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Encyclopedia > Irish American
Irish American
Gael-Mheiriceánach

Notable Irish Americans:
'Ronald Reagan'
'John F. Kennedy'
'Richard J. Daley'
'Mother Jones'
'Francis O'Neill'
'Mary McCarthy'
Flag of the United States
Total population

Irish
35,975,855 Americans
[1] 12% of the US population (2006)
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Image File history File links John_F_Kennedy1963. ... Image File history File links Daley1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1041x1536, 155 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mother Jones Shell Be Coming Round the Mountain ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2109 × 2786 pixels, file size: 828 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Note: high resolution version from http://memory. ... Reagan redirects here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... Mary Harris Jones (August 1, 1837 – November 30, 1930), better known as Mother Jones, was a prominent American labor and community organizer, and Wobbly. ... Francis ONeill (August 28, 1848–January 26, 1936) was an Irish-born American police officer and collector of Irish traditional music. ... Mary Therese McCarthy (June 21, 1912 – October 25, 1989) was an American author and critic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Regions with significant populations
Throughout the entire Northeastern United States, much of the Northwestern United States, the West Coast, Southern United States and Midwestern United States, and the New York and Philadelphia, Chicago and Boston areas
Language(s)
American English, Irish language
Religion(s)
Predominantly
Roman Catholic
Christian
Related ethnic groups
Irish people, Scots-Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Welsh Americans, English Americans

Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European island of Ireland. A total of 35,975,855 Americans (12% of total population) reported Irish ancestry in the 2006 American Community Survey.[2] The only self-reported ancestral group larger than Irish Americans are German Americans.[3] Note that this figure does not include those reporting Scots-Irish ancestry, who are counted separately. Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a European ethnic group who originated in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... Listing of notable living/dead Americans who are of Welsh descent. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ...

Contents

Immigration to America

Catholics

Irish Catholics have been migrating to the United States in steady numbers even before the American Revolution, some as domestic servants or as a result of penal deportations; their numbers increased immensely by the 1820s when migrants, mostly males, became involved in canal building, lumbering and civil construction works in the Northeast. Small but tight communities developed in growing cities such as Boston, Providence and New York City. The large Erie Canal project was one such example where Irishmen were the majority of the laborers used. During and after the "Great Irish Famine" (or Great Hunger; Irish: An Gorta Mór) of 1845-1850, millions of Irish Catholics came to North America. Many lived in Canada and the United States. Many Irish who left Ireland for America during the famine and subsequent years did not make their destination. Due to poverty, ill health and poor conditions a significant number died en route. As a result the ships they travelled on became known as coffin ships. Nearly a third of all Irish who left on ships during the famine period to North America emigrated from the United Kingdom to its dominion in Canada, having a large impact on a smaller population there as many arrived in a disease stricken state. Although the greater portion of these arrivals stayed on in Canada, particularly in Toronto and Ontario and remained as subjects of the British Empire, a significant number moved on to the United States to join quickly growing Irish American communities, some after staying in Canada for only a few years. Between 1820 and 1860, fully two-thirds of the Irish immigrants to the United States were Catholic and constituted fully one third of all immigrants to the United States. By the 1840s as a result of the famine fully half of all immigrants to the United States originated from Ireland.[4] 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Boston redirects here. ... “Providence” redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... A coffin ship is the name given to any boat that is worth more to its owners overinsured and sunk than afloat. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...


Many of these immigrants went to the largest cities, especially Boston and New York, as well as Chicago, San Francisco, St. Louis, Missouri, Philadelphia and Detroit. Even today, many of these cities still retain a substantial Irish American community while New York City still has more people who claim Irish heritage than Dublin's whole population. These cities became the conduit through which Irish, both Protestant and Catholic entered American society. For example, recruiting drives to enlist recent Catholic Irish emigrants as field soldiers during the Mexican-American War and later the US Civil War proved troublesome for the U.S. Army, but without employment some Catholic Irish wound up enlisting anyway. Draft riots occurred, the most well known the New York Draft Riots resulting from conscription ordered by President Lincoln in 1863. Additionally, the Protestant Irish still held familial and clan ties to many Americans who had arrived in the preceding decades. As a result, although both the Protestant and Catholic Irish who immigrated in the years between 1820 and 1860 arrived under harsh conditions, their cultural, ancestral, religious and linguistic differences were sufficient to cause a huge divergence in experience. After 1860, Irish Catholic immigration continued, a lot of it chain migration mostly to the large cities where Irish American neighborhoods were previously established. Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Detroit redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Combatants Anti-Union rioters United States of America Commanders Unknown John E. Wool Casualties 100 civilians The New York Draft Riots (July 13 to July 16, 1863; known at the time as Draft Week[1]) were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of... Chain migration refers to the mechanism by which foreign nationals are allowed to immigrate by virtue of the ability of previous immigrants to send for their adult relatives. ...


