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Encyclopedia > Iroquois
Iroquois
Haudenosaunee
Total population

approx. 125,000
(80,000 in the U.S.
45,000 in Canada)
Iroquois refers to: the Iroquois people of North America the Iroquois kinship, a system of familial comprehension that originated with the Iroquois tribes the Iroquois Hairstyle, popular e. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Canada Canada
(southern Quebec, southern Ontario)
Flag of the United States United States
(New YorkWisconsinOklahoma)
Language(s)
Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, English, French
Religion(s)
Longhouse Religion,, others

The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power", the "Five Nations"; the "Six Nations"; or the "People of the Long house") is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of five nations: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca. A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined after the original five nations were formed. Although frequently referred to as the Iroquois, the Nations refer to themselves collectively as Haudenosaunee. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Mohawk is a Native American language spoken by the Mohawk nation in the United States and Canada. ... Oneida is an Iroquoian language spoken primarily in the American states of New York and Wisconsin, and the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Onondaga (Onundagaono or People of the Hills) is the language of the Onondaga First Nation, one of the original five constituent tribes of the League of the Iroquois (Hodenosaunee) This language is spoken in the United States and Canada, primarily on reservations in western New York state, and near Brantford... Cayuga (In Cayuga Goyogohó:nǫ’) is a Northern Iroquoian language of the Iroquois Proper (a. ... Seneca is the language of the Seneca Native Band, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... Tuscarora or Skarure is an Iroquoian language of the Tuscarora people, spoken in Canada and the United States, in western New York and southern Ontario. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Longhouse Religion, also known as the Handsome Lake cult, or Gaiwiio (Good Message in Seneca) is a religious movement started by the Seneca Chief Handsome Lake (Ganiodayo). ... A longhouse at the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... For other uses, see Oneida. ... For other uses, see Onondaga. ... The Cayuga nation (Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Iroquois, a confederacy of Indians in New York. ... For other uses, see Seneca. ... The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ...


At the time Europeans first arrived in North America, the Confederacy was based in what is now the northeastern United States and southern Canada, including New England, upstate New York, Pennsylvania, Ontario, and Quebec. Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Contents

Name

The word Iroquois has two potential origins. First, the Haudenosaunee often ended their oratory with the phrase hiro kone[1]; hiro translates as "I have spoken", and kone can be translated several ways, the most common being "in joy", "in sorrow", or "in truth". Hiro kone to the French encountering the Haudenosaunee would sound like "Iroquois", pronounced iʁokwe in the French language of the time. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Another version is however supported by French linguists such as Henriette Walter and historians such as Dean Snow[2]. According to this account, "Iroquois" would derive from a Basque expression, Hilokoa, meaning the "killer people". This expression would have been applied to the Iroquois because they were the enemy of the local Algonquians, with whom the Basque fishermen were trading. However, because there is no "l" in the Algonquian languages of the Saint-Lawrence Gulf region, the name became "Hirokoa", which is the name the French like Cartier understood when Algonquians referred to the same pidgin language as the one they used with the Basque. The French then transliterated the word according to their own phonetic rules, thus providing "Iroquois". Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... This article is about simplified languages. ...


Yet another alternate possible origin of the name Iroquois is reputed to come from a French version of a Huron (Wyandot) name—considered an insult—meaning "Black Snakes". The Iroquois were enemies of the Huron and the Algonquin, who allied with the French, due to their rivalry in the fur trade. This article is about the First Nations people, the Wyandot, also known as the Huron. ... This article is about the First Nations people, the Wyandot, also known as the Huron. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...


History

Pre-Contact period

Iroquois in Buffalo, New York, 1914.
Iroquois in Buffalo, New York, 1914.

The members of this Confederacy speak different languages of the same Iroquoian family, suggesting a common historical and cultural origin, but diverging enough so that the languages have become different. 1914 - Buffalo New York, Panoramic View of Iroquois CREDIT: Iroquois Indians. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... This article is about the state. ... The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ...


