings School, is an English educational institution in Grantham, Lincolnshire with an unbroken history on the same site since the date of its endowment as one of the last acts of Richard Foxe in 1528. ... Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth is a hamlet in the parish of Colsterworth, in the English county of Lincolnshire, best known as the birthplace of the scientist, philosopher, alchemist, and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton. ...

In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge. At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Galileo, Copernicus and Kepler. In 1665, he discovered the generalized binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in April of 1665, the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. For the next 2 years, Newton worked at his home in Woolsthorpe on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation. Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names Kingâ€™s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... Aristotle (Greek: AristotÃ©lÄ“s) (384 BC â€“ 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... â€œDescartesâ€ redirects here. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Galileo redirects here. ... â€œCopernicusâ€ redirects here. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 â€“ November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ...

### Middle years

Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889)

Isaac Newton (Godfrey Kneller, National Portrait Gallery London, 1702) // Newton and Gottfried Leibniz developed calculus independently, using their own unique notations (as most great mathematicions do. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1338, 331 KB) Sir Isaac Newton From: Sarah K. Bolton: Famous Men of Science (New York, 1889). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1338, 331 KB) Sir Isaac Newton From: Sarah K. Bolton: Famous Men of Science (New York, 1889). ...

#### Mathematics

Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz had developed calculus independently, using their own unique notations. According to Newton's inner circle, Newton had worked out his method years before Leibniz, yet he published almost nothing about it until 1693, and did not give a full account until 1704. Meanwhile, Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Moreover, Leibniz's notation and "differential Method" were universally adopted on the Continent, and after 1820 or so, in the British Empire. Whereas Leibniz's notebooks show the advancement of the ideas from early stages until maturity, there is only the end product in Newton's known notes. Newton claimed that he had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared being mocked for it. Newton had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. In 1691 Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, but never finished it. Some of Newton's biographers have suggested that the relationship may have been romantic.[8] However, in 1694 the relationship between the two men cooled down. At the time, Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.

Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. Thus began the bitter Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy, which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Isaac Newton began working on a form of the calculus in 1666. ...

Newton is generally credited with the generalized binomial theorem, valid for any exponent. He discovered Newton's identities, Newton's method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences, and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula), and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. He also discovered a new formula for calculating pi. In mathematics, the binomial theorem is an important formula giving the expansion of powers of sums. ... In mathematics, Newtons identities relate two different ways of describing the roots of a polynomial. ... In numerical analysis, Newtons method (also known as the Newtonâ€“Raphson method or the Newtonâ€“Fourier method) is an efficient algorithm for finding approximations to the zeros (or roots) of a real-valued function. ... There are two subfields of mathematics that concern themselves with finite differences. ... In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is an equation between two polynomials with integer coefficients with any number of unknowns. ... In mathematics, the Euler-Maclaurin formula provides a powerful connection between integrals (see calculus) and sums. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ...

He was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. In that day, any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford had to be an ordained Anglican priest. However, the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II, whose permission was needed, accepted this argument. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. The incumbent of the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, the Lucasian Professor is the holder of a mathematical professorship at Cambridge University. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 â€“ 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...

#### Optics

A replica of Newton's 6-inch reflecting telescope of 1672 for the Royal Society.

He also showed that the colored light does not change its properties, by separating out a colored beam and shining it on various objects. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same color. Thus the colors we observe are the result of how objects interact with the incident already-colored light, not the result of objects generating the color. For more details, see Newton's theory of color. Download high resolution version (1024x891, 118 KB)A replica of Isaac Newtons telescope of 1672. ... Download high resolution version (1024x891, 118 KB)A replica of Isaac Newtons telescope of 1672. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Knellers 1689 portrait The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton, the English mathematician and scientist, author of the Principia. ...

