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Encyclopedia > Isaac Deutscher

Isaac Deutscher (3 April 190719 August 1967), British journalist, historian and political activist of Polish-Jewish birth, became well-known as the biographer of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin and as a commentator on Soviet affairs. April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... (help· info) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... (help· info) is the form usually used in English for the Russian name of Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), born with the Georgian name Ioseb Dzhugashvili (Иосиф Джугашвили); (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878 – March 5, 1953). ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...

Deutscher was born in Chrzanów, a village in the Galicia region of Poland, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, into a family of religiously observant Jews. He studied with a Hasidic rebbe and was acclaimed as a prodigy in the study of the Torah and the Talmud. By the time of his bar mitzvah, however, he had lost his faith. He "tested God" by eating unkosher food at the grave of a tzadik (holy person) on Yom Kippur. When God took no action, he became an atheist. Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Rebbe (Hebrew: רבי also rebbi) is a title that may be given to a Rabbi in Orthodox Judaism, particularly within Hasidic Judaism. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצווה, son of the commandment... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Tzadik - צדיק (plural: Tzadikkim) is the Hebrew word for righteous one, and is a title which is generally given to those whom are considered to be righteous such as a spiritual master or Rebbe. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippÅ«r) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...

Deutscher first attracted notice as a poet, when at 16 he began publishing poems in Polish literary periodicals. His verse, in Yiddish and Polish, concerned Jewish and Polish mysticism, history and mythology, and attempted to bridge the gulf between Polish and Yiddish culture. He also translated poetry from Hebrew, Latin, German, and Yiddish into Polish. Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Mysticism from the Greek (muo, concealed) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an important source of knowledge or understanding. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel, the West Bank, the United States, and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Deutscher studied literature, history, and philosophy at the Jagellonian University in Kraków. At 18 he left Kraków for Warsaw, where he studied philosophy, and economics and became a Marxist. In 1927 he joined the illegal Polish Communist Party and soon became the editor of the party's underground press. In 1931 he visited the Soviet Union, where Moscow University offered him a post as a professor of the history of socialism and of Marxist theory. He declined these offers and returned to underground work in Poland. Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski) is a university in Krakow, Poland. ... Kraków (pronounced: [krakuf]; variant English spelling Cracow; in full Royal Capital City of Kraków, Polish: Królewskie StoÅ‚eczne Miasto Kraków, see also Names of European cities in different languages) is one of the oldest and largest cities of Poland, with a 2004 population of 780,000... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Link titleghjhjhjhjyhjInsert non-formatted text here #REDIRECT Insert textItalic text To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the 1918-1938 Communist Party of Poland. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is considered the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ...

In 1933, however, Deutscher published an article called "The Danger of Barbarism over Europe", in which he urged the formation of a united socialist-Communist front against Nazism. This contradicted the then official Communist line, which saw the social democrats, or "social fascists" as the greatest enemies of the Communist Party. Deutscher was expelled from the party, officially for "exaggerating the danger of Nazism and was spreading panic in the Communist ranks." He became a Trotskyist, but broke with official Trotskyism in 1938, being opposed to Trotsky's decision to found a Fourth International. Later he joined the Polish Socialist Party. 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the left communist Fourth International, see Communist Workers International. ... Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the most important Polish political parties 1890-1948. ...

In April 1939 Deutscher left Poland for London. This move saved his life and paved the way for his future career. He never returned to Poland and never saw any of his family again. In London he worked as a correspondent for a Polish-Jewish newspaper and for a while joined the Trotskyist Revolutionary Workers League. When Germany occupied Poland he taught himself English and began writing for English magazines. He was soon a regular correspondent for the leading weekly The Economist. In 1940 he joined the Polish Army in Scotland, but was promptly interned as a dangerous subversive. Released in 1942, he joined the staff of The Economist and became an expert on Soviet affairs and European politics. He also wrote for The Observer as a roving European correspondent. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Houses of Parliament and the clock tower containing Big Ben Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London (see Wiktionary:London for the name in other languages) is the capital of the United Kingdom and England. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication of The Economist Newspaper Limited in London. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... This article is about the year. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Deutscher published his first major work, Stalin, A Political Biography in 1949. This was a controversial work, its intent more polemical than academic. The Cold War was underway, Stalin was still alive and Deutscher was still a committed Trotskyist, but in the book Deutscher gave Stalin what he saw as his due for building a form of socialism in the Soviet Union, even if it was, in Deutscher's view, a perversion of the vision of Marx, Lenin and Trotsky. 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their respective and emerging alliance partners. ... Socialism is an ideology of a social and economic system in which the means of production are collectively owned and administered by all of society. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... (help· info) (Владимир Ильич Ленин) IPA: born Ulyanov (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of Leninism, which he described as an adaptation of Marxism to the...

