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Encyclopedia > Iron
26 manganeseironcobalt
-

Fe

Ru
General
Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26
Chemical series transition metals
Group, period, block 84, d
Appearance lustrous metallic
with a grayish tinge
Standard atomic weight 55.845(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d6 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 14, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.874 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.98 g·cm−3
Melting point 1811 K
(1538 °C, 2800 °F)
Boiling point 3134 K
(2862 °C, 5182 °F)
Heat of fusion 13.81 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 340 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 25.10 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1728 1890 2091 2346 2679 3132
Atomic properties
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
a=286.65 pm;
face-centered cubic
between 1185–1667 K
Oxidation states 6, 5 [1], 4, 3, 2, 1 [2]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.83 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 762.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1561.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2957 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 156 pm
Covalent radius 125 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
1043 K
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 96.1 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 80.4 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (electrolytic)
5120 m·s−1
Young's modulus 211 GPa
Shear modulus 82 GPa
Bulk modulus 170 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.29
Mohs hardness 4.0
Vickers hardness 608 MPa
Brinell hardness 490 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-89-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of iron
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
54Fe 5.8% >3.1×1022y 2ε capture  ? 54Cr
55Fe syn 2.73 y ε capture 0.231 55Mn
56Fe 91.72% 56Fe is stable with 30 neutrons
57Fe 2.2% 57Fe is stable with 31 neutrons
58Fe 0.28% 58Fe is stable with 32 neutrons
59Fe syn 44.503 d β- 1.565 59Co
60Fe syn 1.5×106 y β- 3.978 60Co
References
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Iron (pronounced /ˈаɪɚn/) is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. Iron is a group 8 and period 4 element. Iron is a lustrous, silvery soft metal. It is one of the few ferromagnetic elements. Iron can refer to: Iron, a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Fe and atomic number 26 a device used to iron clothing, see ironing a type of golf club the cutting blade of a woodworking hand plane, see Plane: Parts of a Plane set of... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... Image File history File links Fe-TableImage. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... A Group 8 element is an element in periodic table group 8 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: Iron (26) Ruthenium (44) Osmium (76) Hassium (108) All of these elements are classed in Group 8 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Iron sample. ... Stylized lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons & 3 electrons (~1800 times smaller than protons/neutrons). ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius Van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Ferromagnetism is the phenomenon by which materials, such as iron, in an external magnetic field become magnetized and remain magnetized for a period after the material is no longer in the field. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Shear strain In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; is the force which acts is the area on which the force acts = shear strain; is... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Iron (Fe) Standard atomic mass: 55. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... A Group 8 element is an element in periodic table group 8 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: Iron (26) Ruthenium (44) Osmium (76) Hassium (108) All of these elements are classed in Group 8 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... Look up element in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A ferromagnet is a piece of ferromagnetic material, in which the microscopic magnetized regions, called domains, have been aligned by an external magnetic field (e. ...


Iron and nickel are notable for being the final elements produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, and are therefore the heaviest elements which do not require a red giant or supernova for formation. Iron and nickel are therefore the most abundant metals in metallic meteorites and in the dense-metal cores of planets such as Earth. Iron and iron alloys are also the most common source of ferromagnetic materials in everyday use. For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Cross section of a red giant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. ... According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red giant is a large non-main sequence star of stellar classification K or M; so-named because of the reddish appearance of the cooler giant stars. ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. ...

Contents

Occurrence

See also: Category:Iron minerals

Iron is believed to be the sixth most abundant element in the universe, formed as the final act of nucleosynthesis by carbon burning in massive stars. While it makes up only about 5% of the Earth's crust, the earth's core is believed to consist largely of an iron-nickel alloy constituting 35% of the mass of the Earth as a whole. Iron is consequently the most abundant element on Earth, but only the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust.[1] Most of the iron in the crust is found combined with oxygen as iron oxide minerals such as hematite and magnetite. About 1 in 20 meteorites consist of the unique iron-nickel minerals taenite (35-80% iron) and kamacite (90-95% iron). Although rare, meteorites are the major form of natural metallic iron on the earth's surface. The abundance of a chemical element measures how relatively common the element is, or how much of the element there is by comparison to all other elements. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Nucleosynthesis is the process of creating new atomic nuclei from preexisting nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... For other uses, see Hematite (disambiguation). ... Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Taenite is a mineral found naturally on Earth mostly in iron meteorites. ... Kamacite is a mineral. ... Worlds second largest Meteorite in Culiacan, Mexico A meteorite is a relatively small extra-terrestrial body that reaches the Earths surface. ...


