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Encyclopedia > Isaac II Angelos

Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204. Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ...


His father Andronikos Angelos was a son of Theodora Komnene, the youngest daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Eirene Doukaina. Thus Isaac was a member of the extended imperial clan. Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Irene Ducaena (1066 – February 19, 1133) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and the mother of the emperor John II Comnenus and the historian Anna Comnena. ...

Contents

Rising by revolt

During the brief reign of Andronikos I Komnenos, Isaac was involved (alongside his father and brothers) in the revolt of Nicaea and Prousa. Atypically, the Emperor did not punish him for this disloyalty, and Isaac remained at Constantinople. Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronicus I Comnenus (1183-1185) Andronicus I Comnenus (c. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


On September 11, 1185, during Andronikos' absence from the capital, the latter's lieutenant Stephanos Hagiochristophorites moved to arrest Isaac. Isaac killed Hagiochristophorites and took refuge in the church of Hagia Sophia. Andronikos, in some ways a capable ruler, was hated for his efforts to keep the aristocracy obedient and his cruelty. Isaac appealed to the populace, and a tumult arose which spread rapidly over the whole city. When Andronikos arrived he found that his authority was overthrown, and that Isaac had been proclaimed emperor. Andronikos attempted to flee by boat but was apprehended. Isaac handed him over to the people of the City, and he was killed on September 12, 1185. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Stephanus Hagiochristophorites (d. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ...


First reign

Isaac II Angelos strengthened his position as emperor with dynastic marriages in 1185 and 1186. His niece, Eudokia Angelina, was married to Stefan, son of Stefan Nemanja of Serbia. Isaac's sister, Theodora, was married to the Italian marquis Conrad of Montferrat. In January 1186 Isaac himself married Margaret of Hungary (who was renamed Maria), daughter of king Béla III. Hungary was one of the empire's largest and most powerful neighbours, and Margaret also had the benefit of high aristocratic descent, being related to the royal families of Kiev, the Holy Roman Empire, Italy, Provence, and earlier Byzantine dynasties. Eudokia Angelina or Eudocia Angelina (Greek: Ευδοκία Αγγελίνα, Serbian: Evdokija), was a daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina. ... Stefan Prvovenčani (lit. ... Stefan Nemanja (Old Church Slavonic: Стѣфань, Serbian: Стефан Немања, pronounced ) (1109-13 February 1199) was a Medieval Serb nobleman, descended from the Vukanović who was Grand Prince (Serbian: Велики Жупан) of the medieval Serb state of Rascia (Рашка) in 1166-1199. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Imaginary portrait of Conrad by François-Édouard Picot, c. ... Margaret of Hungary, born 1175, died 1223, was the daughter of king Bela III of Hungary. ... Bela III of Hungary (Hungarian , Slovak: Belo III), born in 1148, was King of Hungary circa 1172_1196. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The now-extinct title of Count of Provence belonged to local families of Frankish origin, to the House of Barcelona, to the House of Anjou and to a cadet branch of the House of Valois. ...


Isaac inaugurated his reign with a decisive victory over the Norman King of Sicily William II (on the banks of the Strymon, 7 September 1185), who had invaded the Balkans with 80,000 men and 200 ships towards the end of Andronicus I's reign. Elsewhere his policy was less successful. In late 1185, he sent a fleet of 80 ships to liberate his brother for Acre, but its destroyed by the Normans of Sicily. He then sends a fleet of 70 ships, but it fails in its attempt to recover Cyprus from the rebellious noble Isaac Comnenus, thanks to Norman interference. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... William II crowned by Christ, mosaic in Monreale Cathedral. ... The Struma (Bulgarian: Струма, Greek: Strimonis, Turkish: Karasu (meaning black water in Turkish)) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Isaac Comnenus was the last ruler of Cyprus before the Frankish conquest during the Third Crusade. ...


The oppressiveness of his taxes, increased to pay his armies and finance his marriage, resulted in the Vlach-Bulgarian Rebellion late in 1185. The rebellion led to the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire under the Asen dynasty. In 1187, Alexios Branas, the victor over the Normans, was sent against the rebels but turned his arms against his master, and attempted to seize Constantinople, only to be defeated and slain by Isaac's brother-in-law Conrad of Montferrat. The Vlach-Bulgarian Rebellion was a revolt of the Vlachs and Bulgarians living in the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ... The Asen dynasty ruled the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1187 and 1280. ... Alexios Branas or Alexius Branas (died 1187) was a Byzantine nobleman and military leader of the late 12th century. ...


The emperor's attention was next demanded in the east, where several claimants to the throne successively rose and fell. In 1189 the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa sought and obtained permission to lead his troops on the Third Crusade through the Byzantine Empire; but he had no sooner crossed the border than Isaac, who had meanwhile sought an alliance with Saladin, threw every impediment in his way, and was only compelled by force of arms to fulfil his engagements in 1190. This article is about the medieval empire. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ...


