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Encyclopedia > Isaac Babel
Isaac Babel

Born: 13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894
Odessa, Russian Empire
Died: January 27, 1940
Butyrka prison, Moscow, USSR
Occupation: journalist, playwright, and short story writer

Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Эммануилович Бабель (13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894January 27, 1940) was a Soviet journalist, playwright, and short story writer. Isaac Babel File links The following pages link to this file: Isaac Babel Categories: Pre-1973 Soviet Union images ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Butyrka prison (Russian: Бутырская тюрьма, Butyrka Бутырка is a colloquial term) was the central transit prison in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in Moscow. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Early years

Born to a Jewish family in Odessa during a period of social unrest and mass exodus of Jews from the Russian Empire, Isaac Babel survived the 1905 pogrom with the help of Christian neighbors who hid his family, but his grandfather Shoyl was one of about 300 Jews murdered.[1] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ...


To get to the preparatory class of the Nicolas I Odessa Commercial School, Babel had to overcome the quota for Jewish students (10% within the Pale of Settlement, 5% outside and 3% for both capitals), but despite the fact that he received the passing grades, the place was given to another boy, whose parents bribed the school officials. Schooled at home for a year, Babel went through the curriculum of two school years. In addition to regular school subjects, he studied the Talmud and music at home. Inspired by his teachers of French language and literature, young Babel revered Flaubert and Guy de Maupassant and his own first stories were written in French. Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... Look up quota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – Croisset, May 8, 1880) is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Guy de Maupassant. ...


After an unsuccessful attempt to enroll at Odessa University (again due to the quota), Babel entered Kiev Institute of Finance and Business. There he met Yevgenia Gronfein, his future wife. The I.I. Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukrainian: , Russian: ), located in Odessa, Ukraine is one of the countrys major universities. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ...


Early career

In 1915, Babel graduated and moved to Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), in defiance of laws restricting Jews to residence within the Pale. In the capital he met the famous Russian writer Maxim Gorky who published some of his stories in his literary magazine Letopis' ("Летопись", "Chronicle"). Gorky advised the aspiring writer to gain more life experience and later Babel wrote in his autobiography: "... I owe everything to that meeting and still pronounce Alexey Maksimovich (Gorky's) name with love and admiration." One of his most famous autobiographical short stories, "The Story of My Dovecot" ("История моей голубятни"), is dedicated to Gorky. 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Pale or the English Pale comprised a region in a radius of 20 miles around Dublin which the English in Ireland gradually fortified against incursion from Gaels. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ...


The story "The Bathroom Window" was considered obscene by censors and Babel was charged with violating criminal code article 1001.


In the next seven years, Babel fought on the Communist side in the Russian Civil War, worked in the Cheka as a translator for the counter-intelligence service, in the Odessa Gubkom (regional Bolshevik party committee), in the food requisitioning unit, in the Narkompros (Commissariat of Education), in a typographic printing office, and served as a newspaper reporter in Petersburg and Tiflis. He married Yevgenia Gronfein on August 9, 1919 in Odessa. Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Coordinates: Government  - Governing Mayor Giorgi Gigi Ugulava Area  - City 372 km²  (143. ...


In 1920, during the bloody Russian Civil War, Babel was assigned as a journalist to Field Marshal Semyon Budyonny's 1st Cavalry Army, witnessing a military campaign of the Polish-Soviet War of 1920. He documented the horrors on the war he witnessed in the 1920 Diary (Konarmeyskiy Dnevnik 1920 Goda) which he later used to write the Red Cavalry (Конармия), a semi-documentary work of fiction. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... The 1st Cavalry Army (Russian: ) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation also known as Budyonnys Cavalry Army or simply Konarmia. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Red Cavalry is a collection of short stories by Russian author Isaac Babel. ...


Babel wrote: "Only by 1923 I have learned how to express my thoughts in a clear and not very lengthy way. Then I returned to writing." Several stories that were later included into Red Cavalry, were published in Vladimir Mayakovsky's famous LEF ("ЛЕФ") magazine in 1924. Babel's honest description of the brutal realities of war, far from revolutionary romanticism, brought him some powerful enemies, among them Budyonny, but Gorky's intervention helped to save the book, and soon it was translated into many languages. Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 19 [O.S. July 7] 1893 – April 14, 1930) was a Russian poet, among the foremost representatives of early-20th century Futurism. ... An issue of Novyi LEF designed by Rodchenko, 1928 LEF (ЛЕФ) was the journal of the Left Front of the Arts, a widely ranging association of avant-garde writers, photographers, critics and designers in the Soviet Union. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romantics redirects here, for the band, see The Romantics Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ...


Back in Odessa Babel started to write a series of short stories set in the Odessan ghetto of Moldavanka where he was born, describing the life of the Jewish underworld before and after the 1917 October Revolution (many of them featuring the anti-hero Benya Krik). During this same period, Babel met and maintained an early friendship with Ilya Ehrenburg, while continuing to publish stories, to wide acclaim, throughout the 1920s. In 1925 Babel’s wife emigrated to Paris. A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background and united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... “Red October” redirects here. ... Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg (Russian: IPA: ), January 27 [O.S. January 15] 1891 (Kiev, Ukraine) – August 31, 1967 (Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet-Jewish Russian writer and journalist whose 1954 novel gave name to the Khrushchev Thaw. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


Clashes with the authorities

Left: Beria's January 1940 letter to Stalin, asking permission to execute 346 "enemies of the CPSU and of the Soviet authorities" who conducted "counter-revolutionary, right-Trotskyite plotting and spying activities." Number 12 on the list is Isaac Babel.
Middle: Stalin's handwriting: "за" (affirmative).
Right: The Politburo's decision is signed by Secretary Stalin.

