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Encyclopedia > Isaac Brock
This article refers to the British general. For the musician, see Isaac Brock (musician).
Isaac Brock
October 6, 1769(1769-10-06) - October 13, 1812 (aged 43)

Major General Sir Isaac Brock, portrait by John Wycliffe Lowes Forster
Nickname The Hero of Upper Canada
Place of birth St Peter Port, Guernsey
Place of death Queenston, Upper Canada
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1785 - 1812
Rank Major-General
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
War of 1812
Awards KB
Other work Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada

Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB (6 October 1769October 13, 1812) was a British Major-General and administrator. Brock is best remembered as a brilliant leader and strategist for his actions while stationed in the Canadian colonies. His efforts earned him a knighthood, accolades, and the moniker The Hero of Upper Canada. Isaac Brock (born on July 9, 1975 in Issaquah, Washington) is the lead singer, guitarist, and songwriter for the American indie rock band Modest Mouse, as well as his side project band, Ugly Casanova. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... John Wycliffe Lowes Forster (1850 – 1938) was a Canadian artist specializing in portraits, particularly those relating to Canadian history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guernsey. ... This is a map of Guernsey. ... The Village of Queenston (Latitude 43°10N Longitude 79°03W) is located 5km north of Niagara Falls, Ontario in the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... This is a list of Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


Brock was assigned to Canada in 1802, and became responsible for defending the Canadian borders from the United States during the War of 1812. While many in Canada and in Britain believed war could be averted, he began readying the army and militia for what was to come. When war broke out, the populace was prepared — and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit crippled American invasion efforts. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Fort Mackinac painting Fort Mackinac was a military outpost garrisoned from the late 18th century to the late 19th century on Mackinac Island in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Native Americans United States Commanders Isaac Brock Tecumseh William Hull # Strength 600 natives, 330 regulars, 300 militia, 2,500 Casualties 2 wounded 7 killed, 2,493 captured Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne...


During Brock's time in Canada he faced desertions and near mutinies, but his heroics earned him membership in the Order of the Bath, and he had the privilege of serving alongside Tecumseh. Brock's death in the Battle of Queenston Heights was a crushing blow to British leadership. Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which...

Contents

Early life

St. Peter Port, where Brock was born

Brock was born in Saint Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey, the eighth son of a middle class family. He earned a reputation during his early education as an assiduous student, as well as an exceptional swimmer and boxer. He kept a reputation as a physically commanding man throughout his life, and is said to have stood between 6 ft 2 in and 6 ft 4 in (1.88 and 1.93 m) in height. Following in the path of his father and three older brothers. Bailiwick of Guernsey Converted to png format. ... Bailiwick of Guernsey Converted to png format. ... This is a map of Guernsey. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


Military service

Although he is best known for his capture of Detroit and other actions in the War of 1812, Brock had a successful pre-war career, and a quick rise through the ranks which many commented on at the time. Some credited luck, and others skill, in his rapid promotions, and it is fair to say that Brock had substantial portions of both on his way to prominence. Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Native Americans United States Commanders Isaac Brock Tecumseh William Hull # Strength 600 natives, 330 regulars, 300 militia, 2,500 Casualties 2 wounded 7 killed, 2,493 captured Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ...


Early career

At the age of fifteen, Brock joined the 8th (King's) Regiment of Foot in 1785 with the rank of ensign, whereof he was likely given responsibility for the regimental colours.[1] Brock reached the rank of captain, and transferred to the 49th (Hertfordshire) Regiment of Foot on June 15, 1791. Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... Regimental colours, refer to the flag bearing the symbol of the regiment. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


His nephew and biographer (Ferdinand Brock Tupper) asserts that shortly after joining the regiment, a professional dueler forced a match on him. As the one being challenged, Brock had his choice of terms, and so he insisted that they fight with pistols. His friends were shocked, as Brock was considered only a moderately good shot, while this man was an expert. Brock, however, refused to change his mind. When the duelist arrived at the field, he asked Brock to decide how many paces they would take. Brock subsequently insisted that the duel would take place, not at the usual range, but at handkerchief distance. The duelist declined and subsequently was forced to leave the regiment. This contributed to Brock's popularity and reputation among his fellow officers, as this duellist had a formidable reputation, and thus bullied other officers without fear of reprisal. During his time with this regiment, he served in the Caribbean. At some point during his service there, Brock fell ill with fever and nearly died; only recovering once he had returned to England. Ferdinand Brock Tupper (b. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Linen handkerchief A handkerchief or hanky is a square of fabric, usually carried in the pocket, for personal hygiene purposes such as wiping ones hands or blowing ones nose, but also used as a decorative accessory in a suit pocket. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...