The union of nations was established prior to major European contact, complete with a constitution known as the Gayanashagowa (or "Great Law of Peace"), with the help of a memory device in the form of special beads called wampum that have inherent spiritual value (wampum has been inaccurately compared to money in other cultures). Most anthropologists have traditionally speculated that this constitution was created between the middle 1400s and early 1600s. However, recent archaeological studies have suggested the accuracy of the account found in oral tradition, which argues that the federation was formed around August 31, 1142, based on a coinciding solar eclipse (see Fields and Mann, American Indian Culture and Research Journal, vol. 21, #2). Some Westerners have also suggested that the Great Law of Peace was written with European help,[citation needed] although this has been largely discredited by the academic community. The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. ... Gayanashagowa or the Great Law of Peace of the Iroquois (or Haudenosaunee) Six Nations is the oral constitution that created the Iroquois Confederacy. ... Wampum is a string of white shell beads fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk (Busycotypus canaliculatus) shell, and is traditionally used by Indigenous Americans, First Nations peoples, Native Americans, hobbyists, business people, and traders, who regarded it as a sacred or trade representative of the value of the artist... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... See Anthropology. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ...


The two prophets, Ayonwentah (frequently thought to be Hiawatha due to the Longfellow poem) and Dekanawidah, The Great Peacemaker, brought a message of peace to squabbling tribes. The tribes who joined the League were the Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga and Mohawks. Once they ceased most infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century northeastern North America. For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name Hiawatha, see Hiawatha (disambiguation). ... Baron Longfellow , also named Andy Kim was an artist from the 60s. ... The Great Peacemaker, sometimes referred to as Deganawida or Dekanawida (although as a mark of respect the Iroquois avoid referring to him by this name except in special circumstances), was the traditional founder, with Hiawatha, of the Haudenosaunee (commonly called the Iroquois) confederacy, a political and cultural union of Native... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... The Seneca are a Native American people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... For other uses, see Onondaga. ... For other uses, see Oneida. ... The Cayuga nation (Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Iroquois, a confederacy of Indians in New York. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadadaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Ayonwentah and became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee. This event is said to have occurred at Onondaga Lake near Syracuse, New York. The title Tadadaho is still used for the league's spiritual leader, the fiftieth chief, who sits with the Onondaga in council, but is the only one of the fifty chosen by the entire Haudenosaunee people. The current Tadadaho is Sid Hill of the Onondaga Nation. Onondaga Lake is northwest of the city of Syracuse, New York and south of Lake Ontario. ... Nickname: Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: , City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll (D) Area  - City 66. ... The Onondaga (Onundagaono or the People of the Hills) are one of the original five constituent tribes of the League of the Iroquois (Hodenosaunee). ...


Dealing with Europeans

Haudenosaunee flag, representing the original five nations that were united by the Peacemaker. The tree symbol in the center represents an Eastern White Pine, the needles of which are clustered in groups of five. The flag is based on the "Hiawatha Wampum Belt ... created from purple and white wampum beads centuries ago to symbolize the union forged when the former enemies buried their weapons under the Great Tree of Peace."
Haudenosaunee flag, representing the original five nations that were united by the Peacemaker. The tree symbol in the center represents an Eastern White Pine, the needles of which are clustered in groups of five.[3] The flag is based on the "Hiawatha Wampum Belt ... created from purple and white wampum beads centuries ago to symbolize the union forged when the former enemies buried their weapons under the Great Tree of Peace."[4]

By 1677, the Iroquois formed an alliance with the English through an agreement known as the Covenant Chain. Together, they battled the French to a standstill who were allied with the Huron, another Iroquoian people, but a historic foe of the Confederacy. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... The Great Peacemaker, sometimes referred to as Deganawida or Dekanawida (although as a mark of respect the Iroquois avoid referring to him by this name except in special circumstances), was the traditional founder, with Hiawatha, of the Haudenosaunee (commonly called the Iroquois) confederacy, a political and cultural union of Native... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Binomial name L. Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) is a large pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the extreme north of Georgia. ... For other uses of the name Hiawatha, see Hiawatha (disambiguation). ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Covenant Chain was an alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy and the English colonies of North America. ... The Wyandot, or Wendat, is an indigenous people of North America, originally from what is now Southern Ontario, Quebec, Canada and Southeast Michigan. ... The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ...