From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem. By grinding his own mirrors, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror. In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Color, which he later expanded into his Opticks. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. The two men remained enemies until Hooke's death. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dispersion of a light beam in a prism. ... Newtonian Telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727), using a parabolic primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror. ... Newtons rings (created by green monochromatic light) The phenomenon of Newtons rings, named after Isaac Newton, is an interference pattern caused by the reflection of light between two surfaces - a spherical surface and an adjacent flat surface. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 â€“ March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ...

Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles and were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light (Opticks Bk. II, Props. XII-L). Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for diffraction. Today's quantum mechanics, photons and the idea of wave-particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space or spacetime, transferring energy and momentum and sometimes angular momentum. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... In physics, the photon (from Greek Ï†Ï‰Ï‚, phÅs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ...

In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. The contact with the theosophist Henry More, revived his interest in alchemy. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians."[9] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.[10] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.) The luminiferous aether: it was hypothesised that the Earth moves through a medium of aether that carries light In the late 19th century luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether) was the term used to describe a medium for the propagation of light. ... Seal of the Theosophical Society Theosophy is a body of belief which holds that all religions are attempts by man to ascertain the Divine, and as such each religion has a portion of the truth. ... Henry More. ... Hermeticism should not be confused with the concept of a hermit. ... John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced cains, IPA ) (5 June 1883 â€“ 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments fiscal policies. ... The word occult comes from the Latin occultus (clandestine, hidden, secret), referring to knowledge of the hidden.[1] In the medical sense it is used commonly to refer to a structure or process that is hidden, e. ... In physics, action at a distance is the interaction of two objects which are separated in space with no known mediator of the interaction. ... The unpublished work of Isaac Newton included much that would now be classified as occult studies. ...

In 1704 Newton wrote Opticks, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, ...and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[11] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe (Optics, 8th Query). Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. ... An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. ... This article is about the material. ...

#### Mechanics and gravitation

Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition.
Further information: The writing of Principia Mathematica

The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (now known as the Principia) was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the force that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation. In the same work he presented the first analytical determination, based on Boyle's law, of the speed of sound in air. Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... // Portrait of Edmond Halley painted around 1687 by Thomas Murray (Royal Society, London) Portrait of Edmond Halley Bust of Edmond Halley in the Museum of the Royal Greenwich Observatory Edmond Halley FRS (sometimes Edmund; IPA: ) (November 8, 1656 â€“ January 14, 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 â€“ 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 â€“ 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ... Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws and basis of derivation for the Ideal gas law, which describes relationship between the product pressure and volume within a closed system as constant when temperature remains at a fixed measure; both entities...

With the Principia, Newton became internationally recognised. He acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. The end of this friendship led Newton to a nervous breakdown. Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (1664-1753) was a Swiss mathematician and a Fellow of the Royal Society. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

### Later life

For more details on this topic, see Isaac Newton's later life.
Isaac Newton in 1712. Portrait by Sir James Thornhill.

In the 1690s Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). During his residence in London, Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. ... Image File history File links Newton_25. ... Image File history File links Newton_25. ... Potrait of Sir Isaac Newton in old age by James Thornhill, 1709-12. ... For other uses, see Tract. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Henry More. ... Cartesian dualism was Descartess principle of the separation of mind and matter and mind and body. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...

Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but his only recorded comments were to complain about a cold draft in the chamber and request that the window be closed. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ...

Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. He took charge of England's great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Master Lucas (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon Lucas' death in 1699, a position Newton held until his death. These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Newton took them seriously, retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. As Master of the Mint in 1717 Newton unofficially moved the Pound Sterling from the silver standard to the gold standard by creating a relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in the "Law of Queen Anne"; these were all great reforms at the time, adding considerably to the wealth and stability of England. It was his work at the Mint, rather than his earlier contributions to science, that earned him a knighthood from Queen Anne in 1705. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. ... Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax (April 16, 1661 - May 19, 1715) was Chancellor of the Exchequer, poet, statesman, and Earl of Halifax. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Look up comptroller in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Master of the Mint was an important office in the British government between the 16th and 19th centuries. ... A sinecure (from Latin sine, without, and cura, care) means an office which requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. ... Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency. ... // Events January 4 â€” The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... â€œGBPâ€ redirects here. ... The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver. ... The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. ... Anne (6 February 1665 â€“ 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III and II. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...

Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey

Newton died in London on March 31, 1727 [OS: March 20, 1727][1], and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt,[12] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle,"[13] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Although Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years he actually died intestate. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Catherine Barton (1679-?) was Isaac Newtons half-niece, and had a relationship with Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax after his wifes death in 1698. ... Jermyn Street is a street in central London, England, parallel and adjacent to Piccadilly that is famous for its resident shirtmakers. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Intestacy is the condition of the estate of a person who dies owning property greater than the sum of his or her enforceable debts and funeral expenses without having made a valid will or other binding declaration; alternatively where such a will or declaration has been made, but only applies...

After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[14] General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ...

## Religious views

Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[15] Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Knellers 1689 portrait The law of gravity became Sir Isaac Newtons best-known discovery. ...

His scientific fame notwithstanding, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He also placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[16] He also attempted, unsuccessfully, to find hidden messages within the Bible (See Bible code). Topics in Christianity Movements Â· Denominations Ecumenism Â· Preaching Â· Prayer Music Â· Liturgy Â· Calendar Symbols Â· Art Â· Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul Â· Church Fathers Constantine Â· Athanasius Â· Augustine Anselm Â· Aquinas Â· Palamas Â· Luther Calvin Â· Wesley Arius Â· Marcion of Sinope Pope Â· Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English Mathematician and Scholar Isaac Newton. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book that publicized the codes, see The Bible Code (book). ...

Newton may have rejected the church's doctrine of the Trinity. In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that he more likely held the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and most Protestants.[17] In his own day, he was also accused of being a Rosicrucian (as were many in the Royal Society and in the court of Charles II).[18] Topics in Christianity Movements Â· Denominations Ecumenism Â· Preaching Â· Prayer Music Â· Liturgy Â· Calendar Symbols Â· Art Â· Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul Â· Church Fathers Constantine Â· Athanasius Â· Augustine Anselm Â· Aquinas Â· Palamas Â· Luther Calvin Â· Wesley Arius Â· Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope Â· Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury Â· Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ...

In his own lifetime, Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. Thus, the ordered and dynamically informed universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason, but this universe, to be perfect and ordained, had to be regular. Hylozoism is the philosophical doctrine that all or some material things possess life. ... Baruch de Spinoza (â€Ž, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 â€“ February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...

### Newton's effect on religious thought

"Newton," by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted as a 'divine geometer'

Newton and Robert Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[19] Thus, the clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[20] and, at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion." William Blakes Newton (1795), colour print with pen & ink and watercolour. ... William Blakes Newton (1795), colour print with pen & ink and watercolour. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 â€“ August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 â€“ 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... A pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who creates or distributes pamphlets: for example in order to get people to vote for their favourite politician or to articulate a particular political ideology. ... Pantheism (Greek: Ï€Î¬Î½ ( pan ) = all and Î¸ÎµÏŒÏ‚ ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... Latitudinarian was initially a pejorative term applied to a group of 17th century British theologians who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... â€œAtheistâ€ redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ...

The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking," and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[21] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[22] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[23] 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements Â· Denominations Â· Other religions Ecumenism Â· Preaching Â· Prayer Music Â· Liturgy Â· Calendar Symbols Â· Art Â· Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul Â· Church Fathers Constantine Â· Athanasius Â· Augustine Anselm Â· Aquinas Â· Palamas Â· Luther Calvin Â· Wesley Arius Â· Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury Â· Catholic Pope Coptic Pope Â· Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian mysticism... In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[24][25][26] But the unforeseen theological consequence of his conception of God, as Leibniz pointed out, was that God was now entirely removed from the world’s affairs, since the need for intervention would only evidence some imperfection in God’s creation, something impossible for a perfect and omnipotent creator.[27] Leibniz's theodicy cleared God from the responsibility for "l'origine du mal" by making God removed from participation in his creation. The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[28] Christian doctrine redirects here. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is the power to do absolutely anything. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ...