Protestants

Scots-Irish

The term Scots-Irish (aka Ulster-Scots) is usually used to designate descendants of immigrants from Scotland. Ulster is a region where much intermingling of Scots, English, and Irish people took place due to the Ulster Plantations. The number of this specific group is reported by the US Census of 2000 as being around 4.9 million. However, due to some disparity in naming convention, some estimate the actual number to be in the region of 23 million to 30 million with many descendants regarding themselves as Irish or American. Even some of the Irish Catholic population may have some distant Scottish ancestry with common Irish surnames such as Sweeney and McDonnell being attributed to Gallowglass (Scottish mercenaries) who settled in Ireland. Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... This article is about the country. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ... Irish Catholics are persons of predominantly Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ... Sweeney is an ancient clan name with Irish/Scottish links, and is closely related to the clans MacSween and MacQueen, the sept names all sharing the Gaelic origins of MacSuibhne meaning son of Sweyn. The Sweeney clan claim kinship, mentioned in the Fenian cycle with the Irish high kings, of... The McDonnell Aircraft Corporation was an American aerospace manufacturer, based near St. ... The term Galloglas (or Gallowglass) is an Anglicisation of the Irish, Gallóglaigh (foreign soldiers), incorporating the word, Óglach, which is derived from oac, the Old Irish for youths, but later meaning soldier. The galloglas were a mercenary warrior élite among Gaelic-Norse clans residing in the highlands and Western...

The Chicago River, dyed green for the 2005 St. Patrick's Day celebration.
The Chicago River, dyed green for the 2005 St. Patrick's Day celebration.

The primary origin of this large population is centered around a quarter of a million Scots-Irish who fled the economic distress and social upheaval. They emigrated to America primarily before 1776 as subjects of the British Empire moving from one region to another. They settled especially in frontier areas of Pennsylvania, Virginia and the Carolinas, where land was free and collective action against Indian raids was needed. Given large tracts of free land, subsidized by British and colonial authorities, tens of thousands of these Protestant Scots-Irish became the force which pacified the American frontier. Many joined Presbyterian and Methodist churches. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1984 × 1488 pixel, file size: 827 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Knowledge Seeker. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1984 × 1488 pixel, file size: 827 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Knowledge Seeker. ... The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long[1], and flows through downtown Chicago. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Carolinas is a collective term used in the United States to refer to the states of North and South Carolina together. ...


The term Anglo-Irish is usually used to designate Anglican (see Church of Ireland) and Protestant Irish of English descent. They primarily originated from the areas of Dublin, Cork, Wexford, and the old Pale of Ireland, and moved following the upheavals of the Irish wars and the economic depression caused by the take-over of commercial regulation from the Kingdom of Ireland to the Kingdom of Great Britain. Much like the Scots-Irish, these colonists were also veterans of low-intensity warfare, were often former soldiers, and thus were encouraged to settle in frontier areas. Here they intermingled with the Scots-Irish to such an extent that the ability to distinguish between the two groups slowly became extinguished. Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... A pale is a territory or jurisdiction (possibly non-territorial) under a given authority, or the limits of such a jurisdiction. ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...


Some see a distinction between Catholic 'Irish Americans' and Protestant 'Scots-Irish' and 'Anglo-Irish' (though not all Scots-Irish migrants were specifically Protestant). Many people of both Anglo-Irish and Scots-Irish descent before 1849 described themselves as, simply, Irish. As Irish Catholic began to enter the U.S. in greater numbers the distinction Scots-Irish became popularized. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Two possible reasons have been suggested for the disparity of the figures of the census and the estimation. The first is that the English and Scots-Irish may quite often regard themselves as simply having either Irish ancestry (which 10.8% of Americans reported) or Scottish ancestry (reported by 4.9 million or 1.7% of the total population) or English ancestry. The other is that most of the descendants of this historical group have integrated themselves into American society, even reporting their ancestry as simply "American" (the most common ancestry in areas historically settled by the English and Scots-Irish mostly throughout much of the Southern United States). Historic Southern United States. ...