The League engaged in a series of wars against the French and their Iroquoian-speaking Wyandot ("Huron") allies. They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoples of the Atlantic coast and what is now the boreal Canadian Shield region of Canada and not infrequently fought the English colonies as well. During the seventeenth century, they are also credited with having conquered and/or absorbed the Neutral Indians and Erie Tribe to the west as a way of controlling the fur trade, even though other reasons are often given for these wars. The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) commonly refer to a brutal series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America. ... The Wyandot, or Wendat, is an indigenous people of North America, originally from what is now Southern Ontario, Quebec, Canada and Southeast Michigan. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... // Era overview In the year AD 1776, war was beginning. ... This group was called the Attawandaron by the Hurons, meaning people of a slightly different language. Their territory was almost entirely in southern Ontario, save for three or four villages to the east, across the Niagara River in New York State; their western border was about Lake St. ... The Eriez Indians were a group of Native Americans, related to the Iroquois, who lived pre-historically from western New York to northern Ohio on the south shore of Lake Erie. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ...


According to Francis Parkman, the Iroquois were at the height of their power in the seventeenth century, with a population of about twelve thousand people. League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through the "Mourning War", raids intended to seize captives to replace lost compatriots and take vengeance on non-members. This tradition was common to native people of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers' notions of combat. Francis Parkman Francis Parkman (September 16, 1823 – November 8, 1893) was born in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Four delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy, the "Indian kings", travelled to London, England, in 1710 to meet Queen Anne in an effort to cement an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.[5] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ...


Eighteenth century

Sometime during the first quarter of the eighteenth century, the Tuscarora fled north from the British colonization of North Carolina and petitioned to become the sixth nation. This is a non-voting position, but places them under the protection of the Confederacy. The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


During the French and Indian War, the Iroquois sided with the British against the French and their Algonquin allies, both traditional enemies of the Iroquois. The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would also bring favors after the war. Practically, few Iroquois joined the galloping, and the Battle of Lake George found a group of Mohawk and French ambush a Mohawk-led British column. The British government issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the war, which restricted white settlement beyond the Appalachians, but this was largely ignored by the settlers and local governments. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders William Johnson, 1st Baronet Johnson, King Hendrick † Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau Strength 1,500 militia, 200 Mohawks 3,500 regulars, militia, and natives Casualties 331 killed, wounded or missing [1] 339 killed, wounded or missing [2] Seven Years War in North America: The French and Indian... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ...


During the American Revolution, many Tuscarora and the Oneida sided with the Americans, while the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga and Cayuga remained loyal to Great Britain. This marked the first major split among the Six Nations. After a series of successful operations against frontier settlements, led by the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant, other war chiefs, and British allies; the United States reacted with vengeance. In 1779, George Washington ordered Col. Daniel Brodhead and General John Sullivan to lead expeditions against the Iroquois nations to "not merely overrun, but destroy," the British-Indian alliance. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Joseph Brant, painted in London by leading court painter George Romney in 1776 Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (c. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Daniel Brodhead IV (1736-1809) was an American military and political leader during the American Revolutionary War and early days of the republic. ... John Sullivan (b. ...