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[29] Millenarianism or millenarism is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ...

## Views over end of the world

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[30] The unpublished work of Isaac Newton included much that would now be classified as occult studies. ... For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ...

## Newton and the counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20% of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convictions of the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult to achieve; however, Newton proved to be equal to the task. The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... Under English (and later, British) law, high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Sovereign amounting to an intention to undermine their authority or the actual attempt to do so. ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ...

He gathered much of that evidence himself, disguised, while he hung out at bars and taverns. For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton was made a justice of the peace and between June 1698 and Christmas 1699 conducted some 200 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers and suspects. Newton won his convictions and in February 1699, he had ten prisoners waiting to be executed. English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ...

Possibly Newton's greatest triumph as the king's attorney was against William Chaloner. One of Chaloner's schemes was to set up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turn in the hapless conspirators whom he entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins. Newton was outraged, and went about the work to uncover anything about Chaloner. During his studies, he found that Chaloner was engaged in counterfeiting. He immediately put Chaloner on trial, but Mr Chaloner had friends in high places, and to Newton's horror, Chaloner walked free. Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[31] is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch. ...

## Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors—Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally—as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[32] 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... â€œNaturalâ€ redirects here. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ...

It was Newton’s conception of the universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became the seed for Enlightenment ideology. Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems and the sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature. Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... The Physiocrats were a group of thinkers who believed in an economic theory which considered that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Psychology (from Greek: Literally knowledge of the soul (mind)) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚, lÃ³gos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... Historical progress has been a main object of philosophy of history. ... Lord Monboddo, pencil sketch by John Brown, circa 1777 James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (October 25, 1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar of language evolution and philosopher. ... Samuel Clarke. ...

Newton was also a well-known drug abuser.

## Newton's laws of motion

The famous three laws of motion: Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ...

1. Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force.
2. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force, F, on an object equals the time rate of change of its momentum, p. Mathematically, this is written as $vec F = frac{dvec p}{dt} , = , frac{d}{dt} (m vec v) , = , vec v , frac{dm}{dt} + m , frac{dvec v}{dt} ,.$ Assuming the mass to be constant, the first term vanishes. Defining the acceleration to be $vec a = dvec v/dt$ results in the famous equation $vec F = m , vec a ,$ which states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to its mass. In the MKS system of measurement, mass is given in kilograms, acceleration in metres per second squared, and force in newtons (named in his honour).
3. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ...

## Newton's apple

A reputed descendant of Newton's apple tree, found in the Botanic Gardens in Cambridge.

A popular story claims that Newton was inspired to formulate his theory of universal gravitation by the fall of an apple from a tree. Cartoons have gone further to suggest the apple actually hit Newton's head, and that its impact somehow made him aware of the force of gravity. John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, described the event when he wrote about Newton's life:

 “ In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so, that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit, whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition.[34] ”

The question was not whether gravity existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation".

A contemporary writer, William Stukeley, recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726, in which Newton recalled "when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. It was occasioned by the fall of an apple, as he sat in contemplative mood. Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground, thought he to himself. Why should it not go sideways or upwards, but constantly to the earth's centre." In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727), "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree." These accounts are probably exaggerations of Newton's own tale about sitting by a window in his home (Woolsthorpe Manor) and watching an apple fall from a tree. The Rev. ... Woolsthorpe Manor, Birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Woolsthorpe Manor in Lincolnshire, England, was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on December 25, 1642 (old calendar). ...

Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. The King's School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later, the staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[35] can supply grafts from their tree (ref 1948-729), which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... The Flower of Kent is a large green variety of apple. ...