First command

In 1797, Brock purchased the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and became commander of the regiment. In 1799, the 49th was assigned to an expedition against the Batavian Republic (now known as the Netherlands), to be led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. During the troop landings, Brock saw his first combat, on September 10, 1799, under the command of then-Major General John Moore. Given that the 49th was in poor shape when Brock took command, they saw little of the actual combat. Likely Moore was sparing them, and using more experienced troops to establish the beachhead. Finally, on October 2, the 49th was actively involved in heavy combat, at Egmont-op-Zee, where they acquitted themselves well, only sustaining thirty-three fatalities. This was remarkable given the circumstances of the fight. The 49th had been ordered to proceed up the beaches of Egmont-op-Zee, a steep climb through sand dunes and poor terrain. The situation was exacerbated by harassment from French sharpshooters, who had excellent cover. After about six hours of heavy fighting, the attack was stopped about a mile (1.6 km) short of their objective. After an hour of close combat, including fist and sabre fighting, the French began to withdraw. Brock himself was injured in the fighting, when he was hit by a spent musket ball in the throat. A neck cloth prevented a possibly fatal injury. In his own words, "I got knocked down shortly after the enemy began to retreat, but never quitted [sic] the field, and returned to my duty in less than half an hour." In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... Sir Ralph Abercromby (sometimes spelled Abercrombie) (October 7, 1734–March 28, 1801) was a British lieutenant-general noted for his services during the Napoleonic Wars. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... General John Moore Sir John Moore, KB (November 13, 1761 – January 16, 1809) was a British soldier and General. ... A beachhead is a military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea) reaches a beach, and begins to defend that area of beach, while other reinforcements (hopefully) help out, until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A marksman (also designated marksman) is a profession which is mostly to be found in military context. ... It has been suggested that Cavalry saber be merged into this article or section. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ...

The Battle of Copenhagen

In 1801, while aboard the 74 gun HMS Ganges (commanded by Captain Thomas Fremantle, a personal friend of Brock's), Brock was present at the Battle of Copenhagen, where it was intended that his troops would lead an assault on the forts at Copenhagen. Although the outcome of the battle made such an assault unnecessary, Brock observed first hand the tactical brilliance of Lord Nelson. After the battle, along with Fremantle, he was among those to personally congratulate Nelson. In 1802, Brock and the 49th Foot were ordered to Canada. Image File history File links Slaget pÃ¥ reden - Battle og Copenhagen, 2. ... Image File history File links Slaget pÃ¥ reden - Battle og Copenhagen, 2. ... HMS Ganges was an 74-gun 3rd rate frigate of the Royal Navy launched on March 30, 1782 on the Thames. ... Sir Thomas Fremantle c. ... The Battle of Copenhagen The Battle of Copenhagen (Danish: Slaget på Reden) was a naval battle fought on 2 April 1801 by a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, against a Danish fleet anchored just off Copenhagen. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ...


Transfer to Canada

Brock arrived in Canada, along with the rest of the 49th foot, and was initially assigned to Quebec City. As foot soldier Jake Batchelor put it, "Such a sweet sight had never been seen by the men in all our travels." Almost immediately, in 1803 he was faced with one of the primary problems in Canada, desertion.[2] Seven soldiers stole a boat and fled across the border into the United States. Brock sent a party across the border in pursuit, and the men were captured.


Mutiny

A short time later, Brock was sent a report by an officer at Fort George that some of the garrison were planning to imprison the officers and flee to the U.S. Immediately, he boarded the schooner that had brought the message and went on it to Fort George, which was under the command of then-Lieutenant Colonel Roger Hale Sheaffe. A hastily assembled honour guard formed to greet Brock's unexpected arrival. Accompanied by an orderly and another soldier who would form his reputation in Canada, James Fitzgibbon, Brock had the sergeant of the guard disarmed and confined. Then he entered the fort. Fort George is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Two-masted fishing schooner A schooner (IPA: ) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. ... Roger Hale Sheaffe General Roger Hale Sheaffe (15 July 1763 – 17 July 1851) was a British General in the first part of the 19th century. ... James FitzGibbon JamesFitzGibbon (November 23, 1782 – December 10, 1863) was a British soldier and hero of the War of 1812. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ...


As it was the dinner hour, all the soldiers were in barracks. Brock sent his orderly to bring him a soldier suspected of being one of the mutiny's ringleaders. As soon as he entered the room Fitzgibbon pinned the man and threatened to kill him if he cried out. One at a time, other suspected mutineers were captured in the same way. Finally, Brock ordered the drummers to assemble the men. They filtered out of the barracks and formed a line in front of Brock. Brock ordered that all men involved in the mutiny step forward, and a number did so, and were arrested. Brock then addressed the regiment, and asked for the obedience of those who had not known about the mutiny. The men pledged this obedience, and returned to the barracks. A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ...