The reason for Mars' red colour is thought to be an iron-oxide-rich soil.

The red appearance of this water is due to iron in the rocks.
The red appearance of this water is due to iron in the rocks.

Water colored by Iron. ... Water colored by Iron. ...

Characteristics

Iron is a metal extracted mainly from the iron ore hematite. It oxidises readily in air and water to form Fe2O3 and is rarely found as a free element. In order to obtain elemental iron, oxygen and other impurities must be removed by chemical reduction. The properties of iron can be modified by alloying it with various other metals and some non-metals, notably carbon and silicon to form steels. This article is about metallic materials. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... For other uses, see Hematite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Nuclei of iron have some of the highest binding energies per nucleon, surpassed only by the nickel isotope 62Ni. The universally most abundant of the highly stable nuclides is, however, 56Fe. This is formed by nuclear fusion in stars. Although a further tiny energy gain could be extracted by synthesizing 62Ni, conditions in stars are unsuitable for this process to be favoured, and iron abundance on Earth greatly favors iron over nickel, and also presumably in supernova element production.[2] Nickel (Ni) Standard atomic mass: 58. ...


Iron (as Fe2+, ferrous ion) is a necessary trace element used by almost all living organisms. The only exceptions are several organisms that live in iron-poor environments and have evolved to use different elements in their metabolic processes, such as manganese instead of iron for catalysis, or hemocyanin instead of hemoglobin. Iron-containing enzymes, usually containing heme prosthetic groups, participate in catalysis of oxidation reactions in biology, and in transport of a number of soluble gases. See hemoglobin, cytochrome, and catalase. Microminerals (also known as trace elements) are micronutrients that are chemical elements. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport or catalyse reductive/oxidative reactions. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms. ...


Allotropes

Main article: Allotropes of iron

Iron represents perhaps the best-known example of allotropy in a metal. There are three allotropic forms of iron, known as alpha, gamma, and delta. Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. ...


As molten iron cools down it crystallises at 1538°C into its delta allotrope, which has a body-centred cubic (BCC) crystal structure. As it cools further its crystal structure changes to face-centred cubic (FCC) at 1394°C, when it is known as gamma-iron, or austenite. At 912°C the crystal structure again becomes BCC as alpha-iron is formed, and at 770°C (the Curie point, Tc) the iron becomes magnetic. As the iron passes through the Curie temperature there is no change in crystalline structure, but there is a change in 'domain structure', where each domain contains iron atoms with a particular electronic spin. In unmagnetised iron, all the electronic spins of the atoms within one domain are in the same direction; however, in neighbouring domains they point in various directions and thus cancel out. In magnetised iron, the electronic spins of all the domains are all aligned, so that the magnetic effects of neighbouring domains reinforce each other. Although each domain contains billions of atoms, they are very small, about one thousandth of a centimetre across. Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The cubic crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...


Iron is of most importance when mixed with certain other metals and with carbon to form steels. There are many types of steels, all with different properties; and an understanding of the properties of the allotropes of iron is key to the manufacture of good quality steels.


Alpha iron, also known as ferrite, is the most stable form of iron at normal temperatures. It is a fairly soft metal that can dissolve only a small concentration of carbon (no more than 0.021% by mass at 910 °C).


Above 912°C and up to 1401°C alpha iron undergoes a phase transition from body-centred cubic to the face-centred cubic configuration of gamma iron, also called austenite. This is similarly soft and metallic but can dissolve considerably more carbon (as much as 2.04% by mass at 1146°C). This form of iron is used in the type of stainless steel used for making cutlery, and hospital and food-service equipment. This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which austenite (γ) is stable in carbon steel. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ...


Applications

Iron is the most widely used of all the metals, accounting for 95% of worldwide metal production. Its low cost and high strength make it indispensable in engineering applications such as the construction of machinery and machine tools, automobiles, the hulls of large ships, and structural components for buildings. Since pure iron is quite soft, it is most commonly used in the form of steel. Some of the forms in which iron is produced commercially include: Car redirects here. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...