After the war, the ancient central fireplace of the confederacy was reestablished at Buffalo Creek. Captain Joseph Brant and a group of Iroquois left New York to settle in Canada. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River. (see Haldimand Proclamation) Brant's crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: Brant's ford. By 1847, European settlers began to settle nearby and named the village Brantford, Ontario. The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day city at a location favorable for landing canoes. Prior to this land grant, Iroquois settlements did exist in that same area and elsewhere in southern Ontario, extending further north and east (from Lake Ontario eastwards into Quebec around present-day Montreal). Extensive fighting with Huron meant the continuous shifting of territory in southern Ontario between the two groups long before European influences were present. This article is about the state. ... Grand River Ontario This article is about the Grand River in Southern Ontario, Canada. ... On October 25, 1784, the Governor General of Quebec, Frederick Haldimand granted land to the Iroquois, who had served on the British side during the American Revolution, as follows: Frederick Haldimand, Captain General and Governor General in Chief of the Province of Quebec and Territories depending thereon, &c &c &c... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Province Established May 31, 1877 Government  - City Mayor Mike Hancock  - Governing Body Brantford City Council  - MP Lloyd St. ...


The Haudenosaunee

The combined leadership of the Nations is known as the Haudenosaunee. It should be noted that "Haudenosaunee" is the term that the people use to refer to themselves. Haudenosaunee means "People of the Long House." The term is said to have been introduced by The Great Peacemaker at the time of the formation of the Confederacy. It implies that the Nations of the confederacy should live together as families in the same longhouse. Symbolically, the Seneca were the guardians of the western door of the "tribal long house," and the Mohawk were the guardians of the eastern door. Later day Iroquois longhouse housing several hundred people Interior of a longhouse with Chief Powhatan (detail of John Smith map, 1612) Longhouses were built by native peoples in various parts of North America, sometimes reaching over 100 meters long (330 ft) but generally around 5 to 7 meters wide (16... The Great Peacemaker, sometimes referred to as Deganawida or Dekanawida (although as a mark of respect the Iroquois avoid referring to him by this name except in special circumstances), was the traditional founder, with Hiawatha, of the Haudenosaunee (commonly called the Iroquois) confederacy, a political and cultural union of Native...


Food

The Iroquois were farmers, and hunters. The main crops were corn, beans and squash and were considered special gifts from the Creator. The Iroquois also ate deer. Iroquois also hunted with the plains Indians. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Beliefs

These tribes, comprising what is now the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, lived in the Northeastern territories of what is now the U.S. and Canada, from the St. Lawrence River down to the Delaware Bay and inland to the Great Lakes. Their close contact with Europeans makes investigation of their original mythology and religion extremely difficult, but core beliefs included a conception of life as a struggle between the forces of good and evil[citation needed]. The "All-Father," an all-embracing deity, was formless and had little contact with humans. Spirits animated all of nature and controlled the changing of the season. Key festivals coincided with the major events of the agricultural calendar.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Delaware Bay Delaware Bay is a large esturarial inlet of the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Delaware River along the coast of the United States. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


Features of Confederacy

The general features of the Confederacy may be summarized in the following propositions:


The confederacy was a union of Five Tribes, composed of common gentes, under one government on the basis of equality; each Tribe remaining independent in all manners pertaining to local self-government. It created a Great Council of Sachems, who were limited in number, equal in rank and authority, and invested with supreme powers over all matters pertaining to the Confederacy. Fifty Sachemships were created and named in perpetuity in central gentes of the several Tribes; with power in these gentes to fill vacancies, as often as they occurred, by election from among their respective members, and with the further power to depose from office for cause; but the right to invest these Sachems with office was reserved to the General Council. The Sachems of the Confederacy were also Sachems in their respective Tribes, and with the Chiefs of these Tribes formed the Council of each, which was supreme over all matters pertaining to the Tribe exclusively. Unanimity in the Council of the Confederacy was made essential to every public act. In the General Council the Sachems voted by Tribes, which gave to each Tribe a veto over the others. The Council of each Tribe had power to convene the General Council; but the latter had no power to convene itself. The General Council was open to the orators of the people for the discussion of public questions; but the Council alone decided. The Confederacy had no chief Executive Magistrate, or official head. Experiencing the necessity for a General Military Commander, they created the office in a dual form, that one might neutralize the other. The two principal War-chiefs were made equal in powers. Equality between the sexes had a strong adherence in the Confederacy, and the women held real power. The Grand Council of Chiefs were chosen by the Clan Mothers and if any leader failed to comply with the Great Law of Peace, he could be removed by the Clan Mothers.[6]