Brock sent the twelve mutineers and the seven deserters to Quebec for court martial. There it was discovered that the mutineers had planned to jail all the officers, save Sheaffe, who was to be killed, and then cross the Niagara River into the U.S. at Queenston. Seven soldiers were subsequently executed by firing squad. Ferdinand Tupper, then aged ten, was present at the trial and executions, and wrote about them to Brock. He described how the mutineers had testified that they were forced to such measures by the severity of Sheaffe, and how, had they continued under Brock's command, they would never have taken such action. Brock was evidently much moved by the letter. As a result of his continued competence, Brock was promoted to colonel on October 30, 1805. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Pre-war preparations

By 1806 the U.S. was becoming increasingly hostile to the British Empire, and relations between the two nations continued to deteriorate until war finally broke out in 1812. This hostility came from three sources: grievances at violations of American sovereignty and restriction of trade by Britain, and a desire to annex the poorly-defended British North American colonies to gain territory. American grievances included the impressment of American sailors by the Royal Navy, the blockade of French ports and a belief that the British were inciting American Indians to attack U.S. settlements on the western frontier. War hawks in the U.S. called for an invasion of Canada to punish the British Empire and to lessen the threat to American interests represented by the Native Americans. At the same time, the American colonies were becoming crowded, and there was a growing attitude—later described by the phrase Manifest Destiny—that the United States was destined to control all of the North American continent. American hawks assumed that Canadian colonists would rise up and support the invading U.S. armies as liberators, and that, as Thomas Jefferson famouosly assured the American public, conquering Canada would be "a mere matter of marching". In response to this emerging threat, Brock moved quickly to bolster Canadian defences. He strengthened the fortifications of Quebec by building walls and an elevated battery. Despite having little formal education, Brock succeeded in creating a formidable defensive position largely due to his reading, which included several volumes on the science of running and setting up artillery. He also rearranged the marine department (responsible for lakes and rivers), which led to the development of a naval force capable of holding the Great Lakes. This was to be pivotal during the war. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Orders in Council of 1807 were a specific use of an order of the British Privy Council, made under the Royal prerogative, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... War Hawk is a term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the United States (usually from the south & southwest) who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government  - Mayor... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


In 1807, Brock was made a brigadier-general by Governor General Sir James Henry Craig. He was to take command of all forces in Upper Canada in 1810. During this time, Brock continued to ask for a posting in Europe. In 1811 he was promoted to Major General, and in October of that year, Lieutenant Governor Francis Gore left for England. This made Brock the provisional Lieutenant Governor, and as such, administrator of Upper Canada, putting him fully in charge of both the military and civil authority. Thus, when permission to leave for Europe finally came in early 1812, Brock declined the offer, seeing it as his duty to defend Canada in war against the United States. Brigadier General (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) is the lowest rank of general officer in some countries, usually ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... A Governor-General (in Canada always, and frequently in Pakistan/India prior to the abolition of the last monarchy, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to... Sir James Henry Craig (1748—1812) was a British military officer and colonial administrator. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... Francis Gore, (1769-1852) was a British officer and British colonial administrator. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council...


As Upper Canada's administrator, Brock made a series of changes designed to help Canada in the event of a war. He amended the militia act, allowing the use of all available volunteers, and he ordered enhanced training of these raw recruits, despite opposition from the provincial legislature. Furthermore, he continued strengthening and reinforcing defences. Also, Brock began seeking out American Indian leaders, such as the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, to see if they would ally with him against the Americans in the event of war. Although the conventional wisdom of the day was that Canada would fall quickly in the event of an invasion, Brock pursued these strategies to give the colony a fighting chance. A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...

Governor General Sir George Prevost, whose approach to the war conflicted with Brock's

George Prevost, early 19th century portrait. ... George Prevost, early 19th century portrait. ...

War of 1812

Early war and the capture of Detroit

The U.S. declared war on Britain on June 12, 1812. Brock's preparations meant that Canada was not unprepared for the war; however, Brock felt that those preparations would not be enough to keep the colony secure. Thus he immediately moved to capture the strategically important Fort Mackinac. This attack was a complete success, but Brock felt he needed to go further. He was hampered in these efforts by the thrusts of Governor General George Prevost (Prevost replaced Craig in late 1811), who favoured a cautious approach to the war. Prevost felt that a strict emphasis should be placed on defence, and was against any attack into American territory. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Fort Mackinac painting Fort Mackinac was a military outpost garrisoned from the late 18th century to the late 19th century on Mackinac Island in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... George Prevost Sir George Prévost (Hackensack May 19, 1767 – January 5, 1816 London) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ...