  • Pig iron has 3.5—4.5% carbon[3] and contains varying amounts of contaminants such as sulfur, silicon and phosphorus. Its only significance is that of an intermediate step on the way from iron ore to cast iron and steel.
  • Cast iron contains 2—4% carbon, 1—6% silicon, and small amounts of manganese. Contaminants present in pig iron that negatively affect material properties, such as sulfur and phosphorus, have been reduced to an acceptable level. It has a melting point in the range of 1420—1470 K, which is lower than either of its two main components, and makes it the first product to be melted when carbon and iron are heated together. Its mechanical properties vary greatly, dependent upon the form carbon takes in the alloy. 'White' cast irons contain their carbon in the form of cementite, or iron carbide. This hard, brittle compound dominates the mechanical properties of white cast irons, rendering them hard, but unresistant to shock. The broken surface of a white cast iron is full of fine facets of the broken carbide, a very pale, silvery, shiny material, hence the appellation. In grey iron the carbon exists free as fine flakes of graphite, and also renders the material brittle due to the stress-raising nature of the sharp edged flakes of graphite. A newer variant of grey iron, referred to as ductile iron is specially treated with trace amounts of magnesium to alter the shape of graphite to spheroids, or nodules, vastly increasing the toughness and strength of the material.
  • Wrought iron contains less than 0.25% carbon.[3] It is a tough, malleable product, but not as fusible as pig iron. If honed to an edge, it loses it quickly. Wrought iron is characterised by the presence of fine fibers of slag entrapped in the metal. Wrought iron is more corrosion resistant than steel. It has been almost completely replaced by mild steel for traditional "wrought iron" products and blacksmithing. Mild steel does not have the same corrosion resistance but is cheaper and more widely available.
  • Carbon steel contains 2.0% carbon or less,[4] with small amounts of manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon.
  • Alloy steels contain varying amounts of carbon as well as other metals, such as chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, etc. They are used for structural purposes, as their alloy content raises their cost and necessitates justification of their use. Recent developments in ferrous metallurgy have produced a growing range of microalloyed steels, also termed 'HSLA' or high-strength, low alloy steels, containing tiny additions to produce high strengths and often spectacular toughness at minimal cost.
  • Iron(III) oxides are used in the production of magnetic storage media in computers. They are often mixed with other compounds, and retain their magnetic properties in solution.

The main disadvantage of iron and steel is that pure iron, and most of its alloys, suffer badly from rust if not protected in some way. Painting, galvanization, passivation, plastic coating and bluing are some techniques used to protect iron from rust by excluding water and oxygen or by sacrificial protection. Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ... Gray iron or grey iron was the original cast iron. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to make. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... -1... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ... Mild steel is the most common form of steel as its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... Carbon steel,is very fun 2 play with also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... Iron(III) oxide — also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply rust — is one of the several oxide compounds of iron, and has paramagnetic properties. ... Magnetic storage is a term from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetised medium. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Galvanization or galvanisation refers to any of several electrochemical processes named after the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ... Bluing is a passivation process in which steel is partially protected against rust, and is named after the blue-black appearance of the resulting protective finish. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Iron is believed to be the critical missing nutrient in the ocean that limits the growth of plankton. Experimental iron fertilization of areas of the ocean using iron(II) sulfate has proven successful in increasing plankton growth.[5][6][7] Larger scaled efforts are being attempted with the hope that iron seeding and ocean plankton growth can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thereby counteracting the greenhouse effect that is generally agreed by climatologists to cause global warming.[8] The main problem with iron fertilisation is the low photic depth of the Southern Ocean when compared with the mixing depth, resulting in phytoplankton death and reducing the NET amount of carbon dioxide taken up. The NET deposition of carbon into the ocean bed is only around 2% of the carbon taken up by the phytoplankton as carbon dioxide, as shown by research by IASOS (Institute of Antarctic & Southern Ocean Studies), AAD (Australian Antarctic Division) and ACE CRC (Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre).[citation needed] This article is about the real-life under-sea organisms. ... It has been suggested that Ocean Nourishment be merged into this article or section. ... Iron(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula (FeSO4). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Iron compounds

Iron chloride hexahydrate
Iron chloride hexahydrate
  • Iron oxides (FeO, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3) are ores used for iron production (see bloomery and blast furnace). They are common components of terrestrial rocks.
  • Iron(III) acetate (Fe(C2H3O2)3 is used in the dyeing of cloth.
  • Iron(III) ammonium oxalate (Fe(NH4)3(C2O4)4) is used in blueprints.
  • Iron(III) chloride (FeCl3) is used: in water purification and sewage treatment, in the dyeing of cloth, as a coloring agent in paints, as an additive in animal feed, and as an etching material for engravement, photography and printed circuits.
  • Iron(III) chromate (Fe2(CrO4)3) is used as a yellow pigment for paints and ceramic.
  • Iron(II) sulfate (FeSO4) is used in water purification and sewage treatment systems, as a catalyst in the production of ammonia, as an ingredient in fertilizer and herbicide, as an additive in animal feed, in wood preservative and as an additive to flour to increase iron levels.
  • Iron-Fluorine complex (FeF6)3- is found in solutions containing both Fe(III) ions and fluoride ions.