Originally, the principal object of the council was to raise up sachems to fill vacancies in the ranks of the ruling body occasioned by death or deposition; but it transacted all other business which concerned the common welfare. Eventually the council fell into three kinds, which may be distinguished as Civil, Mourning, and Religious. The first declared war and made peace, sent and received embassies, entered into treaties with foreign tribes, regulated the affairs of subjugated tribes, as well as other general welfare issues. The second raised up sachems and invested them with office, termed the Mourning Council (Henundonuhseh) because the first of its ceremonies was the lament for the deceased ruler whose vacant place was to be filled. The third was held for the observance of a general religious festival, as an occasion for the confederated tribes to unite under the auspices of a general council in the observance of common religious rites. But as the Mourning Council was attended with many of the same ceremonies, it came, in time, to answer for both. It became the only council they held when the civil powers of the confederacy terminated with the supremacy over them of the state.[6]


Example to the English

The Iroquois nations' political union and democratic government has been credited by many[7] as one of the influences on the United States Constitution. However, that theory has fallen into heated debate among many historians and is regarded by others as mythology. Historian Jack Rakove[8] writes: "The voluminous records we have for the constitutional debates of the late 1780s contain no significant references to the Iroquois." Researcher Brian Cook[9] writes: "The Iroquois probably held some sway over the thinking of the Framers and the development of the U.S. Constitution and the development of American democracy, albeit perhaps indirectly or even subconsciously... However, the opposition is probably also correct. The Iroquois influence is not as great as [some historians] would like it to be, the framers simply did not revere or even understand much of Iroquois culture, and their influences were European or classical - not wholly New World." However, Brian Cook himself concedes that much of the heated debate around the influence of Amerindians on the United States constitution amounts to academic knee-jerk reactions and protectionist turf-wars. Brian Cook further notes "The National Endowment for the Humanities rejected a number of research proposals that dealt with the Iroquois influence theory... [and] Johansen's first book on the Iroquois influence, Forgotten Fathers, was ordered removed from the shelves of the bookstore at Independence Hall." Although hotly debated, it is a historical fact that a number of founding fathers had direct contact with the Iroquois and prominent figures such as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were closely involved with their stronger and larger native neighbor, the Iroquois. Whether this was purely politics for protection or admiration can never be fully determined, since they didn't say. For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


In 2004 the U.S. Government acknowledged the influence of the Iroquois Constitution on the U.S. Framers.[10] The Smithsonian also noted the similarities between the two documents, as well as the differences. One significant difference noted was the inclusion of women in the Iroquois Constitution, one group among many that the framers of the U.S. Constitution did not include.


Member nations

The first five nations listed below formed the original Five Nations (listed from west to north); the Tuscarora became the sixth nation in 1720.

FRANCAIS Iroquoian Meaning 17th/18th century location
Seneca Onondowahgah "People of the Great Hill" Seneca Lake and Genesee River
Cayuga Guyohkohnyoh "People of the Great Swamp" Cayuga Lake
Onondaga Onundagaono "People of the Hills" Onondaga Lake
Oneida Onayotekaono "People of Upright Stone" Oneida Lake
Mohawk Kanien'kéhaka "People of the Great Flint" Mohawk River
Tuscarora1 Ska-Ruh-Reh "Shirt-Wearing People" From North Carolina²

1 Not one of the original Five Nations; joined 1720.
2 Settled between Oneidas and Onondagas.
The Seneca are a Native American people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... Seneca Lake, one of western New Yorks glacial Finger Lakes, is the largest lake entirely within New York and second deepest lake in the United States, when gauged by its depth below sea level. ... Upper Genesee near Belmont, New York, a series of pools and riffles The Middle Falls of the Genesee in Letchworth State Park The Genesee Rivers name is derived from the Iroquois meaning good valley or pleasant valley. ... The Cayuga nation (Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Iroquois, a confederacy of Indians in New York. ... Cayuga Lake (pronounced either kA-yü-g& or kI-yü-g&) is the longest of western New Yorks glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest in surface area (marginally smaller than Seneca Lake) and volume. ... For other uses, see Onondaga. ... Onondaga Lake is northwest of the city of Syracuse, New York and south of Lake Ontario. ... For other uses, see Oneida. ... Oneida Lake is a large lake in central New York, northeast of Syracuse. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Five Nations can refer to: The original five nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American tribes The Five Nations Championship in rugby union, now the Six Nations Championship The Five Nations of the Eberron Campaign Setting. ...