Brock's adversary at the Siege of Detroit, General William Hull

On July 12, U.S. William Hull invaded Canada at Sandwich (later known as Windsor). The invasion was quickly halted, and Hull withdrew, but this gave Brock the excuse he needed to abandon Prevost's orders. Securing Tecumseh's aid, Brock advanced on Detroit. At this point, even with his American Indian allies, Brock was outnumbered approximately two to one. However, Brock had gauged Hull as a timid man, and particularly as being afraid of Tecumseh's natives. Brock thus decided to use a series of tricks to intimidate Hull. First, he allowed a message (ostensibly to Prevost) declining reinforcements to fall into Hull's hands. The reason given was that Brock had more than enough native allies to take the fort, and thus did not need additional British troops. Then, he dressed his militia contingent in military garb, making it appear as if his force consisted entirely of British Regular infantry, rather than farmers and tradesmen. Brock then laid siege to Fort Detroit, from established artillery positions from across the river in the town of Sandwich (modern day Windsor) and through a carefully crafted series of marches, made it appear he had far more natives with him then he actually did. Additionally, he ordered Tecumseh's forces to make as much noise as possible, thus giving the impression of a much larger force and intimidating Hull with the show of a raucous, barely controlled group of natives. Finally, he sent Hull a letter demanding his surrender, in which he stated, in part, "Sir: it is far from my inclination to join a war of extermination, but you must be aware that the numerous body of Indians who have attached themselves to my troops will be beyond my control the moment the contest commences." Brock then hammered the fort with cannon fire. On August 16, two hours after receiving Brock's letter, Hull surrendered unconditionally. Hull, elderly and without recent military experience, was terrified by the threat of Indian torture if he did not surrender. William Hull Source: http://www. ... William Hull Source: http://www. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Native Americans United States Commanders Isaac Brock Tecumseh William Hull # Strength 600 natives, 330 regulars, 300 militia, 2,500 Casualties 2 wounded 7 killed, 2,493 captured Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of William Hull William Hull (June 24, 1753–November 29, 1825) was an American soldier and politician. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... “Detroit” redirects here. ... Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Detroit was a major victory for Brock because it wounded American morale, and eliminated the main American force in the area as a threat. It boosted Canadian morale. It allowed Brock to take the American supplies at Detroit and use them for his own forces, particularly the ill-equipped militia. Finally, it secured the support of Tecumseh and the other American Indian chiefs, who took it as both a sign of competency and a willingness to take action. This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


In enlisting the help of Tecumseh, Brock made a number of commitments to the Shawnee. He promised to negotiate no peace treaty without addressing the Shawnee's vision of an independent homeland. Although this was undoubtedly because Brock needed the help of Tecumseh, there is no evidence Brock negotiated in bad faith. Also, Tecumseh evidently trusted and respected Brock, reportedly saying, "This is a man" after meeting him for the first time.


For his actions in the capture of Detroit, Brock was knighted though he died at the Battle of Queenston Heights before news of his knighthood arrived to him. The capture of Detroit also led to British domination over most of Michigan Territory. Brock had planned to continue his campaign into the U.S., but he was thwarted by the negotiation of an armistice by Prevost with American Major General Henry Dearborn. This stalled Brock's momentum, and gave the Americans time to regroup and prepare for an invasion of Canada. Unable to predict the point of invasion, Brock frantically worked to prepare defences throughout Upper Canada. From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American physician, statesman and veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. ...


Death at Queenston Heights

General Roger Hale Sheaffe, who took command upon Brock's death

Meanwhile, the American general Stephen Van Rensselaer III, a Federalist political appointee with little military experience, who was in command of a sizeable army near Lewiston, came under presidential pressure to invade. Although Van Rensselaer had severe doubts about the quality of his troops, he had no choice but to attack. Making matters worse, Van Rensselaer was an inexperienced militia general, and thus not trusted by the majority of regular army troops. In the early morning of October 13, 1812, he attempted to cross the Niagara River, leading to the Battle of Queenston Heights. Despite heavy fire from British artillery, the first wave of Americans (under Captain John E. Wool) managed to land, and then follow a fishermen's path up to the heights. From this point, they attacked and beat the British artillery. Roger Hale Sheaffe, early 19th century portrait. ... Roger Hale Sheaffe, early 19th century portrait. ... Stephen Van Rensselaer III (November 1, 1764–January 26, 1839) was an American statesman, soldier, and land-owner, the heir to one of the greatest estates in the New York region at the time. ... The term federalist refers to several sets of political beliefs around the world. ... Location within Niagara County. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... John Ellis Wool (February 20, 1784 - November 10, 1869) was one of the four general officers of the United States Army in 1861, and was the one who saw the most Civil War service. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