Iron(III) chloride hexahydrate This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... Iron(III) chloride hexahydrate This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Blueprint (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , Related Compounds Other anions Iron(III) fluoride Iron(III) bromide Other cations Iron(II) chloride Manganese(II) chloride Cobalt(II) chloride Ruthenium(III) chloride Related coagulants Iron(II) sulfate Polyaluminium chloride Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... -1... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH)), also called hydrated iron oxide and yellow iron oxide, is an oxide-hydroxide of iron. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A sample of (FePO4)2·5H2O Iron(III) phosphate, also ferric orthophosphate, or ferric phosphate, FePO4, is a phosphate of iron. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Iron(II) acetate is an off-white or light brown solid ionic compound of iron. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... The chemical structure of iron(II) gluconate Iron(II) gluconate, or ferrous gluconate,[1] is a black compound often used as an iron supplement. ... Iron supplements are supplements that can be prescribed by a doctor for a medical reason. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ... -1... Iron(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula (FeSO4). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... ...

History

The puddling process of smelting iron ore to make wrought iron from pig iron, with the right illustration displaying men working a blast furnace, from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia, published 1637 by Song Yingxing.
The puddling process of smelting iron ore to make wrought iron from pig iron, with the right illustration displaying men working a blast furnace, from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia, published 1637 by Song Yingxing.

The first iron used by mankind during prehistory came from meteors. The smelting of iron in bloomeries probably began in Anatolia or the Caucasus in the second millennium BC or the later part of the preceding one.[citation needed] Cast iron was first produced in China about 550 BC, but not in Europe until the medieval period. During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought iron from cast iron (in this context known as pig iron) using finery forges. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel. The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory, most likely with the use of iron from meteors. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 762 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (794 × 625 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Chinese iron workers smelting iron ore to make pig iron and wrought iron. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 762 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (794 × 625 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Chinese iron workers smelting iron ore to make pig iron and wrought iron. ... Schematic drawing of a puddling furnace Puddling was an Industrial Revolution means of making iron and steel. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Iron tapped from the blast furnace is pig iron, and contains significant amounts of carbon and silicon. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ...


Steel (with a smaller carbon content than pig iron but more than wrought iron) was first produced in antiquity. New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century AD. In the Industrial Revolution, new methods of producing bar iron without charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel. In the late 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, involving blowing air through molten pig iron, to produce mild steel. This and other 19th century and later processes have led to wrought iron no longer being produced. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Carburization is the name of the process by which carbon is introduced into a metal. ... The cementation process is a obsolete technique for making steel. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) Sir Henry Bessemer (January 19, 1813 – March 15, 1898), English engineer and inventor, was born at Charlton near Hitchin in Hertfordshire. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ...


Production of iron from iron ore

See also: Iron ore

The production of iron or steel is a process unless the desired final product is cast iron. The first stage is to produce pig iron in a blast furnace. The second is to make wrought iron or steel from pig iron by a further process. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Blast furnace

Main article: Blast furnace
How Iron was extracted in the 19th century
How Iron was extracted in the 19th century
Iron output in 2005
Iron output in 2005
This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production.
This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production.

Ninety percent of all mining of metallic ores is for the extraction of iron. Industrially, iron is produced starting from iron ores, principally haematite (nominally Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) by a carbothermic reaction (reduction with carbon) in a blast furnace at temperatures of about 2000 °C. In a blast furnace, iron ore, carbon in the form of coke, and a flux such as limestone (which is used to remove impurities in the ore which would otherwise clog the furnace with solid material) are fed into the top of the furnace, while a blast of heated air is forced into the furnace at the bottom. Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2524x1914, 2116 KB) Summary From The Popular Encyclopedia vol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2524x1914, 2116 KB) Summary From The Popular Encyclopedia vol. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of iron output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 420,492,700 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of iron output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 420,492,700 tonnes). ... Image:LightningVolt Iron Ore Pellets. ... Image:LightningVolt Iron Ore Pellets. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Hematite (AE) or haematite (BE) is the mineral form of Iron (III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... Carbothermic reactions are thermic chemical reactions which use carbon as the reducing agent at high temperature. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Air redirects here. ...


