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Encyclopedia > Irish Canadian
Irish Canadians
Total population

3,822,660
12.9% of the Canadian Population

Regions with significant populations
Ontario, Western Canada, Atlantic Canada, Quebec
Languages
English, French
Religions
Roman Catholic, Protestant
Related ethnic groups
Irish, Irish Americans

Irish Canadians are immigrants and descendants of immigrants who origninated in Ireland. The 2001 census by Statcan, Canada's Official Statistical office revealed that the Irish were the 4th largest ethnic group with 3,822,660 Canadians with full or partial Irish descent or 12.9% of the nation's total population. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the region in Canada. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with gathering and analysing statistics about Canada. ...

Contents

Irish in Canada

Irish have a long and rich history in Canada dating back centuries. The first recorded Irish presence in the area of present day Canada dates from 1536, when Irish fishermen from Cork travelled to Newfoundland. This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


After the permanent settlement in Newfoundland by Irish in early 1800s, overwhelmingly from Waterford, increased immigration of the Irish elsewhere in Canada began in the decades following the War of 1812. Between the years 1825 to 1845, 60% of all immigrants to Canada were Irish; in 1831 alone, some 34,000 arrived in Montréal. County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ...


But the peak period of entry of the Irish to Canada occurred during and shortly after the Great Irish Famine in the mid 19th century. During this time, Canada was the destination of the most destitute Irish people, numbering in the hundreds of thousands. This was because the fare to Canada was much lower than those to the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741) This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The majority arrived in Grosse Isle, an island in present day Quebec which housed the immigration reception station. Thousands died or were treated in the hospital (equipped for less than one hundred patients) in the summer of 1847; in fact, many boats that reached Grosse-Île had lost the bulk of their passengers and crew, and many more died in quarantine on or near the island. From Grosse-Ile, most survivors were sent to Montréal. The orphaned children were adopted into Quebec families and accordingly became Québécois, both linguistically and culturally. Most of these immigrants continued on to settle in Canada West (formerly Upper Canada, now Ontario) or the United States. [1] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Grosse Ile, Quebec. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the use of the term. ... Canada West was the western portion of the former Province of Canada from 1841 to 1867. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...

Compared with the Irish in the United States or the United Kingdom who fled famine, a good number of the Irish in Canada settled in rural areas and not in the cities, though there were many exceptions (especially in Quebec and New Brunswick, see below for more information). The Irish in Canada still faced a large amount of racism and persecution, both from the Irish Republican Brotherhood's raids on British army posts in Canada (then known as British North America) from the United States, and due to long-standing feelings of anti-Irish racism among Canadian Protestants. Although the Irish-Canadian community did in part condemned the attacks on the British Army in Canada in support of their hopes for a peaceful new country, many more were torn between loyalty to their new home and the memory of harsh British rule in Ireland. ImageMetadata File history File links ThomasDArcyMcGee. ... ImageMetadata File history File links ThomasDArcyMcGee. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ... McGee in 1868 Thomas DArcy McGee, PC, (April 13, 1825 – April 7, 1868) was a Canadian journalist and Father of Confederation. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Racism is the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ...


Thomas D'Arcy McGee, an Irish-Montreal journalist, became a Father of Confederation in 1867. An Irish Republican in his early years, he would moderate his view in later years and become a passionate advocate of Confederation. He was instrumental in enshrining educational rights for minority Catholics in the Canadian Constitution. In 1868, he was assassinated in Ottawa. It was claimed a Fenian named Patrick J. Whelan was the assassin, attacking McGee for his recent anti-Raid statements (even though McGee first permanently fled Ireland to America to escape a warrant for his arrest on charges of aiding the 1848 Uprising in Tipperary, while editing a nationalist newspaper called Nation). This was later called into question, with many believing that Whelan was falsely accused as a scapegoat in the assassination. McGee in 1868 Thomas DArcy McGee, PC, (April 13, 1825 – April 7, 1868) was a Canadian journalist and Father of Confederation. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