From nearby Fort George, Brock hurried to take command of the small British force stationed at the heights. Fearing that the Americans, with the artillery out of the way, would move the rest of their troops across the river, he ordered an immediate attack on their position. True to his personal philosophy of never ordering men where he would not lead them, he personally led the charge. The charge nearly succeeded, but was repelled. Brock himself was wounded in the hand, but then immediately led a second charge. An obvious target in his general's uniform, Brock was shot and killed by American sharpshooters. One of the sharpshooters was Brock's long-lost sibling, Mackenzie Brock,[citation needed] who had become a traitor and was a legal American Citizen. He had almost died when he was a child when Brock pushed him off a roof. Brock's last words have been reported as surgite (Latin for "rise" or perhaps "press on"), or "Push on, brave York Volunteers" (in reference to a group of the militia Brock favoured) and even "My fall must not be noticed or impede my brave companions from advancing to victory." It has also been reported that Brock died immediately, however, so these accounts are by no means certain. Fort George is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. ... A marksman (also designated marksman) is a profession which is mostly to be found in military context. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Following his death, Sheaffe arrived at the battle scene and took command of the British forces. In sharp contrast to his predecessor's direct attack, Sheaffe took a more cautionary approach. This ultimately proved successful, leading to a total victory over the Americans at the cost of only 50 of his own men. During the battle, it is reported that the 49th used "Revenge of the General" as a battle cry. When Mackenzie Brock was captured, he was drawn and quartered for his act of treason.[citation needed] A battle cry is a yell or chant taken up in battle, usually by members of the same military unit. ... Drawing and quartering was part of the penalty anciently ordained in England for treason. ...


Burial

After the battle, Sheaffe and his staff decided to entrust the funeral arrangements to Captain John Glegg, who had served with Brock for many years. Captain John B. Glegg was a soldier in the 49th Regiment of the British Army and served during the War of 1812. ...


On October 16, a funeral procession for Brock and Colonel Macdonell went from Government House to Fort George, with soldiers from the British Army, the colonial militia, and the American Indian tribes on either side of the route. The caskets were then lowered into a freshly dug grave in the northeast corner of Fort George. The British then fired a twenty-one gun salute in three salvos, in a gesture of respect. Later that day, the American garrison at Fort Niagara respectfully fired a similar salute. Several thousand people attended the funeral, a remarkable number given the population of Upper Canada at that time. is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Government House is the name given to some of the residences of Governors-General, Governors and Lieutenant-Governors in the Commonwealth and the former British Empire. ... A 21-gun salute is fired by the members of the U.S. Army. ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ...


All told, Brock and Macdonell's remains were moved a total of three times, until finally coming to a permanent rest inside Brock's Monument, on October 13, 1853. Between twelve and fifteen thousand people were on hand for the final burial. Brocks Monument is a 56-metre (185-foot) column atop the heights of Queenston, Ontario, dedicated to Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, one of Canadas foremost heroes from the War of 1812. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Attitudes

Although many Canadians have come to view Brock as one of their own, Brock never really felt at home in Canada. Although he was complimentary toward Quebec City, on the whole Brock viewed the country as a backwater, and earnestly wished to return to Europe to fight against Napoleon.[2] Furthermore, Brock mistrusted the Canadian colonists,[3] many of whom he suspected of being American sympathizers, and was reluctant to arm them to help defend the colonies; he was far happier fighting alongside British regulars and Tecumseh's native fighters. Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government  - Mayor... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


His attitude towards Tecumseh and his other American Indian allies is noteworthy. Although Brock's correspondence indicates a certain amount of paternal condescension for the natives,[4] he seems to have regarded Tecumseh himself very highly (calling him the "Wellington of the Indians", and saying "a more sagacious or a more gallant warrior does not I believe exist"), and also to have a certain respect for native peoples. Brock's personal integrity has been well documented, and suggests that if he had lived he would have kept his word to provide the Shawnee with their own homeland. Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ...


Despite his lack of an extensive formal education, Brock appreciated the importance of it. It is reported that he often spent his leisure time sequestered in his room, reading books in an attempt to improve his education. His tastes varied, and he read many works on military tactics and science, but he also read on philosophy and other, less immediately practical, topics.[5] At the time of his death he was in possession of a modest library of books, including works by Shakespeare, Voltaire, and Samuel Johnson. Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

St. Paul's Cathedral, home to a memorial for Brock

Download high resolution version (1197x1239, 477 KB)St Pauls Cathedral, London, at night, taken from Ludgate Hill. ... Download high resolution version (1197x1239, 477 KB)St Pauls Cathedral, London, at night, taken from Ludgate Hill. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...

On British leadership

British military leadership, which had been decisive up to Brock's death, suffered a crushing blow with his loss. His direct successor, Major-General Sheaffe, although successful in his approach at Queenston Heights, was never able to live up to Brock's reputation. He was criticised by many, including John Strachan, for his retreat at the Battle of York, and was shortly after recalled to England, where he went on to have a successful, if not brilliant, military career. John Strachan Dr. John Strachan (April 12, 1778 – November 1, 1867) was an influential figure in Upper Canada and the first Anglican Bishop of Toronto. ... The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to become Toronto, Ontario. ...