In the furnace, the coke reacts with oxygen in the air blast to produce carbon monoxide: Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...

2 C + O2 → 2 CO

The carbon monoxide reduces the iron ore (in the chemical equation below, hematite) to molten iron, becoming carbon dioxide in the process: For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

3 CO + 2Fe2O3 → 4 Fe + 3 CO2

The flux is present to melt impurities in the ore, principally silicon dioxide sand and other silicates. Common fluxes include limestone (principally calcium carbonate) and dolomite (calcium-magnesium carbonate). Other fluxes may be used depending on the impurities that need to be removed from the ore. In the heat of the furnace the limestone flux decomposes to calcium oxide (quicklime): Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Hematite (AE) or haematite (BE) is the mineral form of Iron (III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ...

CaCO3CaO + CO2

Then calcium oxide combines with silicon dioxide to form a slag. Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

CaO + SiO2CaSiO3

The slag melts in the heat of the furnace. In the bottom of the furnace, the molten slag floats on top of the more dense molten iron, and apertures in the side of the furnace are opened to run off the iron and the slag separately. The iron once cooled, is called pig iron, while the slag can be used as a material in road construction or to improve mineral-poor soils for agriculture.[citation needed] Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ...


In 2005, approximately 1,544 Mt (million metric tons) of iron ore was produced worldwide. China was the top producer of iron ore with at least one-fourth world share followed by Brazil, Australia and India, reports the British Geological Survey. A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Further processes


Pig iron is not pure iron, but has 4-5% carbon dissolved in it. This is subsequently reduced to steel or commercially pure iron, known as wrought iron, using other furnaces or converters. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of iron

Naturally occurring iron consists of four isotopes: 5.845% of radioactive 54Fe (half-life: >3.1×1022 years), 91.754% of stable 56Fe, 2.119% of stable 57Fe and 0.282% of stable 58Fe. 60Fe is an extinct radionuclide of long half-life (1.5 million years). Iron (Fe) Standard atomic mass: 55. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...


Much of the past work on measuring the isotopic composition of Fe has centered on determining 60Fe variations due to processes accompanying nucleosynthesis (i.e., meteorite studies) and ore formation. In the last decade however, advances in mass spectrometry technology have allowed the detection and quantification of minute, naturally occurring variations in the ratios of the stable isotopes of iron. Much of this work has been driven by the Earth and planetary science communities, although applications to biological and industrial systems are beginning to emerge.[9] Nucleosynthesis is the process of creating new atomic nuclei from preexisting nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ...


The isotope 56Fe is of particular interest to nuclear scientists. A common misconception is that this isotope represents the most stable nucleus possible, and that it thus would be impossible to perform fission or fusion on 56Fe and still liberate energy. This is not true, as both 62Ni and 58Fe are more stable, being the most stable nuclei. However, since 56Fe is much more easily produced from lighter nuclei in nuclear reactions, it is the endpoint of fusion chains inside extremely massive stars and is therefore common in the universe, relative to other metals. The globular cluster M80. ... The globular cluster M80. ...


In phases of the meteorites Semarkona and Chervony Kut a correlation between the concentration of 60Ni, the daughter product of 60Fe, and the abundance of the stable iron isotopes could be found which is evidence for the existence of 60Fe at the time of formation of the solar system. Possibly the energy released by the decay of 60Fe contributed, together with the energy released by decay of the radionuclide 26Al, to the remelting and differentiation of asteroids after their formation 4.6 billion years ago. The abundance of 60Ni present in extraterrestrial material may also provide further insight into the origin of the solar system and its early history. Of the stable isotopes, only 57Fe has a nuclear spin (−1/2). For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... In cosmogony, planetary differentiation is a process by which the denser portions of a planet will sink to the center; while less dense materials rise to the surface. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Solar System. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ...


Iron in organic synthesis

The use of iron metal filings in organic synthesis is mainly for the reduction of nitro compounds.[10] Additionally, iron has been used for desulfurizations,[11] reduction of aldehydes,[12] and the deoxygenation of amine oxides.[13] The chemical reactions described as reduction of nitro compounds can be facilitated by many different reagents and reaction conditions. ... Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (-NO2). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrotreater (Discuss) Oil desulfurization is a widely used process for removing sulfur from petroleum products (gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil, etc. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... An aldehyde. ... Deoxygenation is a chemical reaction involving the removal of oxygen atoms from a molecule ( A=O → A), or the removal of molecular oxygen (O2) from a reaction mixture or solvent. ...