Iroquois Five Nations c. 1650 Iroquois Six Nations c. 1720

Download high resolution version (950x820, 244 KB)Iroquois Five Nations Map c. ... Iroquois Six Nations map c. ...

Modern population

The total number of Iroquois today is hard to establish. About 45,000 Iroquois lived in Canada in 1995. In the 2000 census, 80,822 people in the United States claimed Iroquois ethnicity, with 45,217 of them claiming only Iroquois background. However, tribal registrations in the United States in 1995 numbered about 30,000 in total.

Populations of the Haudenosaunee tribe
Location Seneca Cayuga Onondaga Tuscarora Oneida Mohawk Combined
Ontario         &&&&&&&&&&&03970.&&&&&03,970 &&&&&&&&&&014051.&&&&&014,051 &&&&&&&&&&017603.&&&&&017,6031
Quebec           &&&&&&&&&&&09631.&&&&&09,631  
New York &&&&&&&&&&&07581.&&&&&07,581 448 1596 &&&&&&&&&&&01200.&&&&&01,200 &&&&&&&&&&&01109.&&&&&01,109 &&&&&&&&&&&05632.&&&&&05,632  
Wisconsin         &&&&&&&&&&010309.&&&&&010,309    
Oklahoma             &&&&&&&&&&&02200.&&&&&02,2002
Source: Iroquois Population in 1995 by Doug George-Kanentiio [2].
1 Six Nations of the Grand River Territory.
2 Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma.

Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ... The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma enjoying the same tribal sovereignty as all recognized Indian tribes in the United States. ...

Haudenosaunee clans

Within each of the six nations, people are divided into a number of matrilineal clans. The number of clans varies by nation, currently from three to eight, with a total of nine different clan names. Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ...

Current clans
Seneca Cayuga Onondaga Tuscarora Oneida Mohawk
Wolf Wolf Wolf Wolf Wolf Wolf
Bear Bear Bear Bear Bear Bear
Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle
Snipe Snipe Snipe Snipe
Deer Deer Deer
Beaver Beaver Beaver
Heron Heron
Hawk Hawk
Eel Eel

Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snipe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heron (disambiguation). ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ...

Government

Mohawk leader John Smoke Johnson (right) with John Tutela, and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans.
Mohawk leader John Smoke Johnson (right) with John Tutela, and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans.

The Iroquois have a representative government known as the Grand Council. Each tribe sends chiefs to act as representatives and make decisions for the whole nation. The number of chiefs has never changed. Image File history File links Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812. ... Image File history File links Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812. ... Johnson (right) with John Tutela, and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ...

  • 14 Onondaga
  • 10 Cayuga
  •   9 Oneida
  •   9 Mohawk
  •   8 Seneca
  •   0 Tuscarora

