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Encyclopedia > Irvin McDowell
General Irvin McDowell
General Irvin McDowell

Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1038x1478, 252 KB)Irvin McDowell source This image comes from the National Archives and Records Administration, the vast majority of whose images and documents are in the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1038x1478, 252 KB)Irvin McDowell source This image comes from the National Archives and Records Administration, the vast majority of whose images and documents are in the public domain. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The...


Born in Columbus, Ohio, McDowell initially attended the College de Troyes in France, then graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1838. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and posted to the 1st U.S. Artillery. He was a tactics instructor at West Point for a while, before being aide-de-camp to General John E. Wool during the Mexican War. He was brevetted captain at Buena Vista. After the war, he served in the Adjutant General's department and received a brevet promotion to major in 1856. Nickname: The Arch City The Discovery City Official website: http://www. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ... West Point redirects here; for other uses, see West Point (disambiguation). ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... John Ellis Wool (February 20, 1784 - November 10, 1869) was one of the four general officers of the United States Army in 1861, and was the one who saw the most Civil War service. ... The Mexican-American War was a war fought between the United States and Mexico between 1846 and 1848. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Captain is both a nautical term and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ... The Battle of Buena Vista was a land battle of the Mexican-American War fought on 23 February 1847 in Buena Vista, Coahuila, seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. ... Major is a military rank denoting an officer of mid-level command status. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


McDowell was promoted to brigadier general on May 14, 1861, and given command of the Army of Northeastern Virginia, despite never having commanded troops in combat. The promotion was due in large part to the influence of his mentor, Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase. Although McDowell knew that his troops were inexperienced and unready, pressure from the Washington politicians forced him to launch a premature offensive against Confederate forces in northern Virginia. His strategy during the First Battle of Bull Run was imaginative but ambitiously complex, and his troops were not experienced enough to carry it out effectively, resulting in an embarrassing rout. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... John W. Snow, the current Secretary of the Treasury. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics to the extent of holding or running for public office. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin Penis Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 28,450 32,230 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle of Bull...


After the defeat at Bull Run, Major General George B. McClellan was placed in command of the new Union army in Virginia, the Army of the Potomac. McDowell commanded a division in the new army, but McClellan soon reorganized his command and McDowell was given I Corps the following spring. His corps stayed behind to defend Washington, and was eventually supposed to march to McClellan's support while the latter fought in the Peninsula Campaign; however, the nervous politicians who feared that General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's Valley Campaign would eventually attack Washington kept McDowell's 40,000 soldiers behind. Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general (and briefly the general-in-chief of the Union Army) during the American Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Richmond Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 110,862 km²  - Width 320 km  - Length 690 km  - % water 7. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ...


Eventually, the three independent commands of Generals McDowell, John C. Frémont, and Nathaniel P. Banks were combined into Major General John Pope's Army of Virginia and McDowell led the III Corps of that army. Because of his actions at Cedar Mountain, McDowell was eventually brevetted major general of regulars in 1865; however, he was blamed for the subsequent disaster at Second Bull Run. He escaped culpability by testifying against Major General Fitz-John Porter, whom General McClellan court-martialed for the defeats of the Peninsula Campaign. (In 1879, when Porter's conviction was overturned, McDowell's reputation was soiled by accusations of perjury in his self-serving testimony.) Despite his formal escape, McDowell spent the following two years in effective exile from the leadership of the Army. John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813–July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major... Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Cedar Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date August 9, 1862 Place Culpeper County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cedar Mountain, also known as the Battle of Slaughters Mountain or Cedar Run, took place on August 9, 1862 in Culpeper County, Virginia as part of the... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Regular Army is the name given to the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee Thomas J. Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run or... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Perjury is lying or making verifiably false statements under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ...


In July of 1864, McDowell was given command of the Department of the Pacific. He later commanded the Department of California, the Fourth Military District (the military government for Arkansas and Louisiana during Reconstruction), and the Department of the West. He was promoted to permanent major general of Regulars in 1872, and retired from the U.S. Army in 1882. He served as Park Commissioner of San Francisco, California, before dying in 1885. He is buried in San Francisco National Cemetery in the Presidio of San Francisco. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the worlds largest body of water. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Sacramento Los Angeles Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 158,302 sq mi  410,000 km² 250 miles  400 km 770 miles  1,240 km 4. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Little Rock Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi  (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Largest city Baton Rouge New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 31st 51,885 sq mi  134,382 km² 130 miles  210 km 379 miles  610 km 16 29°N to... Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For details about the famous earthquake, refer to the article 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Sacramento Los Angeles Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 158,302 sq mi  410,000 km² 250 miles  400 km 770 miles  1,240 km 4. ... San Francisco National Cemetery, looking north over the Golden Gate. ... The Parade Grounds at the Presidio of San Francisco. ...


References

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0882-7.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Irvin McDowell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (573 words)
Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War.
McDowell was promoted to brigadier general on May 14, 1861, and given command of the Army of Northeastern Virginia, despite never having commanded troops in combat.
In July of 1864, McDowell was given command of the Department of the Pacific.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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