After Confederation, Irish Catholics faced more oppression, probably because of their faith rather than their ethnicity. This was especially true in the mainly Protestant province of Ontario, which was under the political sway of the already entrenched anti-Catholic Orange Order, Ottawa excepted. The anthem "The Maple Leaf Forever," written and composed by Scottish immigrant and Orangeman Alexander Muir, reflects the British Loyalist outlook of many Canadians of the time. matt arnold sais hi! Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... The Maple Leaf Forever was written by Alexander Muir (1830–1906) in 1867, the year of Canadas Confederation. ... Alexander Muir Credit: Milton Adamson / Library and Archives Canada / PA-030217 Alexander Muir (5 April 1830 near Lanark – 26 June 1906) was a songwriter, poet and school headmaster. ... For other uses, see Loyalist (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

The following statistics are from the 2001 Census of Canada. [2] The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ...

Canadians of Irish descent by province and territory
Province/Territory Irish Canadian
population
Newfoundland and Labrador 100,260
Prince Edward Island 37,175
Nova Scotia 178,590
New Brunswick 135,830
Quebec 291,545
Ontario 1,761,280
Manitoba 143,950
Saskatchewan 139,200
Alberta 461,065
British Columbia 562,895
Yukon 5,455
Northwest Territories 4,470
Nunavut 945
Canada 3,822,660

This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... For other geographical names that include Northwest, see Northwest. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation...

Benevolent Irish Society

In 1806, The Benevolent Irish Society (BIS) was founded as a philanthropic organization in St. John's, Newfoundland. Membership was open to adult residents of Newfoundland who were of Irish birth or ancestry, regardless of religious persuasion. The BIS was founded as a charitable, fraternal, middle-class social organization, on the principles of "benevolence and philanthropy", and had as its original objective to provide the necessary skills which would enable the poor to better themselves. Today the society is still active in Newfoundland and is the oldest philanthropic organization in North America. Seal of the BIS BIS building, St. ... St. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


The Irish Benevolent Society

In 1877, a breakthrough in Irish Canadian Protestant-Catholic relations occurred in London, Ontario. This was the founding of the Irish Benevolent Society, a brotherhood of Irishmen and women of both Catholic and Protestant faiths. The society promoted Irish Canadian culture, but it was forbidden for members to speak of Irish politics when meeting. This companionship of Irish people of all faiths quickly tore down the walls of sectarianism in Ontario[citation needed]. Today, the Society is still operating. Nickname: Location of London in relation to Middlesex County and the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario County Middlesex County Settled 1826 as a village Incorporated 1855 as a city Government  - City Mayor Anne Marie DeCicco-Best  - Governing Body London City Council  - MPs Sue Barnes (LPC) Glen Pearson... The Irish Benevolent Society of London, Ontario is a philanthropic organization founded on March 1, 1877. ...


Irish in Quebec

Main article: Irish Quebecers
 Victoria Bridge under construction in Montreal, as photographed by William Notman.
Victoria Bridge under construction in Montreal, as photographed by William Notman.

Irish established communities in both urban and rural Quebec. Irish immigrants arrived in large numbers in Montreal during the 1840s and were hired as labourers to build the Victoria Bridge, living in a tent city at the foot of the bridge. Here, workers unearthed a mass grave of 6000 Irish immigrants who had died in an earlier typhus epidemic. The Irish Stone remains at the bridge entrance to commemorate the tragedy. In modern Quebec many Quebecers are partly of Irish descent, making them Irish Quebecers. ... Image File history File links The Victoria Bridge under construction, c. ... Image File history File links The Victoria Bridge under construction, c. ... Victoria Bridge, Montreal The Victoria Bridge at Montreal, Quebec is the name for the first bridge spanning the St. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... William Notman (8 March 1826 – 25 November 1891) was a Canadian photographer and businessman. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Victoria Bridge, Montreal The Victoria Bridge at Montreal, Quebec is the name for the first bridge spanning the St. ...