Iron in biology

Structure of Heme b
Structure of Heme b
Main article: Human iron metabolism

Iron is essential to nearly all known organisms. In cells, iron is generally stored in the centre of metalloproteins, because "free" iron -- which binds non-specifically to many cellular components -- can catalyse production of toxic free radicals. Iron deficiency can lead to iron deficiency anemia. Image File history File links Heme. ... Image File history File links Heme. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Human beings use 20 mg of iron each day for the production of new red blood cells, much of which is recycled from old red blood cells. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... In biochemistry, a metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that also contains a metal cofactor. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Iron deficiency can refer to: Iron deficiency (plant disorder) Iron deficiency (medicine) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia, and the most common cause of microcytic anemia. ...


In animals, plants, and fungi, iron is often incorporated into the heme complex. Heme is an essential component of cytochrome proteins, which mediate redox reactions, and of oxygen carrier proteins such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, and leghemoglobin. Inorganic iron also contributes to redox reactions in the iron-sulfur clusters of many enzymes, such as nitrogenase (involved in the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen) and hydrogenase. Non-heme iron proteins include the enzymes methane monooxygenase (oxidizes methane to methanol), ribonucleotide reductase (reduces ribose to deoxyribose; DNA biosynthesis), hemerythrins (oxygen transport and fixation in marine invertebrates) and purple acid phosphatase (hydrolysis of phosphate esters). Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport or catalyse reductive/oxidative reactions. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... The oxygen carrier leghemoglobin (also legoglobin) is a hemoprotein found in leguminous plants. ... An iron-sulfur cluster is a structural motif found in certain metalloproteins, such as the ferredoxins, as well as NADH dehydrogenase and Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase of the electron transfer system. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2). ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an enzyme that controls the cellular concentration of deoxyribonucleotides. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... DNA replication. ... Single Oxygenated Hemerythrin protein Trimeric Hemerythrin Protein Complex Hemerythrin (also spelled haemerythrin; from Greek words αίμα = blood and ερυθρός = red) is an oligomeric protein responsible for oxygen (O2) transportation in the marine invertebrate phyla of sipunculids, priapulids, brachiopods, and in a single annelid worm, magelona. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ...


Iron distribution is heavily regulated in mammals, partly because iron has a high potential for biological toxicity. Iron distribution is also regulated because many bacteria require iron, so restricting its availability to bacteria (generally by sequestering it inside cells) can help to prevent or limit infections. This is probably the reason for the relatively low amounts of iron in mammalian milk. A major component of this regulation is the protein transferrin, which binds iron absorbed from the duodenum and carries it in the blood to cells.[14] Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Transferrin is a plasma protein for iron ion delivery. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...


Nutrition and dietary sources

Good sources of dietary iron include red meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans, leaf vegetables, tofu, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, potatoes with skin, bread made from completely whole-grain flour, molasses, teff and farina. Iron in meat is more easily absorbed than iron in vegetables,[15] but heme/hemoglobin from red meat increases the likelihood of colorectal cancer.[16][17] Red meat in culinary terminology refers to meat which is red-colored when raw, while in nutritional terminology, it refers to meat from mammals. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... This article is about the species Lens culinaris. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... The Black Eyed Peas are an American hip hop crew from Los Angeles, who have lately enjoyed massive international pop success. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... Binomial name Eragrostis tef (Zucc. ... Farina cereal with shelf price at Shaws Supermarket in Watertown, MA, October 2004. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Red meat in culinary terminology refers to meat which is red-colored when raw, while in nutritional terminology, it refers to meat from mammals. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Iron provided by dietary supplements is often found as iron (II) fumarate, although iron sulfate is cheaper and is absorbed equally well. Elemental iron, despite being absorbed to a much smaller extent (stomach acid is sufficient to convert some of it to ferrous iron), is often added to foods such as breakfast cereals or "enriched" wheat flour (where it is listed as "reduced iron" in the list of ingredients). Iron is most available to the body when chelated to amino acids - iron in this form is ten to fifteen times more bioavailable[18] than any other, and is also available for use as a common iron supplement. Often the amino acid chosen for this purpose is the cheapest and most common amino acid, glycine, leading to "iron glycinate" supplements.[19] The RDA for iron varies considerably based on age, gender, and source of dietary iron (heme-based iron has higher bioavailability).[20] Infants will require iron supplements if they are not breast-fed. Blood donors are at special risk of low iron levels and are often advised to supplement their iron intake. A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Ferrous fumarate is an iron-containing compound, occurring as a reddish-orange powder, used to supplement iron intake. ... Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw; pronounced ) is the binding or complexation of a bi- or multidentate ligand. ... Iron supplements are supplements that can be prescribed by a doctor for a medical reason. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daily values. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Give blood redirects here. ...