The 'English' and 'Scots-Irish' Protestants, in contrast with later Catholic Irish immigrants, assimilated quickly into the new society, many abandoning old-world characteristics they no longer found useful, as Frederick Jackson Turner explained in his Frontier Thesis. That is they became "American" and indeed helped redefine what it meant to be American. Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the least influential American historian of the early 20th century. ... Frederick Jackson Turner, author of the Frontier Thesis The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness. ...


In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the historical roots of Irish Protestants in North America.


The Protestant Irish, particularly of the Scots-Irish background usually retained a strong interest in farming, herding, and hunting. Additionally through the cousinage and clan ties many of the Scots-Irish were rapidly encouraged to move onto the frontier where fellow Scots-Irish and American natives of Scots-Irish background awaited. Nonetheless, a significant number of the Scots-Irish who remained in the cities of the United States quickly took advantage of the new Republic's opportunities and assimilated into the artisan, craftsmen, and small business classes. However, significant opposition in the political classes remained even against the Scots-Irish and they were discriminated against.


Occupations

Irish Catholic immigrants went directly to the cities, mill towns and railroad or canal construction sites in the east coast. Few became farmers. They were hired by Irish labor contractors to work in "labor gangs" as manual laborers on canals, railroads, streets, sewers and other construction projects, particularly in New York state and New England. Large numbers moved to New England mill towns, such as Lowell, Massachusetts, Fall River, Massachusetts and Milford, Massachusetts, where Protestant owners of textile mills welcomed the new low-wage workers. They took the jobs previously held by Yankee Protestant women known as Lowell girls. A large fraction of Irish Catholic women took jobs as maids in middle class households and hotels. State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... Nickname: Motto: Well Try Location in Bristol County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Bristol Settled 1670 Incorporated 1803 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Edward M. Lambert, Jr. ... Milford is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Scots-Irish were frontiersmen who retained a strong interest in farming, herding, and hunting. (McWhinney 1989)


The main business enterprises set up by the Irish were taverns and construction.


Large numbers of unemployed Irish Catholics lived in squalid conditions in the new city slums.[5]


Although the Irish Catholics started very low on the social status scale, by 1900, they had jobs and earnings about equal on average to their neighbors. After 1945, the Catholic Irish consistently ranked toward the top of the social hierarchy, thanks especially to their high rate of college attendance. [6]


The Irish quickly found employment in the police departments of major cities, particularly in the North East. In the 1860s more than half of those arrested in New York City were Irish born or of Irish descent but nearly half of the City's law enforcement officers were also Irish. By the turn of the century, five out of six NYPD officers was Irish American. Irish Americans continue to have a disproportionate membership in the law enforcement community, especially in New England, where they continue to have a dominating role. When the Emerald Society of the Boston Police Department was formed in 1973, half of the city's police officers became members.


Discrimination and prejudice

New York Times want ad 1854--only newspaper ad with NINA for men.
New York Times want ad 1854--only newspaper ad with NINA for men.

It was common for Irishmen to be discriminated against in social situations. Intermarriage between Catholics and Protestants was uncommon (and strongly discouraged by both ministers and priests). An important response was the creation of a parochial school system, in addition to numerous colleges, that isolated about half the Irish youth from the public schools. Image File history File links NINA-nyt. ... Image File history File links NINA-nyt. ...


Nativist prejudice against Irish Catholics reached a peak in the mid-1850s with the Know Nothing Movement, which tried to oust Catholics from public office. The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ...


After 1860 the Irish sang songs (see illustration) about signs reading "HELP WANTED - NO IRISH NEED APPLY", which were also referred to as "the NINA signs." The song had a deep impact on the Irish sense of discrimination. The issue of job discrimination against Irish immigrants is hotly debated among historians, with some insisting that the "No Irish need apply" signs so familiar to the Irish in memory were myths,[9], and others arguing that the Irish continued to be discriminated against in various professions into the 20th century. While the Irish dominated such occupations as domestic service, building, and factory work, they were not present in large numbers in the professions, finance, and many businesses. In response, the Irish clung to their occupational niches fiercely, blocking attempts by newer immigrant groups and African Americans to enter them, and earning them a reputation for violence. (See also: Anti-Irish racism) An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

1862 song that created the "No Irish Need Apply" slogan; it was copied from a similar London song.
1862 song that created the "No Irish Need Apply" slogan; it was copied from a similar London song.[7]

Image File history File links Nina3. ... Image File history File links Nina3. ...

