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Encyclopedia > Irritation

Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an irritant. Irritants are typically thought of as chemical agents (for example phenol and capsaicin) but mechanical, thermal (heat) and radiative stimuli (for example ultraviolet light or ionising radiations) can also cause irritation. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... An allergy is an abnormal, acquired sensitivity to a given substance, including pollen, drugs, or numerous environmental triggers. ... The word irritant may refer to: Something that causes irritation, often a chemical substance. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Ionizing radiation is radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit). ...


Irritation also has non-clinical usages referring to bothersome physical or psychological pain or discomfort. Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Irritation in organisms

In higher organisms, the allergic response may be cause of irritation. An allergen is defined distinctly from an irritant, however, as allergy requires a specific interaction with the immune system and is thus dependent on the (possibly unique) sensitivity of the organism involved while an irritant, classically, acts in a non-specific manner. An allergy is an abnormal, acquired sensitivity to a given substance, including pollen, drugs, or numerous environmental triggers. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


In humans, it is a mild form of suffering, often with anger about this, in particular, if applicable, anger at the person who caused it. This can also be oneself, e.g. when forgetting something or doing something one deems to be stupid. This article is about modern humans. ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... This article is about the emotion. ...


It is a form of stress, but conversely, if one is stressed by unrelated matters, mild imperfections can cause more irritation than usual, one is irritable; see also sensitivity (human). In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... The sensitivity or insensitivity of a human, often considered with regard to a particular kind of stimulus, is the strength of the feeling it results in, in comparison with the strength of the stimulus. ...


In more basic organisms, assigning irritation the status of pain is the perception of the being stimulated - which is not observable although it may be shared (see gate control theory of pain). “Hurting” redirects here. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... The gate control theory of pain, put forward by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall in 1962 [1], and again in 1965 [2], is the idea that physical pain is not a direct result of activation of pain receptor neurons, but rather its perception is modulated by interaction between different neurons. ...


It is not proven that oysters can feel pain, but we do know that they react to irritation. When an irritating object becomes trapped within an oyster's shell, it deposits layers of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), slowly increasing in size and producing a pearl. This serves no purpose to the oyster, pearls do not attract mates for the oyster or perform any other function. It seems impossible to find an evolutionary advantage for the ability to produce the pearl, thus it can be explained only as a reaction to an irritation. Freshadama grade cultured freshwater pearls. ...


We can also observe that an amoeba avoids being prodded with a pin, but we do not have enough evidence to suggest how much it feels this. Irritation is apparently the only universal sense shared by even single-celled creatures. Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ...


It is postulated that most such beings also feel pain, but this is a projection - empathy. Some philosophers, notably RenĂ© Descartes, denied it entirely, even for such higher mammals as dogs or primates like monkeys - to him, intelligence was a pre-requisite to even the feeling of pain. Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... René Descartes (French IPA: ) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ...


See also

Look up Irritation in
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Irritation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (636 words)
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
In more basic organisms, assigning irritation the status of pain is the perception of the being stimulated - which is not observable although it may be shared (see gate control theory of pain).
Irritation is apparently the only universal sense shared by even single-celled creatures.
Encyclopedia of Fruit and Vegetables (5468 words)
They are valuable as a blood cleanser but exercise a strong diuretic action, consequently they should be used in moderation, particularly by those having trouble with their kidneys.
For this reason it is a valuable food in pulmonary conditions, asthma, etc. Although occasionally somewhat irritating to the kidneys, garlic is nevertheless valuable for its diuretic action.
While cathartics and laxatives operate as a result of irritation of the lower intestines, spinach juice follows the natural course of nourishing the cells and tissues as well as nerves and muscles so that eventually normal elimination may be established.
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