Regulation of iron uptake

Excessive iron can be toxic, because free ferrous iron reacts with peroxides to produce free radicals, which are highly reactive and can damage DNA, proteins, lipids, and other cellular components. Thus, iron toxicity occurs when there is free iron in the cell, which generally occurs when iron levels exceed the capacity of transferrin to bind the iron. A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... Transferrin is a plasma protein for iron ion delivery. ...


Iron uptake is tightly regulated by the human body, which has no regulated physiological means of excreting iron. Only small amounts of iron are lost daily due to mucosal and skin epithelial cell sloughing, so control of iron levels is mostly by regulating uptake.[21] However, large amounts of ingested iron can cause excessive levels of iron in the blood because high iron levels can damage the cells of the gastrointestinal tract, preventing them from regulating iron absorption. High blood concentrations of iron damage cells in the heart, liver and elsewhere, which can cause serious problems, including long-term organ damage and even death. Human beings use 20 mg of iron each day for the production of new red blood cells, much of which is recycled from old red blood cells. ... Gut redirects here. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...


Humans experience iron toxicity above 20 milligrams of iron for every kilogram of mass, and 60 milligrams per kilogram is a lethal dose.[22] Over-consumption of iron, often the result of children eating large quantities of ferrous sulfate tablets intended for adult consumption, is one of the most common toxicological causes of death in children under six.[22] The DRI lists the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults as 45 mg/day. For children under fourteen years old the UL is 40 mg/day. Kg redirects here. ... A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... Iron(II) sulfate (FeSO4) is an example of an ionic compound. ... The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


Regulation of iron uptake is impaired in some people as a result of a genetic defect that maps to the HLA-H gene region on chromosome 6. In these people, excessive iron intake can result in iron overload disorders, such as hemochromatosis. Many people have a genetic susceptibility to iron overload without realizing it or being aware of a family history of the problem. For this reason, it is advised that people not take iron supplements unless they suffer from iron deficiency and have consulted a doctor. Hemochromatosis is estimated to cause disease in between 0.3 and 0.8% of Caucasians.[23] In medicine, iron overload disorders are diseases caused by the accumulation of iron in the body. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. ... For a more specific and detailed discussion of anemia caused by iron deficiency, see the Wikipedia article iron deficiency anemia. ...


The medical management of iron toxicity is complex, and can include use of a specific chelating agent called deferoxamine to bind and expel excess iron from the body. Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw; pronounced ) is the binding or complexation of a bi- or multidentate ligand. ... Deferoxamine, otherwise known as desferrioxamine or desferal, is a chelating agent used to remove excess iron from the body. ...


See also

El Cerro Mutún (Spanish for the Mountain Mutun) is the worlds largest iron ore deposit, containing 70% of the worlds iron and of its magnesium. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Iron Lady, Margaret Thatcher Iron, when used metaphorically, refers to certain traits of the metal iron. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... It has been suggested that Ocean Nourishment be merged into this article or section. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Surat Al-Hadid (Arabic: سورة الحديد ) (The Iron) is the 57th sura of the Quran with 29 ayat. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... (U.S. National Register of Historic Places) Location: Omaha, NE Built/Founded: 1888 Architectural style(s): Italian Renaissance Revival Added to NRHP: 1977 Governing body: Private The Christian Specht Building is located at 1110 Douglas Street in downtown Omaha, Nebraska. ... Omaha redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Bibliography

  • Doulias PT, Christoforidis S, Brunk UT, Galaris D. Endosomal and lysosomal effects of desferrioxamine: protection of HeLa cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induction of cell-cycle arrest. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35:719-28.
  • H. R. Schubert, History of the British Iron and Steel Industry ... to 1775 AD (Routledge, London, 1957)
  • R. F. Tylecote, History of Metallurgy (Institute of Materials, London 1992).
  • R. F. Tylecote, 'Iron in the Industrial Revolution' in J. Day and R. F. Tylecote, The Industrial Revolution in Metals (Institute of Materials 1991), 200-60.
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory — Iron
  • Crystal structure of iron