## Writings by Newton

Method of Fluxions was a book by Isaac Newton. ... De motu corporum in gyrum (On the motion of bodies in an orbit) is a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmund Halley in November 1684. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. ... Title page of the Arithmetica, published 1707 The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 The Arithmetica Universalis was a mathematics text written by Isaac Newton. ... An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English Mathematician and Scholar Isaac Newton. ...

## Fame

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that he was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[37] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Joseph-Louis, comte de Lagrange (January 25, 1736 Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia - April 10, 1813 Paris) was an Italian-French mathematician and astronomer who made important contributions to all fields of analysis and number theory and to classical and celestial mechanics as arguably the greatest mathematician of the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... An epitaph ( literally: on the gravestone in ancient Greek) is text honoring the deceased, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ...

 “ Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. ”

Newton himself was rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676 Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 â€“ March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ...

 “ If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants ”

Historians generally think the above quote was an attack on Hooke (who was short and hunchbacked), rather than - or in addition to - a statement of modesty. The two were in a dispute over optical discoveries at the time. The latter interpretation also fits with many of his other disputes over his discoveries - such as the question of who discovered calculus as discussed above.

And then in a memoir later

 “ I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[38] ”

## Footnotes and references

1. ^ a b c d e During Newton's lifetime, two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of Eastern Europe, and the Gregorian or 'New Style' elsewhere. At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar, but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. Moreover, the English new year began on 25 March (the anniversary of the Incarnation) and not on 1 January (until the general adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1753). Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.
2. ^ Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public. The Royal Society. Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
3. ^ Cohen, I.B. (1970). Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 11, p.43. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
4. ^ Einstein and Newton 'had autism, BBC News, 30 April 2003[1]
5. ^ Muir, Hazel: Einstein and Newton showed signs of autism, NewScientist, 30 April 2003[2]
6. ^ Bell, E.T. [1937] (1986). Men of Mathematics, Touchstone edition, New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 91–2.
7. ^ Book Review Isaac Newton biography December 2003
8. ^ Biography of Isaac Newton at www.knittingcircle.org.uk
9. ^ Keynes, John Maynard (1972). ""Newton, The Man"", The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X, pp. 363–4.
10. ^ Westfall, Richard S. [1980] (1983). "Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 530–1.  notes that Newton apparently abandoned his alchemical researches.
11. ^ Dobbs, J.T. (December 1982). "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". Isis 73 (4): p. 523.  quoting Opticks
12. ^ Westfall 1980, p. 44.
13. ^ Westfall 1980, p. 595
14. ^ Newton, Isaac (1642-1727). Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. Retrieved on 2006-08-30.
15. ^ Tiner, J.H. (1975). Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Milford, Michigan, U.S.: Mott Media.
16. ^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, v. 1, pp. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33, provisionally judges 30 most likely.
17. ^ Pfizenmaier, T.C. (1997). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 68 (1): pp. 57–80.
18. ^ Yates, Frances A. (1972). The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. London: Routledge.
19. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. (1976). The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. Cornell University Press, pp. 37,44.
20. ^ Westfall, Richard S. (1958). Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 200.
21. ^ Haakonssen, Knud. "The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons", in Martin Fitzpatrick ed.: Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 64.
22. ^ Frankel, Charles (1948). The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. New York: King's Crown Press, p. 1.
23. ^ Germain, Gilbert G.. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology, p. 28.
24. ^ Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
25. ^ A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65.
26. ^ Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.
27. ^ Westfall, Richard S. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. p201.
28. ^ Marquard, Odo. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability," in Farewell to Matters of Principle. Robert M. Wallace trans. London: Oxford UP, 1989.
29. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. p100–101.
30. ^ Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse. The Associated Press (19 June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
31. ^ Westfall 1980, pp. 571–5
32. ^ Cassels, Alan. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. p2.
33. ^ Don Juan (1821), Canto 10, Verse I. In Jerome J. McGann (ed.), Lord Byron: The Complete Poetical Works (1986), Vol. 5, 437
34. ^ Conduitt, John. Keynes Ms. 130.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge. Newtonproject. Retrieved on 2006-08-30.
35. ^ http://www.brogdale.org.uk/nfc_home.php
36. ^ Newton's alchemical works transcribed and online at Indiana University retrieved January 11, 2007
37. ^ Fred L. Wilson, History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre, M. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. le comte J. L. Lagrange," Oeuvres de Lagrange I. Paris, 1867, p. xx.
38. ^ Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Ch. 27)