The next five years were disturbed by continued warfare with Bulgaria, against which Isaac led several expeditions in person. In spite of a promising start, these ventures had little effect, and on one occasion in 1190 Isaac barely escaped with his life. While preparing for yet another offensive against Bulgaria in 1195, Alexios Angelos, the emperor's older brother, taking advantage of the latter's absence from camp on a hunting expedition, proclaimed himself emperor, and was readily recognised by the soldiers as Emperor Alexios III. Isaac was blinded and imprisoned in Constantinople. Alexius III Angelus, Byzantine emperor, was the second son of Andronicus Angelus, nephew of Alexius I. In 1195, while his brother Isaac II was away hunting in Thrace, he was proclaimed emperor by the troops; he captured Isaac at Stagira in Macedonia, put out his eyes, and kept him henceforth...


Second reign

After eight years of captivity, he was raised from his dungeon to his throne once more after the arrival of the Fourth Crusade and the flight of Alexios III from the capital. But both mind and body had been enfeebled by confinement, and his son Alexios IV Angelos was associated on the throne as the effective monarch. The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Alexius IV Angelus (c. ...


Heavily beholden to the crusaders, Alexios IV was unable to meet his obligations and his vacillation caused him to lose the support of both his crusader allies and his subjects. At the end of January, 1204, the influential court official Alexios Doukas Mourtzouphlos took advantage of riots in the capital to imprison Alexios IV and seize the throne as Emperor Alexios V. At this point Isaac II died, allegedly of shock, while Alexios IV was strangled on January 28 or 29. Alexius V Ducas Murtzouphlos (d. ...


Historical reputation

Isaac has the reputation of one of the most unsuccessful princes that occupied the Byzantine throne. Surrounded by a crowd of slaves, mistresses and flatterers, he permitted his empire to be administered by unworthy favourites, while he squandered the money wrung from his provinces on costly buildings and expensive gifts to the churches of his metropolis. During his reign the empire lost Bulgaria, Cilicia, and Cyprus. Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ...


Family

The identity of Isaac II's first wife is unknown, but her name, Herina (i.e., Eirene), is found on the necrology of Speyer Cathedral, where their daughter Irene is interred. (It must be noted, however, that it would have been extremely unusual for a mother and daughter to bear the same name, unless the mother's name was monastic.) Isaac's wife may have been a member of the Palaiologos family. Their third child was born in 1182 or 1183 and she was dead or divorced by 1185, when Isaac remarried. Their children were: The Speyer Cathedral (officially: Mariendom (Cathedral of St. ... The Double-headed eagle, emblem of the Paleologus dynasty and the Byzantine Empire. ...

By his second wife, Margaret of Hungary (renamed Maria), Isaac II had two sons: Irene Angelina (1177/1181 - 1208) was the daughter of the Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos by his first wife Herina. ... Roger III (1175-1194) was the son and heir of Tancred of Sicily. ... Philip of Swabia depicted in a medieval manuscript (about 1200) Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently... Alexius IV Angelus (c. ... Margaret of Hungary, born 1175, died 1223, was the daughter of king Bela III of Hungary. ...

  • John Angelos, born no earlier than January 1193. He migrated to Hungary and ruled over Syrmia and Bacs (1227-42) as a vassal of king Béla IV of Hungary.
  • Manuel Angelos, born after 1195

Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Location in Serbia General Information Mayor Tomislav Bogunović (DS) Land area 367 km² (municipality) Population (2002 census) 6,087 (16,268 municipality) Population density (2002) 44. ... Béla IV c. ...

References

  • Nicetas Choniates, Historia, ed. J.-L. Van Dieten, 2 vols. (Berlin and New York, 1975); trans. as O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniates, by H.J. Magoulias (Detroit; Wayne State University Press, 1984).

Nicetas Choniates (c. ...

External link

Bibliography

  • Angold, Michael, The Byzantine Empire: A Political History, 1025-1204, 2nd edition (London and New York, 1997)
  • Brand, C.M., Byzantium Confronts the West, 1180-1204 (Cambridge, MA, 1968)
  • Harris, Jonathan, Byzantium and the Crusades (London, 2003)
  • Hiestand, Rudolf, 'Die Erste Ehe Isaaks II Angelus und Seine Kinder', Jahrbuch der Osterreichischen Byzantinistik, 47 (1997).
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 3 vols (Oxford, , 1991).
  • K. Varzos, Ē genealogia tōn Komnēnōn (Thessalonica, 1984) vol. 2 pp. 807-840.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Isaac II Angelos
Angelid dynasty
Born: September 1156 Died: January 1204
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Andronikos I Komnenos
Byzantine Emperor
1185–1195
Succeeded by
Alexios III Angelos
Preceded by
Alexios III Angelos
Byzantine Emperor
1203–1204
with Alexios IV Angelos (1203–1204)
Succeeded by
Alexios V Doukas

 
 

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