The Irish would go on to settle permanently in the close-knit working-class neighbourhoods of Point-Saint-Charles and Griffintown. With the help of Quebec's Catholic Church, they would establish their own churches, schools, and hospitals. St. Patrick's Basilica was founded in 1847 and served Montreal's English-speaking Catholics for over a century. Loyola College (Montreal) was founded by the Jesuits to serve Montreal's mostly Irish English-speaking Catholic community in 1896. Saint Mary's Hospital was founded in the 1920s and continues to serve Montreal's present-day English-speaking population. The St. Patrick's Day Parade in Montreal is the oldest in North America, dating back to 1824. It annually attracts crowds of over 600,000 people. Panorama of downtown Montreal, night. ... Panorama of downtown Montreal, night. ... Saint Patricks Basilica is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... English-speaking Quebecers or Quebeckers (also Anglo-Quebecers, English Quebecers, or Anglophone Quebecers; in French Anglo-Québécois, Québécois Anglophone, or Anglo) refers to the English-speaking (anglophone) minority of the primarily French-speaking (francophone) province of Quebec in Canada. ... Loyola College was a Jesuit college in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... English-speaking Quebecers or Quebeckers (also Anglo-Quebecers, English Quebecers, or Anglophone Quebecers; in French Anglo-Québécois, Québécois Anglophone, or Anglo) refers to the English-speaking (anglophone) minority of the primarily French-speaking (francophone) province of Quebec in Canada. ... St. ...

The Irish would also settle in large numbers in Quebec City and establish communities in rural Quebec. However, most would move on to larger North American cities. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Montreal Shamrocks were a professional ice hockey team which played in the Amateur Hockey Association from 1896 to 1898, the Canadian Amateur Hockey League 1898-1905, the Eastern Canada Amateur Hockey Association 1905-1909 and both the Canadian Hockey Association and the National Hockey Association 1909-1910. ... The Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (French: ) is the championship trophy of the National Hockey League (NHL), the major professional ice hockey league in Canada and the United States. ...


Many Irish immigrants would also assimilate into French-Canadian society. After the disaster at Grosse-Île (see above), many Irish children were left as orphans in a new country. The Catholic Church would arrange for these children to be adopted by French Canadians in Lower Canada. These children kept their Irish surnames (Caissie to Kessy, Riel to Reilly..)[1]. A common Catholic religion also allowed Irish immigrants to intermarry with French Canadians, and children would often speak French as a first language. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Today, many Quebecois have a name of Irish origin. Examples are Daniel Johnson, Claude Ryan, and the late Georges Dor (born Georges-Henri Dore). The Irish constitute the second largest ethnic group in the province after the French Canadians and one estimate suggests that as many as 30 percent of the French-speaking Quebeckers have some Irish ancestry[2]. In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: ) is a native or resident of the province of Quebec, Canada, especially a French-speaking one. ... Daniel Johnson can mean: Captain Daniel Johnson, (1629-1675), English buccaneer Daniel Lorenz Johnson, (1974- ), Artist and activist Daniel Johnson, Sr, (1915-1968), politician, leader of the Union Nationale party and Quebec premier (1966-1968) Daniel Johnson, Jr, (1944- ), politician, former leader of the Quebec Liberal Party and Quebec premier... Claude Ryan Claude Ryan, CC, D.h. ... Georges Dor (March 10, 1931-2001) (born Georges-Henri Dore) was a Quebecois author, composer, playwright, singer, poet, translator, and theatrical producer and director. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Irish in Ontario

From the times of early European settlement in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Irish had been coming to Ontario, in small numbers and in the service of New France as missionaries, soldiers, geographers and fur trappers. Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


After the creation of British North America in 1763, Protestant Irish, both Irish Anglicans and Ulster-Scottish Presbyterians had been migrating over the decades to Upper Canada, some as United Empire Loyalists or directly from Ulster. British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ...


In the years after the War of 1812, an increasing numbers of Irish, a growing number Catholic, were venturing to Canada to obtain work on projects such as canals, roads, railroads and in the lumber industry. The labourers were known as ‘navvies’ and built much of the early infrastructure in the province. Settlement schemes offering cheap (or free) land brought over farmer families. Ulster and Munster (particularly Tipperary and Cork) were frequent sources of these migrants. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ... A former UK Parliament constituency in Ireland, returning two Members of Parliament. ...