In 1930, Babel travelled in Ukraine and witnessed the brutality of the collectivization in the USSR. As Stalin tightened his grip on Soviet culture in the 1930s, and especially with the rise of socialist realism, Babel increasingly withdrew from public life. During the Stalinist campaign against "Formalism" in the art, Babel was criticized for alleged "Esthetism" and low productivity. At the first congress of the Union of Soviet Writers (1934), Babel noted that he was becoming "the master of a new literary genre, the genre of silence." Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... The term enemy of the people (Russian language: враг народа, vrag naroda) was a fluid designation under the Bolsheviks rule in regards to their real or suspected political or class opponents, sometimes including former allies. ... Traditional farming In Imperial Russia, the Stolypin Reform was aimed at the development of capitalism in agriculture by giving incentives for creation of large farms. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. ... The USSR Union of Writers, or Union of Soviet Writers (Russian: ) was a creative union of professional writers in the USSR. It was founded in 1932 on the initiative of the Central Committee of the Communist Party The aim of the Union was to achieve Party and State control in...


After numerous requests he was permitted to visit his family in France, and in 1935 he delivered a speech to anti-fascist International Congress of Writers in Paris. Upon his return, Babel collaborated with Sergei Eisenstein on the film Bezhin Meadow and worked on the screenplays for other Soviet movies. Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs Eizenšteins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ...


Arrest and death

The NKVD photo of Babel made after his arrest

After the suspicious death of Gorky in 1936, Babel noted: "Now they will come for me." (See Great Purge). In May 1939 he was arrested at his cottage in Peredelkino, and eventually interrogated at Lubyanka on charges of espionage. Babel told his wife "Please see our girl grows up happy."[2] After a forced confession, Babel was tried, found guilty, and, on January 27, 1940, shot in Butyrka prison. His widow, Antonina Pirozhkova (Антонина Пирожкова), did not know about his fate for 15 years. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... House-museum of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino Peredelkino is a dacha complex situated just to the south-west of Moscow. ... The Lubyanka is the popular name for the headquarters of the KGB and affiliated prison on Lubyanka Square in Moscow. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Butyrka prison (Russian: Бутырская тюрьма, Butyrka Бутырка is a colloquial term) was the central transit prison in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in Moscow. ...


According to early official Soviet version, Isaac Babel died in a prison camp in Siberia on March 17, 1941. His archives and manuscripts were confiscated by the NKVD and lost. March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Rehabilitation and legacy

On December 23, 1954, a year and a half after Stalin's death, Isaac Babel was publicly exonerated of the charges against him "for lack of any basis". Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bibliography

  • Конармейский дневник 1920 года, English translation: 1920 Diary, ISBN 0-300-09313-6
  • Конармия, (1926), English translation: Red Cavalry, ISBN 0-393-32423-0
  • Одесские рассказы, Odessa Tales
  • Закат, Sunset, play (1926)
  • Мария, Maria, play (1935)
  • You Must Know Everything, Stories 1915-1937, Translated from Russian by Max Hayward. Edited, and with notes by Nathalie Babel, Farrar Straus and Giroux, New York, 1966.

Red Cavalry is a collection of short stories by Russian author Isaac Babel. ... The Odessa Tales is a collection of short stories by Isaac Babel, situated in Odessa in the last days of the Russian empire and the Russian Revolution. ...

Quotes

  • "No iron can stab the heart with such force as a period put just at the right place."
  • "Over the town roamed the homeless moon. I went along with her, warming up in my heart impracticable dreams and discordant songs."

References

  1. ^ Odessa Pogroms. Center of Jewish Self-Education "Moria" and the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
  2. ^ Montefiore: Stalin, p.287

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) is a United States Jewish Jews, but also gentiles in more than 85 countries worldwide. ...

External links

  • Babel's Biography (PDF) by Gregory Freidin (A version of this essay in Critical Biography was published in European Writer of the Twentieth Century [NY: Scribners, 1990])
  • Prose in original Russian language at lib.ru
  • Tough Guys reading "The Collected Stories of Isaac Babel" by Tom Teicholz
  • Konarmiya, Norman Davies describes Babel in Sarmatian Review, 3/1995 issue
  • review of The Complete Works of Isaac Babe1 in January 2007 issue of Jewish Currents
  • [1] Obituary of Nathalie Babel Brown, Isaac Babel's daughter and editor
Persondata
NAME Babel, Isaac
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Babel, Isaac Emmanuilovich; Исаак Эммануилович Бабель (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION journalist, playwright, and short story writer
DATE OF BIRTH 13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894
PLACE OF BIRTH Odessa, Russian Empire
DATE OF DEATH January 27, 1940
PLACE OF DEATH Butyrka prison, Moscow, USSR

  Results from FactBites:
 
Isaac Babel (361 words)
Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, ru: Исаак Бабель (July 13 (New Style), 1894 - January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist of Jewish origin, playwright, and short story writer.
Born to a Jewish family in Odessa, Ukraine, during a mass exodus of Jews from the Russian empire, Isaac Babel experienced a relatively peaceful youth.
Unlike other Russian authors, Isaac Babel was allowed to travel during this time (as his family was living in France), and in 1935 delivered a speech to the International Congress of Writers in Paris but soon he returned to the Soviet Union.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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