The Stalin biography made Deutscher a leading authority on Soviet affairs and the Russian Revolution. He followed it up with his most ambitious work, a three-volume biography of Trotsky: The Prophet Armed (1954), The Prophet Unarmed (1959) and The Prophet Outcast (1963). These books were based on detailed research into the Trotsky Archives at Harvard University. Much of the material contained in the third volume was previously unknown, since Trotsky's widow, Natalya Sedov, gave him access to the closed section of the Archives. Deutscher planned to conclude his series with a study of Lenin, but this work remained incomplete at the time of his death. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Natalia Sedova Natalia Sedova (1882-1962) is best known as the second wife of Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionary. ...

The upsurge of left-wing sentiment that accompanied the Vietnam War (see The Sixties) made Deutscher a popular figure on university campuses in both Britain and the United States. His Trotskyism had by then mellowed into a form of Marxist humanism, although he never renounced Trotsky. In 1965 he took part in the first "Teach-In" on Vietnam at the University of California, Berkeley, where thousands of students listened to his indictment of the Cold War. He was G. M. Trevelyan Lecturer at Cambridge University for 1966-67, and also lectured at the State University of New York, New York University, Princeton, Harvard and Columbia. The G. M. Trevelyan Lectures, under the title The Unfinished Revolution, was published after his sudden and unexpected death in Rome in 1967. Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 1,250,000+ US dead: 58,226 US wounded... Woodstock: the iconic Sixties event The Sixties in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969 (see: 1960s), but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past 20 years. ... Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on our ability to determine what is right using the qualities innate to humanity, particularly rationality. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (also known as California, Cal, UCB, UC Berkeley, The University of California, or simply Berkeley) is a public, coeducational university situated east of the San Francisco Bay in Berkeley, California, overlooking the Golden Gate. ... George Macaulay Trevelyan (February 16, 1876 – 1962) was an English historian, son of Sir George Otto Trevelyan and great-nephew of Thomas Macaulay. ... The University of Cambridge, located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The State University of New York (acronym SUNY; usually pronounced SOO-nee) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. ... New York University (NYU) is a major research university in New York City. ... Princeton University, incorporated as The Trustees of Princeton University, located in Princeton, New Jersey, is the fourth-oldest institution to conduct higher education in the United States. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Despite being an atheist and a life-long socialist, Deutscher emphasised the importance of his Jewish heritage. He coined the expression "non-Jewish Jew" to apply to himself and other Jewish humanists. Deutscher admired Elisha ben Abuyah, a Jewish heretic of the 2nd century AD. But he had little time for specifically Jewish politics. In Warsaw, he joined the Communist Party, not the Jewish Bund, whose "Yiddishist" views he opposed. His definition of his Jewishness was: "Religion? I am an atheist. Jewish nationalism? I am an internationalist. In neither sense am I therefore a Jew. I am, however, a Jew by force of my unconditional solidarity with the persecuted and exterminated. I am a Jew because I feel the pulse of Jewish history; because I should like to do all I can to assure the real, not spurious, security and self-respect of the Jews." Elisha Ben Abuyah (spelled variously, including Elisha ben Avuya) was a Jewish heretic born in Jerusalem sometime before 70. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the...