The Great Irish Famine 1845-1849, had a large impact on Ontario. At its peak in the summer of 1847, boatloads of sick migrants arrived in desperate circumstances on steamers from Quebec to Bytown (presently Ottawa), and to ports of call on Lake Ontario, chief amongst them Kingston and Toronto, in addition to many other smaller communities across southern Ontario. They came from the land estates in counties such as Sligo, Galway, Clare and Cork. Quarantine facilities were hastily constructed to accommodate them. Nurses, Doctors, Priests, Nuns, compatriots, some politicians and ordinary citizens aided them. Thousands died in Ontario that summer alone, mostly from Typhus. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741) This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Sligo Code: SO Area: 1,837 km² Population (2006) 60,894[1] Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


An economic boom and rapid growth in the years after their arrival allowed many men to obtain steady employment on the rapidly expanding railroad network, construction in the cities or in the logging industry, some venturing to the more remote parts of eastern, central and northern Ontario. Women would often enter into domestic service. Others farmed the relatively cheap, arable land of southern Ontario. There was a strong Irish rural presence in Ontario in comparison to their brethren in the northern US, but they were also numerous in the towns and cities. Later generations of these poorer immigrants were among those who rose to prominence in unions, business, law, the arts and politics.


With Canadian Confederation in 1867, Catholics were granted a separate school board. Through the late 19th and early 20th century, Irish immigration to Ontario continued but a slower pace, much of it family reunification. Out migration of Irish in Ontario (along with others) occurred during this period following economic downturns, available new land and mining booms in the US or the Canadian West. The reverse is true of those with Irish descent who migrated to Ontario from the Maritimes and Newfoundland seeking work, mostly since World War II. We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...


Today, the impact of the heavy 19th century Irish immigration to Ontario is evident as those who report Irish extraction in the province number close to 2 million people or almost half the total Canadians who claim Irish ancestry. In 1998, March 17th was proclaimed “Irish Heritage Day” by the Ontario Legislature in recognition of the immense Irish contribution to the development of the Province. The Ontario Legislature Building at Queens Park The Legislative Assembly of Ontario, is the legislature of the Canadian province of Ontario. ...


Irish in New Brunswick

Irish Memorial on Middle Island, Miramichi, New Brunswick
Irish Memorial on Middle Island, Miramichi, New Brunswick

The Miramichi River valley, received a significant Irish immigration in the years before the potato famine. These settlers tended to be better off and better educated than the later arrivals, who came out of desperation. Though coming after the Scottish and the French Acadians, they made their way in this new land, intermarrying with the Catholic Highland Scots, and to a lesser extent, with the Acadians. Some, like Martin Cranney, held elective office and became the natural leaders of their augmented Irish community after the arrival of the famine immigrants. The early Irish came to the Miramichi because it was easy to get to with lumber ships stopping in Ireland before returning to Chatham and Newcastle, and because it provided economic opportunities, especially in the lumber industry. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 2. ... Ritchie Wharf on the Newcastle waterfront in the City of Miramichi. ... The Miramichi River valley is a Canadian river valley located in the east-central part of New Brunswick. ...


Long a timber-exporting colony, New Brunswick became the destination of thousands of Irish immigrants in the form of refugees fleeing the potato famines during the mid-19th century as the timber cargo vessels provided cheap passage when returning empty to the colony. Quarantine hospitals were located on islands at the mouth of the colony's two major ports, Saint John (Partridge Island) and Chatham-Newcastle (Middle Island), where many would ultimately die. Those who survived settled on marginal agricultural lands in the Miramichi River valley and in the Saint John River and Kennebecasis River valleys, however, the difficulty of farming these regions saw many Irish immigrant families moving to the colony's major cities within a generation or to Portland, Maine or Boston. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Chatham, New Brunswick, Canada, a former town on the south bank of the Miramichi River, was subsumed in 1995 into the new city of Miramichi. ... Newcastle, New Brunswick was a former town on the Miramichi River in east central New Brunswick, Canada. ... The Miramichi River valley is a Canadian river valley located in the east-central part of New Brunswick. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... The Kennebecasis River, pronounced ke-ne-buh-KAY-sis, is located in southern New Brunswick, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Resurgam (Latin for I will rise again) Country State County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Government  - Mayor Nicholas M. Mavodones, Jr Area  - City  52. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


Saint John and Chatham, New Brunswick saw large numbers of Irish migrants, changing the nature and character of both municipalities. Today, Chatham as part of the amalgamated city of Miramichi continues to host a large annual Irish festival. Indeed, Chatham is one of the most Irish communities in North America. Chatham, New Brunswick, Canada, a former town on the south bank of the Miramichi River, was subsumed in 1995 into the new city of Miramichi. ... Ritchie Wharf on the Newcastle waterfront in the City of Miramichi. ...