References

  1. ^ Iron: geological information, <http://www.webelements.com/iron/geology.html>. Retrieved on 05-21-2008 .
  2. ^ Iron and Nickel Abundances in H~II Regions and Supernova Remnants, June 14, 1995, <http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v27n2/aas186/abs/S3707.html>. Retrieved on 05-21-2008 .
  3. ^ a b Camp, James McIntyre (1920). The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Steel Company, 173 - 174. 
  4. ^ Classification of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels, <http://www.key-to-steel.com/Articles/Art62.htm>. Retrieved on 5 January 2008 
  5. ^ Vivian Marx (2002). "The Little Plankton That Could…Maybe". Scientific American. 
  6. ^ Melinda Ferguson, David Labiak, Andrew Madden, Joseph Peltier. The Effect of Iron on Plankton Use of CO2. CEM 181H. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  7. ^ Dopyera, Caroline (October, 1996). The Iron Hypothesis. EARTH. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  8. ^ O'Conner, Steve. "Researchers 'seed' ocean with iron to soak up CO2", THE INDEPENDENT, 2007-05-03. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. 
  9. ^ Dauphas, N. & Rouxel, O. 2006. Mass spectrometry and natural variations of iron isotopes. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 25, 515-550
  10. ^ Fox, B. A.; Threlfall, T. L. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 5, p.346 (1973); Vol. 44, p.34 (1964). (Article)
  11. ^ Blomquist, A. T.; Dinguid, L. I. J. Org. Chem. 1947, 12, 718 & 723.
  12. ^ Clarke, H. T.; Dreger, E. E. Org. Syn., Coll. Vol. 1, p.304 (1941); Vol. 6, p.52 (1926). (Article).
  13. ^ den Hertog, J.; Overhoff, J. Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 1950, 69, 468.
  14. ^ Tracey A. Rouault. How Mammals Acquire and Distribute Iron Needed for Oxygen-Based Metabolism. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  15. ^ Food Standards Agency - Eat well, be well - Iron deficiency
  16. ^ Sesink AL, Termont DS, Kleibeuker JH, Van der Meer R (1999). "Red meat and colon cancer: the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of dietary heme". Cancer Res. 59 (22): 5704–9. PMID 10582688. 
  17. ^ Glei M, Klenow S, Sauer J, Wegewitz U, Richter K, Pool-Zobel BL (2006). "Hemoglobin and hemin induce DNA damage in human colon tumor cells HT29 clone 19A and in primary human colonocytes". Mutat. Res. 594 (1-2): 162–71. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.08.006. PMID 16226281. 
  18. ^ Pineda O, Ashmead HD (2001). "Effectiveness of treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children with ferrous bis-glycinate chelate". Nutrition 17 (5): 381–4. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(01)00519-6. PMID 11377130. 
  19. ^ Ashmead, H. DeWayne (1989). Conversations on Chelation and Mineral Nutrition. Keats Publishing. ISBN 0-87983-501-X. 
  20. ^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Elements (PDF). The National Academies (2001). Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  21. ^ Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K; Fausto, Nelson (2005). Anemia. Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th edition. Elsevier Saunders. Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
  22. ^ a b Toxicity, Iron. Emedicine. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  23. ^ Durupt S, Durieu I, Nove-Josserand R, et al: [Hereditary hemochromatosis]. Rev Med Interne 2000 Nov; 21(11): 961-71[Medline].

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External links

Look up iron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


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Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron (6101 words)
The DV for iron is 18 milligrams (mg).
Iron requirements of pregnant women are approximately double that of non-pregnant women because of increased blood volume during pregnancy, increased needs of the fetus, and blood losses that occur during delivery [16].
Iron deficiency anemia of pregnancy is responsible for significant morbidity, such as premature deliveries and giving birth to infants with low birth weight [1,51,59-62].
Iron Information Sheet (732 words)
Iron is an essential component of haemoglobin, transporting oxygen in the blood to all parts of the body.
Iron is the least plentiful nutrient in the typical British diet and anaemia is fairly common in the UK.
Iron in haemoglobin is recycled and the amount of iron lost from the body is very small.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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