Brock's successor at Detroit, however, fared much worse. Colonel Henry Procter faced an attack from a resurrected American Army of the Northwest under future President William Henry Harrison. Harrison set out to retake Detroit, but a detachment of his army was defeated at Frenchtown on January 22, 1813. Procter, displaying poor judgement, left the prisoners in the custody of his native allies, who proceeded to execute sixty of them. Subsequent American victories allowed Harrison to attempt another invasion of Canada, which led to the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813. After a successful American charge, Procter's forces turned and fled, leaving Tecumseh and his American Indian troops to fight alone. They fought on, eventually being defeated. Perhaps of more importance to the British, at this battle Tecumseh died, and their alliance with the American Indians effectively ended. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Henry Procter (c. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Frenchtown may be one of the following places in the United States: French town summer is a young adult novel Frenchtown, Montana Frenchtown-Rumbly, Maryland Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan Frenchtown, New Jersey This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Indian Confederation United States Commanders Henry Procter Tecumseh † William Henry Harrison Strength 800 regulars 500 natives1 2,380 militia 1,000 cavalry 120 regulars 260 natives1 Casualties 155 British dead or wounded 477 captured 33 natives dead 15 dead 30 wounded The Battle of the Thames, also... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


As for Governor General Prevost, who often clashed with Brock, he remained in command of all British forces until after the Battle of Plattsburgh, in 1814. The battle was intended to be a joint naval/infantry attack, but Prevost did not commit his forces until after the naval battle had nearly ended. When he finally did attack, his forces proved unable to cross the Saranac River bridge, which was held by a small group of American regulars under the command of the recently promoted Wool. Despite a heavy advantage in manpower, Prevost finally retreated upon hearing of the failure of the naval attack. For his failure at Plattsburgh, Prevost was recalled to England to face an inquiry. Prevost's health failed him, and he died in early 1815. Combatants Britain United States Commanders George Prevost George Downie † Thomas Macdonough Alexander Macomb Strength 11,000 1,500 regulars 1,900 milita Casualties 300 200 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Plattsburgh also known as the Battle of Lake Champlain ended the final invasion of the Northern states during the War of... Saranac River is a river in the U.S. state of New York. ... Nickname: Location of Plattsburgh within the state of New York Coordinates: , County Clinton County, New York Government  - Mayor Donald Kasprzak Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ...


In Canada

Bust of Isaac Brock at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa

Canadians regard Brock as one of their greatest military heroes, since he helped save the Canadian colonies when all seemed hopeless. He was even voted #28 on The Greatest Canadian, despite not actually being a Canadian. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Five busts on the west side of the memorial represent each of the five military periods. ... Officially launched on April 5, 2004, The Greatest Canadian was a television program series by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to determine who is considered to be the greatest Canadian of all time, at least among those who watched and participated in the program. ...


A web-based survey[6] by the Angus Reid polling group placed him as the greatest of Canadian military heroes.


A small cairn at the foot of the Niagara Escarpment marks the spot where Brock fell, while an impressive monument, built by public subscription, overlooks the Heights as a lasting tribute. For the magazine see Cairn Magazine. ... Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... The Queenston Heights is a geographical feature of the Niagara Escarpment immediately above the village of Queenston, Ontario, Canada. ...


The original monument was bombed and heavily damaged in 1840 by Irish-Canadian terrorist Benjamin Lett, and it was later replaced by a larger structure that still exists, in 1853; although the bodies inside had to be temporarily moved so as not to damage them. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Benjamin Lett (14 November 1813 – 1858) was an Irish-Canadian filibusterer best known for his destruction of the monument to British general Sir Isaac Brock. ...


Inscribed on the monument are the words: "He fell in action the 13th day of October 1812, in the 43rd year of his age. Honoured and beloved by the people whom he governed, and deplored by his Sovereign to whose service his life had been devoted. His remains are deposited in this vault, as also those of his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell, who died of his wounds, the 14th of October 1812, received the day before in action." John MacDonell is the name of two Nova Scotia politicians. ...


There is a monument to Brock's horse Alfred[7] located at the south end of the village of Queenston nearby the cairn marking the spot where Brock fell. The Village of Queenston (Latitude 43°10N Longitude 79°03W) is located 5km north of Niagara Falls, Ontario in the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. ...


In 1816, a series of private half-penny tokens were issued by an unknown company bearing Brock's name and the title "The Hero of Upper Canada". This was somewhat ironic, as private copper tokens had become common in Canada due to initial distrust of "army bills", which were paper notes issued by Brock.[8]


Also in tribute to him are named the City of Brockville, Ontario, Canada,[9] the Township of Brock, the Village of Brock, Saskatchewan and a university at St. Catharines, Brock University. Brockville (2001 population 21,375, metropolitan population 44,741) is located in the Thousand Islands region on the St. ... Brock, township in south-central Ontario, in the Regional Municipality of Durham and is part of the Greater Toronto Area. ... Brock is a village in west central Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Nickname: Motto: Industry and Liberality Location of St. ... Brock University is a modern comprehensive university located in St. ...