The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Don Juan with his sword in Don Giovanni, by Mozart Don Juan is a legendary fictional libertine, whose story has been told many times by different authors. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

## Resources

### References

• Bell, E.T. (1937). Men of Mathematics. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-46400-0.  Excerpt
• Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & his times. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-905190-8.  This well documented work provides, in particular, valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics
• Sir Isaac Newton. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved on 8 March, 2005.
• The Newton Project. Imperial College London. Retrieved on 8 March, 2005.
• Westfall, Richard S. (1980, 1998). Never at Rest. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27435-4.
• Craig, John (1963). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters", Notes and Records of the Royal Society (18). London: The Royal Society.
• "The Invisible Science." Magical Egypt. Chance Gardner and John Anthony West. 2005.

For other persons named Eric Bell, see Eric Bell (disambiguation). ... Patristics is the study of early Christian writers, known as the Church Fathers. ... Richard S. Westfall (April 22, 1924â€”August 21, 1996) was an American professor, biographer and science historian. ...

• Berlinski, David, Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of our World, ISBN 0-684-84392-7 (hardback), also in paperback, Simon & Schuster, (2000).
• Christianson, Gale E. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton and His Times. Collier MacMillan, (1984). 608 pages.
• Dampier, William C. & M. Dampier. Readings in the Literature of Science. Harper & Row, New York, (1959).
• Gjertsen, Derek. The Newton Handbook, Routledge & Kegan Paul, (1986).
• Gleick, James. Isaac Newton. Knopf, (2003). hardcover, 288 pages, ISBN 0-375-42233-1.
• Hawking, Stephen, ed. On the Shoulders of Giants. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Einstein.
• Hart, Michael J. The 100. Carol Publishing Group, (July 1992), paperback, 576 pages, ISBN 0-8065-1350-0.
• Kandaswamy, Anand M. The Newtown/Leibniz Conflict in Context. [3]
• Keynes, John Maynard. Essays in Biography. W W Norton & Co, 1963, paperback, ISBN 0-393-00189-X. Keynes had taken a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers.
• Newton, Isaac. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy, edited by I. Bernard Cohen. Harvard University Press, 1958,1978. ISBN 0-674-46853-8.
• Newton, Isaac (1642–1727). The Principia: a new Translation, Guide by I. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) Warning: common mistranslations exposed!
• Shapley, Harlow, S. Rapport, and H. Wright. A Treasury of Science; "Newtonia" pp. 147–9; "Discoveries" pp. 150-4. Harper & Bros., New York, (1946).
• Simmons, J. The giant book of scientists -- The 100 greatest minds of all time, Sydney: The Book Company, (1996).
• Richard de Villamil. Newton, The man. G.D. Knox, London, 1931. Preface by Albert Einstein. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York (1972).
• Whiteside, D. T. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton - 8 volumes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, (1967–81).
• Isaac Newton, Sir; J Edleston; Roger Cotes, Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes, including letters of other eminent men, London, John W. Parker, West Strand; Cambridge, John Deighton, 1850. – Google Books
• Cohen, I. B. (1980). The Newtonian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Dobbs, B. J. T. (1975). The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Halley, E. (1687). "Review of Newton's Principia." Philosophical Transactions 186:291–297.
• Herivel, J. W. (1965). The Background to Newton's Principia. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
• Koyré, A. (1965). Newtonian Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
• Maclaurin, C. (1748). An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, in Four Books. London: A. Millar and J. Nourse.
• Newton, I. (1934). Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World, tr. A. Motte, rev. F. Cajori. Berkeley: University of California Press.
• Newton, I. (1952). Opticks, or A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light. New York: Dover Publications.
• Newton, I. (1958). Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents, eds. I. B. Cohen and R. E. Schofield. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
• Newton, I. (1959–1977). The Correspondence of Isaac Newton, eds. H. W. Turnbull, J. F. Scott, A. R. Hall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Newton, I. (1962). The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library, Cambridge, ed. A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Newton, I. (1967). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, ed. D. T. Whiteside. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Newton, I. (1975). Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). London: Dawson.
• Pemberton, H. (1728). A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. London: S. Palmer.
• Stukeley, W. (1936). Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life, ed. A. H. White. London: Taylor and Francis.
• Westfall, R. S. (1971). Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. London: Macdonald.
• Shamos, Morris H. (1959). Great Experiments in Physics. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.