Irish in Prince Edward Island

For years, Prince Edward Island had been divided between Irish Catholics and British Protestants. In the latter half of the 20th century, this sectarianism diminished and was ultimately destroyed recently after two events occurred. First, the Catholic and Protestant school boards were merged into one secular institution; second, the practise of electing two MLAs for each provincial riding (one Catholic and one Protestant) was ended. This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Irish in Newfoundland

Main article: Irish Newfoundlanders

Unlike in Ontario, in Newfoundland Irish Catholics settled in the cities (mainly St. John's), while British Protestants settled in small fishing communities. Over time, the Irish Catholics became wealthier than their Protestant neighbours, which gave incentive for Protestant Newfoundlanders to join the Orange Order. In 1903, Sir William Coaker founded the Fisherman's Protective Union (F.P.U.) in an Orange Hall in Herring Neck. Furthermore, during the term of Commission of Government (1934-1949), the Orange Lodge was one of only a handful of "democratic" organizations that existed in the Dominion of Newfoundland. In 1948, a referendum was held in Newfoundland as to where the colony was headed; the Irish Catholics mainly supported independence for Newfoundland, while the Protestants mainly supported joining the Canadian Confederation. Newfoundland then joined Canada by a 52-48% margin, and with an influx of Protestants into St. John's after the closure of the east coast cod fishery in the 1990s, the main issues have become one of Rural vs. Urban interests rather than anything religious. Newfoundland and Ireland In modern Newfoundland, many Newfoundlanders are partly of Irish descent. ... Nickname: Motto: Avancez (Go forward) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Newfoundland and Labrador Established August 5, 1583 by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Government  - City Mayor Andy Wells  - Governing body St. ... The Fishermans Protective Union (sometimes called the Fishermens Protective Union, The Union or the Unionist Party) was a political party in Newfoundland and Labrador before it joined Canada. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...


To Newfoundland, the Irish gave the still-familiar family names of southeast Ireland: Walsh, Power, Murphy, Ryan, Whelan, Phelan, O'Brien, Kelly, Hanlon, Neville, Bambrick, Halley, Dillon, Byrne and FitzGerald. Irish place names are less common, many of the island's more prominent landmarks having already been named by early French and English explorers. Nevertheless, Newfoundland's Ballyhack, Cappahayden, Kilbride, St. Bride's, Port Kirwan and Skibereen all point to Irish antecedents.


Along with traditional names, the Irish brought their native tongue. Newfoundland is one of the few places outside Ireland where the Irish language was spoken by a majority of the population as their primary language. In fact Newfoundland Irish is its own distinct dialect. Newfoundland is the only place outside Europe with its own distinctive name in the Irish language, Talamh an Éisc, "the land of fish". This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Newfoundland Irish (Irish: Gaeilge Talamh an Éisc) is a dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland and widely spoken until the mid-20th century. ...


Irish of Nova Scotia

Many Nova Scotians who claim Irish ancestry are of Presbyterian Ulster-Scottish descent. Settlement was centred in Colchester County, Nova Scotia. Common surnames included Archibald, Barnhill, Bell, Blair, Brown, Campbell, Cameron, Carter, Chisholm, Clark, Cook, Corbett, Cox, Creelman, Crow, Davison, Delaney, Dickie, Dickson, Dunlap, Durning, Faulkner, Fisher, Fletcher, Fraser, Fulmore, Fulton, Gamble, Graham, Hamilton, Healy, Henderson, Higgins, Hill, Johnson, Johnston, Kennedy, Lahey, Langille, Lewis, MacAleese, Marsh, McBurnie, McCully, McCurdy, McDonald, McIntosh, McKay, McKenzie, McLaughlin, McLean, McLelan, McLellan, McLeod, McNutt, Miller, Moore, Morrison, Murray, Nelson, Peppard, Ross, Rutherford, Smith, Spencer, Simpson, Staples, Stevens, Stewart, Taylor, Thompson, Vance, Williams, Wilson, and Wright. O'Brien and Ryan are also surnames from the period suggesting some of the families to arrive may have been Catholic. However, many Scottish immigrants who settled in that area are from the Highlands and many are Roman Catholic making it hard to distinguish Irish and Scottish people. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Former official flag of Northern Ireland and de facto civil flag. ... Colchester County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ...