Other schools named in his honour include the Isaac Brock School in Winnipeg (built in 1913), and the Sir Isaac Brock Public schools in Toronto, Guelph, Hamilton, London and Windsor, Ontario. Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Nickname: Motto: Faith, Fidelity and Progress Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario County Wellington County City Wards There are 6 Wards Founded April 23, 1827 Incorporated April 23, 1879 Government  - Mayor Karen Farbridge (elected November 2006)  - Governing Body Guelph City Council  - MPs Brenda Chamberlain (LPC)  - MPPs Liz Sandals (OLP) Area  - City... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ... Nickname: Location of London in relation to Middlesex County and the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario County Middlesex County Settled 1826 as a village Incorporated 1855 as a city Government  - City Mayor Anne Marie DeCicco-Best  - Governing Body London City Council  - MPs Sue Barnes (LPC) Glen Pearson... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ...


The Toronto Police Mounted Unit also have a new mount named Brock. He is a black Percheron cross standing 17 hands and weighing in at about 780 kilos.


Various roads throughout Ontario are also named after him, including the General Issac Brock Parkway, Highway 405. There is also at least one vessel named after him, the SS Isaac Brock.[10] The Bruce Trail has its southern terminus about 200 metres from Brock's Monument on the easterly side of the Monument park grounds. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Image:Highway-405. ... The Bruce Trail is a hiking (and multi-use) trail in southern and central Ontario, Canada. ... Brocks Monument is a 56-metre (185-foot) column atop the heights of Queenston, Ontario, dedicated to Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, one of Canadas foremost heroes from the War of 1812. ...


General Brock appears in the play "Tecumseh" by the 19th Century nationalist poet Charles Mair. Charles Mair Charles Mair (1838 or 1840 – 1927) was a Canadian poet and fervent nationalist noted for his organisation of the Canada First movement and his role opposing the provisional government of Louis Riel during the Red River Rebellion of 1869 – 1870 and during the North-West Rebellion...


Hockey great Wayne Gretzky is related to Brock through his mother, Phyllis Hockin Gretzky. Wayne Douglas Gretzky, OC (born January 26, 1961) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey player who is currently part-owner and head coach of the Phoenix Coyotes. ... Walter Gretzky, O.Ont, (born October 8, 1938 in Canning, Ontario, Canada) is the father of former NHL player Wayne Gretzky, who is now part owner and coach of the Phoenix Coyotes. ...


A shopping mall in Amherstburg, Ontario that is owned by J/Abraham Inc. is named after Sir Isaac Brock and houses Dollarama and Home Hardware. Country Canada Province Ontario County Essex Government  - Mayor Wayne Hurst  - Governing body Amherstburg Town Council  - Member of Parliament Jeff Watson (CONS)  - Member of Provincial Parliament Bruce Crozier (LIB) Area  - Town 185. ...


On October 13th 2006, at a ceremony at Queenston Heights restaurant, Highway 405 was renamed the General Brock Parkway in honour of Major General Sir Isaac Brock. Image:Highway-405. ...


In Britain

Although Brock's achievements were overshadowed by larger-scale fighting in Europe, his death was still widely noted, particularly in Guernsey. Subsequent failures by other British commanders in Canada helped to cement Brock's outstanding reputation. In London, he is remembered at a moderate memorial in St. Paul's Cathedral. He was given the title 'Knight of the Bath (KCB)' for his victory at Detroit, although word did not reach Canada until after his death, so he never knew he had been knighted. The depot of the Royal Berkshire Regiment located in Reading Berkshire, created in 1881, is named "Brock's Barracks", in his honour. A British naval vessel, the HMS Isaac Brock, was destroyed while under construction at the Battle of York. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Native Americans United States Commanders Isaac Brock Tecumseh William Hull # Strength 600 natives, 330 regulars, 300 militia, 2,500 Casualties 2 wounded 7 killed, 2,493 captured Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne... The Royal Berkshire Regiment (Princess Charlotte of Waless) was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, formed in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 49th (Princess Charlotte of Waless) (Hertfordshire) Regiment of Foot and the 66th (Berkshire) Regiment of Foot. ... The HMS Isaac Brock was a British naval vessel which was under construction at York (presently Toronto). ... The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to become Toronto, Ontario. ...


In Guernsey

Brock's childhood home in the High Street, St Peter Port remains standing where the lower floors are now a store of the British pharmacy retailer, Boots, and marked with a memorial plaque. A memorial, paid for by Canada, is fitted into the side of the Town Church, the parish church of St Peter Port. Brock University gives two places to Guernsey students who achieve sufficiently high grades. This is a map of Guernsey. ... Boots is the name of at least five different albums and singles: Boots by Nancy Sinatra (1966) Boots by Mighty Gabby (1984) Boots by Condemned Eighty Four (2001) Boots by KMFDM (2002) Boots by Noe Venable (2003) It is also the name of a large chain of chemists in the...