Before World War II Deutscher opposed Zionism as economically retrograde and harmful to the cause of international socialism, but in the aftermath of the Holocaust he regretted his pre-war views, and argued a case for establishing Israel as a "historic necessity" to provide a home for the surviving Jews of Europe. In the 1960s he became more critical of Israel for its failure to recognise the dispossession of the Palestinians, and after the Six Day War of 1967 he demanded that Israel withdraw from the occupied territories. "This 'six day wonder'", he commented, "this latest, all-too-easy triumph of Israeli arms will be seen one day... to have been a disaster... for Israel itself." Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France/Free France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... Selection at the Auschwitz ramp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation, such as those of the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books by Isaac Deutscher

  • Soviet Trade Unions (1950)
  • Russia After Stalin (1953)
  • Russia, What Next? (1953)
  • The Prophet Armed: Trotsky, 1879-1921 (1954)
  • Heretics and renegades: and other essays (1955)
  • Russia in transition, and other essays (1957)
  • The Prophet Unarmed : Trotsky, 1921-1929 (1959)
  • Great contest: Russia and the West (1960)
  • The Prophet Outcast: Trotsky, 1929-1940 (1963)
  • Stalin : a Political Biography (1966)
  • Isaac Deutscher on the Israeli-Arab War: an interview with the late Isaac Deutscher (1967)
  • The Unfinished Revolution: Russia 1917-1967 (G. M. Trevelyan lectures) (1967)
  • Non-Jewish Jew and other essays (Edited by Tamara Deutscher) (1968)
  • An Open Letter to Wladyslaw Gomulka and the Central Committee of the Polish Workers Party (1968)
  • Russia, China, and the West 1953-1966 (Edited by Fred Halliday) (1970)
  • Marxism in our time (Edited by Tamara Deutscher) (1971)
  • Marxism, Wars, and Revolutions : essays from four decades (Edited by Tamara Deutscher) (1984)

The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


  • Cliff, Tony "The End of the Road: Issac Deutscher's Capitulation to Stalinism" from Neither Washington nor Moscow: Essays on Revolutionary Socialism London: Bookmark Publishing Collective, 1982. [1]
  • Horowitz, David, Isaac Deutscher: The Man and his work. London: Macdonald, 1971.
  • Labedz, Leopold "Issac Deutscher: Historian, Prophet, Biographer" pages 33-03 from Survey, Volume 30, Issue # 1-2, March 1988.

Tony Cliff Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... David Horowitz David Horowitz is an author, blogger, and political pundit. ... Leopold Labedz (January 22, 1920 Simbirsk, Russia - March 22, 1993 London) was a conservative Anglo-Polish historian of the Soviet Union. ...

External links

  • The Lubitz TrotskyanaNet provides a biographical sketch and a selective bibliography of Isaac Deutscher
  • Message of the Non-Jewish Jew This text, revised and extended by Isaac Deutscher appeared in the September 1958 edition of American Socialist and first appeared in Universities and Left Review
  • Lenin’s Last Dilemma Essay by Isaac Deutscher which appeared in the April 1959 edition of American Socialist

  Results from FactBites:
Isaac Deutscher (1068 words)
Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 –; 19 August 1967), British journalist, historian and political activist of Polish-Jewish birth, became well-known as the biographer of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin and as a commentator on Soviet affairs.
Deutscher was born in Chrzanów, a village in the Galicia region of Poland, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, into a family of religiously observant Jews.
Deutscher was expelled from the party, officially for "exaggerating the danger of Nazism and was spreading panic in the Communist ranks." He became a Trotskyist, but broke with official Trotskyism in 1938, being opposed to Trotsky's decision to found a Fourth International.
Isaac & Tamara Deutscher (2229 words)
Isaac Deutscher's reputation was made first of all as a poet when at the age of sixteen his first poems were published in Polish literary periodicals.
In 1940 Isaac Deutscher joined the Polish Army in Scotland, but most of his 'army life' was spent in the punitive camps as a 'dangerous and subversive element' - the return for his unceasing protests against the anti-semitism rampant in that army.
Isaac Deutscher planned to conclude his biographical series with a study of Lenin, and he often expressed the hope that his works would be seen as 'a single essay in a Marxist analysis of the revolution of our age and also as a triptych of some artistic unity'.
  More results at FactBites »



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