Catholic Irish settlement in Nova Scotia was traditionally restricted to the urban Halifax area. For other uses, see Halifax, Nova Scotia. ...


Irish in the Prairies

Irish migration to the Prairie Provinces had two distinct components: those who came via eastern Canada or the United States, and those who came directly from Ireland. Many of the Irish-Canadians who came west were fairly well assimilated, in that they spoke English and understood British customs and law, and tended to be regarded as a part of English Canada. However, this picture was complicated by the religious division. Many of the original "English" Canadian settlers in the Red River Colony were fervent Irish Loyalist Protestants, and members of the Orange Order. They clashed with Catholic Metis leader Louis Riel's provisional government during the Red River Resistance, and as a result Thomas Scott was executed, inflaming sectarian tensions in the east. At this time and during the course of the following decades, many of the Catholic Irish were fighting for separate Catholic schools in the west, but sometimes clashed with the Francophone element of the Catholic community during the Manitoba Schools Question. After World War I and the de facto resolution of the religious schools issue, any eastern Irish-Canadians moving west blended in totally with the majority society. The small group of Irish-born who arrived in the second half of the 20th Century tended to be urban professionals, a stark contrast to the agrarian pioneers who had come before. The Canadian prairies is a vast area of flat sedimentary land that stretches from Ontario and the Canadian Shield to the Canadian Rockies covering much of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta - the Prairie Provinces. ... English Canada is a term used to describe one of the following: English Canadians, a term usually meaning English-speaking or anglophone Canadians, the official language majority in the country except New-Brunswick and Quebec as well. ... Settlers are people who have travelled of their own choice, from the land of their birth to live in new lands or colonies. ... The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on 300,000 km² of land granted to him by the Hudsons Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ... For the opera, see Louis Riel (opera). ... The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are the names given to the events surrounding the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... Thomas Scott Thomas Scott (c. ... The Manitoba Schools Question was a political crisis in Manitoba and more generally in Canada in the late 19th century involving publicly funded separate schools for French and English and the deeper question of whether French would survive as a language or a culture in Western Canada. ...


See also

  • List of Ireland-related topics

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... // The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ... Irish Americans are residents or citizens of the United States who claim Irish ancestry. ... The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a European ethnic group who originated in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (since 1994) The Coat of Arms of Canada, formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, is the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity...

Notes

  1. ^ Taïeb Moalla, Les Irlandais du Québec : à la croisée de deux cultures, in Tolerance.ca, retrieved on February 03, 2007
  2. ^ Taïeb Moalla, Les Irlandais du Québec : à la croisée de deux cultures, in Tolerance.ca, retrieved on February 03, 2007

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Irish (In Countries Other Than Ireland) (16021 words)
Who were the first Irish to land on the American continent and the time of their arrival are perhaps matters of conjecture rather than of historical proof; but that the Irish were there almost at the beginning of the colonial era is a fact support by historical records.
While men of the Irish race were engaged on the battlefield in defence of their adopted country, accompanied and encouraged by the clergy, the religious orders of women within the Church were no less diligent in nursing the sick and wounded in camps and hospitals.
To the American-born son of Irish immigrants, Dr. Joseph O'Dwyer, humanity the world over is indebted for the process of intubation of the larynx in cases of diphtheria and the invention of the instruments used in that operation.
Irish Canadian: Information from Answers.com (2463 words)
Irish Canadians live across the country and a sizable portion of Canada's population (12.9%) identify themselves as of Irish descent.
In fact, the Irish are the second largest ethnic group in the province after the French Canadians and one estimate suggests that as many as 30 percent of the French-speaking Quebeckers have some Irish ancestry.
Catholic Irish settlement in Nova Scotia was traditionally restricted to the urban Halifax area.
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