In 1969 and 1996, the Guernsey Post Office issued postage stamps to commemorating his life and achievements. A Guernsey Post pillar box. ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Traditionally, the regimental colours were placed in the care of the regiment's most junior officer, which in this case would be Brock.
  2. ^ See letters from Brock to his brothers dated September 5, 1808 and November 19, 1808.
  3. ^ See letters from Brock to his brothers dated December 31, 1809, and to the Right Honourable W. Windham, dated February 12, 1807, and also to Lt.-Gen. Prevost, dated December 2, 1811.
  4. ^ See letters from Brock to Lt.-Gen. Prevost, dated December 2 and 3 December 1811.
  5. ^ See Chapter 1 of Tupper.
  6. ^ The survey was conducted during the time that The Greatest Canadian was airing, and was not scientifically accurate, since it was internet-only. See opinion poll.
  7. ^ Colonel John Macdonell, taking command until the arrival of Sheaffe, rode Alfred while leading a charge immediately after Brock's death. Macdonell was injured and died after the battle, and Alfred was shot and killed during the battle.
  8. ^ Canada had no official currency at the time, and English currency was rare. This left the primary currencies in Canada as American and Spanish dollars. Brock's "army bills" were in terms of Spanish dollars, and ceased circulation after the war.
  9. ^ Originally Buell's Bay, renamed after Brock's death in 1812.
  10. ^ This website discusses the SS Isaac Brock [1]

is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... An opinion poll is a survey of opinion from a particular sample. ... John MacDonell is the name of two Nova Scotia politicians. ...

References

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Brock, Sir Isaac
  • Benn, Carl. The War of 1812. Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-466-3
  • Berton, Pierre. The Invasion of Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1980. ISBN 0-316-09216-9 (v. 1)
  • Berton, Pierre. Capture of Detroit. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1991. ISBN 0-7710-1425-2
  • Berton, Pierre. Death of Isaac Brock. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1991. ISBN 0-7710-1426-0
  • Ferguson, Will. Bastards & Boneheads. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1999. ISBN 1-55054-737-2
  • Hitsman, J. Mackay, et al. The Incredible War of 1812: A Military History. Orig. pub. 1965, reprinted by Robin Brass Studio, 2001. ISBN 1-896941-13-3
  • W. K. Lamb, The hero of Upper Canada (Toronto, 1962),
  • Malcomson, Robert. Burying General Brock. Peninsula Press, 1996. ISBN 0-9699298-1-1
  • C.P. Stacey, "Sir Isaac Brock" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography
  • Tupper, Ferdinand Brock. The Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.B. Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1845.
  • The Legend of Isaac Brock

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Pierre Francis Berton, CC, O.Ont, BA, D.Litt (July 12, 1920 – November 30, 2004) was a noted Canadian author of non-fiction, especially Canadiana and Canadian history, and was a well-known television personality and journalist. ... The Invasion of Canada is a 1980 book by Pierre Berton. ... Will Ferguson is a Canadian writer and novelist who is best known for his humorous observations on Canadian history and culture. ... Ferdinand Brock Tupper (b. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Isaac Brock
  • Biography of Sir Issac Brock at The War of 1812 Website
  • Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • General Brock History
  • Website for Bold, Brave and Born to Lead, a book about Brock
  • The Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.B. online at Project Gutenberg
  • Information on Isaac Brock's family and geneaology
  • History of the Isaac Brock Half-Penny Tokens
  • A website about Brock's memorial
  • Isaac Brock Conspiracy Theory Site (Humorous)
  • A site about the Battle of Queenston Heights, from Canada's Department of National Defence, notable for its alternate rendering of Brock's last words
  • Brock University
  • The Story of Isaac Brock, by Walter R. Nursey, 1908, from Project Gutenberg
Government offices
Preceded by
Francis Gore
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1811 to 1812
Succeeded by
Roger Hale Sheaffe
Persondata
NAME Brock, Isaac
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION British Major-General
DATE OF BIRTH 6 October 1769
PLACE OF BIRTH St Peter Port, Guernsey
DATE OF DEATH 13 October 1812
PLACE OF DEATH Queenston Heights, Upper Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Isaac Brock Summary (5019 words)
Isaac Brock, born on Oct. 6, 1769, at St. Peter Port on the island of Guernsey, entered the army as an ensign in 1785.
Brock was assigned to Canada in 1802, and became responsible for defending the territory from the United States during the War of 1812.
Brock was born in Saint Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey, as the eighth son of a moderately wealthy family.
Science Fair Projects - Isaac Brock (518 words)
Major-General Sir Isaac Brock (1769 – October 13, 1812) was the British major-general who was assigned to the Canadian colonies during the War of 1812 and played a key role in the colonies' successful defence in the early phase of the war.
Brock was later killed at the Battle of Queenston Heights on October 13, 1812, but his initial gains against the Americans largely stood, and Detroit and much of Michigan were still in British hands at the end of the war when the Treaty of Ghent restored the prewar borders.
Brock mistrusted the Canadian colonists, many of whom he suspected of being American sympathizers, and was reluctant to arm them to help defend the colonies; he was far happier fighting alongside British regulars and Tecumseh's native fighters.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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