Modern tribal communities

The Kahnawake Mohawk Territory is an Indian reserve on the south shore of the St. ... Kanesatake is a Mohawk community on the shore of Lac des Deux-Montagnes in southwestern Quebec, Canada, near Montreal. ... The Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne is a Mohawk Nation territory located across the intersection of the New York-Ontario-Quebec borders on the south bank of the St. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ... Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory is an 73 km² (18000-acre) Mohawk Indian reserve on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario, Canada, east of Belleville and immediately to the west of Shannonville. ... Wahta Mohawk Territory is an Indian reserve near Bala, Ontario on the Musquash River in south-central Ontario, Canada in the District Municipality of Muskoka. ... The Cayuga nation (Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Iroquois, a confederacy of Indians in New York. ... Ganienkeh, which translates from Mohawk into Land of the Flint, is a Mohawk community located within original sovereign Mohawk Territory in Upper New York State. ... Kanatsiohareke is a small Mohawk/Kanienkahaka community on the north bank of the Mohawk River, near Fonda,_New York. ... The Onondaga (Onundagaono or the People of the Hills) are one of the original five constituent tribes of the League of the Iroquois (Hodenosaunee). ... The Oneida Indian Nation is the Oneida tribe that resides in New York and currently owns a number of businesses and own tribal land in Verona, NY, Oneida, NY, and Canastota, NY. // In the early 1990s, the Oneida tribe originally opened a bingo house and one of its more active... For other uses, see Oneida. ... St. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... For other uses, see Seneca. ... The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma enjoying the same tribal sovereignty as all recognized Indian tribes in the United States. ... The Tuscarora Reservation is an Indian reservation located in the Town of Lewiston in Niagara County, New York. ...

Prominent people of Iroquois ancestry

Frederick Alexcee (1853-1940s )was a Tsimshian carver and painter from the community of Lax Kwalaams (Port Simpson), British Columbia, Canada. ... The Tsimshian, usually pronounced in English as // (SIM-shee-an), translated as People Inside the Skeena River, are Indigenous, or Native American and First Nation people who live around Terrace and Prince Rupert, on the north coast of British Columbia and the southernmost corner of Alaska on Annette Island. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Jay Silverheels (June 26, 1912 – March 5, 1980) was a Canadian Mohawk Indian actor. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4, 1975) is an American film actor, a former fashion model, and a Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... Canadiens redirects here. ... Ely S. Parker Ely Samuel Parker (1828 – August 31, 1895), (born Hasanoanda, later known as Donehogawa) was an Iroquois of the Seneca tribe born at Indian Falls, New York (then part of the Tonawanda Reservation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... This article is about the Canadian actor. ... Oneida is the name of several places in the United States of America, derived from the Oneida tribe of the Iroquois: Oneida, Illinois Oneida, Kansas Oneida, Kentucky in Clay County, Kentucky, home of Oneida Baptist Institute Oneida, New York Oneida, Pennsylvania Oneida, Tennessee Oneida (town), Wisconsin in Outgamie County Oneida... Joanne Shenandoah is an Iroquois singer and acoustic guitarist. ... Oneida is the name of several places in the United States of America, derived from the Oneida tribe of the Iroquois: Oneida, Illinois Oneida, Kansas Oneida, Kentucky in Clay County, Kentucky, home of Oneida Baptist Institute Oneida, New York Oneida, Pennsylvania Oneida, Tennessee Oneida (town), Wisconsin in Outgamie County Oneida... Kateri Tekakwitha (1656 – April 17, 1680), the daughter of a Mohawk warrior and a Christian Algonquin woman, was born in the Mohawk fortress of Ossernenon near present-day Auriesville, New York. ... Mohawk is: A tribe of American Indians: see Mohawk nation The Mohawk language spoken by the Mohawk people. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Iroquois Confederacy. The Light Party. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  2. ^ The Iroquois. Google Books. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  3. ^ Haudenosaunee Flag. First Americans. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  4. ^ From beads to banner. Indian Country Today. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  5. ^ The Four Indian Kings. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  6. ^ a b Morgan, Lewis H. (1907). Ancient Society. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, 130-131, 138-139. 
  7. ^ The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth. Ratical.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  8. ^ Did the Founding Fathers Really Get Many of Their Ideas of Liberty from the Iroquois?. George Mason University. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Iroquois Constitution Influenced That of U.S., Historians Say. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was an American ethnologist, anthropologist and writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • "The Four Indian Kings" in Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada
  • "The Ordeal of the Longhouse", by Daniel K. Richter
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain
  • For a detailed account of Iroquois actions during the American Revolution, see: Williams, Glenn F. Year of the Hangman: George Washington's Campaign Against the Iroquois. Yardley: Westholme Publishing, 2005.
  • Who Are the Haudenosaunee?
  • Oldest Living Participatory Democracy
  • Iroquois Indian Museum, Howes Cave, NY
  • Wright, Ronald. (2005) "Stolen Continents: 500 Years of Conquest and Resistance in the Americas." Mariner Books. ISBN-10: 0618492402; ISBN-13: 978-0618492404

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...