David Berlinski (born 1942 in New York City) is an educator and author of popular books on mathematics, and a notable proponent of intelligent design, author of numerous articles on the topic. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Miko&#322;aj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 &#8211; May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 â€“ November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... Galileo redirects here. ... â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ... Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced cains, IPA ) (5 June 1883 â€“ 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments fiscal policies. ... I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003) was the Victor S. Thomas Professor of the history of science at Harvard University and the author of many books on the history of science and, in particular, Isaac Newton. ... Richard de Villamil (1850-1936) was a british officer and scientist physician). ... â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ... Roger Cotes (Burbage, Leicestershire July 10, 1682 â€“ June 5, 1716 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) was an English mathematician. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ...

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In mathematics, the Gauss-Newton algorithm is used to solve nonlinear least squares problems. ... // The method of integration can be traced back to the Egyptians, in the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus circa 1800 BC, which gives the formula for finding the volume of a pyramidal frustrum. ... Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Knellers 1689 portrait The law of gravity became Sir Isaac Newtons best-known discovery. ... The Newton fractal is a boundary set in the complex plane which is characterized by Newtons method applied to a fixed polynomial p(Z)âˆˆâ„‚[Z]. It divides the complex plane into regions Gk, each of which is associated with a root Î¶k of the polynomial, . In this way the... In mathematics, the Newton polygon is a tool for understanding the behaviour of polynomials over local fields. ... In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, a Newton polynomial, named after its inventor Isaac Newton, is the interpolation polynomial for a given set of data points in the Newton form. ... In mathematics, a difference operator maps a function, f(x), to another function, f(x + a) âˆ’ f(x + b). ... Isaac Newton began working on a form of the calculus in 1666. ... In numerical analysis, the Newton-Cotes formulas, also called the Newton-Cotes rules, are a group of formulas for numerical integration (also called quadrature) based on evaluating the integrand at n+1 equally-spaced points. ... Newtons cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal, and it was the key force for planetary motion. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Isaac Newton, one of the greatest scientists of all time, was also a devout Christian. ... The Spalding Gentlemenâ€™s Society is one of the learned societies of the United Kingdom. ... The metaphor of dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants can be traced back to Lucan,[cannot be traced to this source. ...

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 BBC - History - Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727) (417 words) Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire. From the mid-1660s, Newton conducted a series of experiments on the composition of light, discovering that white light is composed of the same system of colours that can be seen in a rainbow and establishing the modern study of optics (or the behaviour of light). Newton was a difficult man, prone to depression and often involved in bitter arguments with other scientists, but by the early 1700s he was the dominant figure in British and European science.
 Isaac Newton - MSN Encarta (1376 words) Newton began with the laws of motion and gravitation he observed in nature, then used these laws to convert physics from a mere science of explanation into a general mathematical system with rules and laws. Newton showed no talent for farming, however, and according to legend he once was found under a hedge deep in study when he should have been in the market at Grantham. Newton concluded through experimentation that sunlight is a combination of all the colors of the spectrum and that the sunlight separates when passed through the prism because its component colors are of differing refrangibility.
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