See also

The Iroquois Nationals are a lacrosse team consisting of members of the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. ... Red Jacket (known as Otetiani in his youth and Segoyewatha after 1780) (c. ... Sir William Johnson (1715-1774) was an English pioneer and soldier in the colonial New York, and the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs from 1755-1774. ... Smoke Johnson, full name Sakayengwaraton, or Chief John Smoke Johnson, 1783-after 1879. ... Ely S. Parker Ely Samuel Parker (1828 – August 31, 1895), (born Hasanoanda, later known as Donehogawa) was an Iroquois of the Seneca tribe born at Indian Falls, New York (then part of the Tonawanda Reservation). ... The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists (Tories) and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War. ... New York, the Empire State has been at the center of American politics, finance, industry, transportation and culture since it was created by the Dutch in the 17th century. ... Iroquois women at work grinding corn or dried berries (1664 engraving). ... Gideon Hawley (November 11, 1727 – October 3, 1807), was a New England missionary to the Iroquois in Massachusetts and on the Susquehanna River in New York. ... Iroquoian languages The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... The Iroquois are a confederation of variously five or six tribes of Native Americans. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ... The Covenant Chain was an alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy and the English colonies of North America. ... Ganondagan State Historic Site is a native american historical site in Ontario County, New York in the USA. The historic site is in the Town of Victor, southwest of the Village of Victor. ... The False Face Society is the best known of many medicinal societies among the Iroquois. ... Mohawk Chapel, Brantford Her Majestys Chapel of the Mohawks is the oldest church in Ontario and the only royal chapel in North America. ... Stonish Giants, engraving by David Cusick from Sketches of the Ancient History of the Six Nations David Cusick (c. ... Most discussions regarding the Lower-Canada Rebellions have not rigorously deciphered the specific role played by the Iroquois community of Kahnawake in. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Iroquois
  • Ganienkeh.net
  • Haudenosaunee Home Page : the official source of news and information from the Haudenosaunee.
  • Gayanashagowa
  • History and origin of the Five Nations
  • Long list of Iroquois links
  • The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign Hits Iroquoia, 1779
  • David Cusick's Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations (1828)
  • Iroquois Home Page
  • Iroquois Confederacy and the Influence Thesis : an examination of theories for and against Iroquois influence on American democratic thought.
  • The Wampum Chronicles: Mohawk Territory on the Internet
  • The Documentary History of the State of New York, Vol. 1, Ch. I. Papers relating to the Iroquois and other Indian Tribes. 1666—1763

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iroquois (22193 words)
On the positive side, the adoptions gave the Iroquois a claim to the lands of their former enemies beyond mere "right of conquest." Mass adoption, however, was not extended to non-Iroquian speaking tribes, and from this point the Iroquois population dropped.
An exception was the Iroquois threat of intervention on behalf of the Tuscarora during the Tuscarora War (1712-13) with the Carolina colonists.
At the Treaty of Lancaster with the Iroquois, Shawnee and Delaware (and indirectly - Mingo) in 1748, Pennsylvania urged the Iroquois to restore the Ohio tribes to the Covenant Chain as a barrier against the French.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iroquois (2538 words)
Iroquois dwelling was the so-called "long house", from 50 to 100 feet in length and from 15 to 20 feet in width, the frame of stout posts set upright in the ground, kept in place with cross-pieces, and covered and roofed with bark.
Iroquois were monogamists, but divorce was easy and frequent, the children remaining always with the mother.
Iroquois retaliated by landing 1500 warriors at Montreal, ravaging the whole country and butchering 200 men, women and children, carrying off over a hundred more to be tortured in their towns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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