Stereotypes and images

Irish Catholics were always the subject of stereotyping. According to historian George Potter, the media often stereotyped the Irish in America as being boss-controlled, violent (both among themselves and with those of other ethnic groups), voting illegally, prone to alcoholism, and dependent on street gangs that were often violent or criminal. Potter quotes contemporary newspaper images:[8] Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... River City Ransom gameplay (U.S. NES Version) River City Ransom (&#12480;&#12454;&#12531;&#12479;&#12454;&#12531;&#29105;&#34880;&#29289;&#35486; Downtown Nekketsu Monogatari Downtown Hotblood Story in Japan and Street Gangs in Europe) is a video game for the Nintendo Family Computer and the Nintendo Entertainment System from the...

You will scarcely ever find an Irishman dabbling in counterfeit money, or breaking into houses, or swindling; but if there is any fighting to be done, he is very apt to have a hand in it." Even though Pat might "'meet with a friend and for love knock him down,'" noted a Montreal paper, the fighting usually resulted from a sudden excitement, allowing there was "but little 'malice prepense' in his whole composition." The Catholic Telegraph of Cincinnati in 1853, saying that the "name of 'Irish' has become identified in the minds of many, with almost every species of outlawry," distinguished the Irish vices as "not of a deep malignant nature," arising rather from the "transient burst of undisciplined passion," like "drunk, disorderly, fighting, etc., not like robbery, cheating, swindling, counterfeiting, slandering, calumniating, blasphemy, using obscene language, &c.

The Irish had many humorists of their own, but were scathingly attacked in German American cartoons, especially those in Puck magazine from the 1870s to 1900. In addition, the cartoons of German American Thomas Nast were especially hostile; for example, he depicted the Irish-dominated Tammany Hall machine in New York City as a ferocious tiger.[9][10] The cover of the April 23, 1884 issue. ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ...


Most of the Irish on the media and in real life have being portrayed as policemen.


Irish settlement in the South

While only 2% of Southerners were Irish Catholics, they concentrated in a few medium-size cities where they were highly visible, such as Charleston, Savannah and New Orleans. They became local leaders in the Democratic party, supported slavery, favored the Union in 1860, but became staunch Confederates in 1861. Starting as low skilled manual laborers, they achieved average or above average economic status by 1900. As one historian explains, [11] Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Savannah redirects here. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...

Native tolerance, however, was also a very important factor in Irish integration [into Southern society].... Upper-class southerners, therefore, did not object to the Irish, because Irish immigration never threatened to overwhelm their cities or states....The Irish were willing to take on potentially high-mortality occupations, thereby sparing valuable slave property. Some employers objected not only to the cost of Irish labor but also to the rowdiness of their foreign-born employees. Nevertheless, they recognized the importance of the Irish worker to the protection of slavery. The Irish endorsement of slavery and the efforts of the Irish to preserve the South as "a white man's country" after emancipation only endeared them further to southerners. The Catholicism practiced by Irish immigrants was of little concern to Southern natives.

The influence of the Presbyterian Irish Americans on the very foundation of the nation cannot be understated. The Declaration of Independence was drafted in handwriting by, and printed by, one such man — John Dunlap; the Great Seal of the US was designed by another — Charles Thomson. Much to the chagrin of Quakers, Irish-descended Protestants took a very active part in the political makeup of the country. More than one third of all US presidents have connections to Ulster, while thirteen of them are descended from Ulster Protestants. In Northern Ireland, the ancestral homes of presidents Arthur, Jackson, Wilson and Grant are tourist attractions. DUNLAP, John, printer, born in Strabane, Ireland, in 1747; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 27 November, 1812. ... Obverse The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States government. ... For other persons named Charles Thomson, see Charles Thomson (disambiguation). ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829–November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the twenty-first President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


Sense of heritage

Irish Republican mural in South Boston, Massachusetts.
Irish Republican mural in South Boston, Massachusetts.

People of Irish descent, particularly Roman Catholics, retain a sense of their Irish heritage. A sense of exile, diaspora, and (in the case of songs) even nostalgia is common in Irish America. It is unclear to what extent the sense of kinship with Ireland is embraced or resented by the actual Irish Citizens of Ireland, now that the country is increasing its ties to Europe and becoming increasingly multi-racial. The term "Plastic Paddy", meaning someone who was not born in Ireland and who is separated from their closest Irish-born ancestor by (often) many generations, but who still likes to think of themselves as "Irish", is occasionally used in a derogatory fashion towards Irish Americans, but is more often used good-naturedly. It should be noted that the term is freely applied to relevant people of all nationalities, not solely Irish Americans. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 597 KB) Summary Taken by User:Looper5920 in October 2004 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 597 KB) Summary Taken by User:Looper5920 in October 2004 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... South Boston is a heavily populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... Look up Plastic Paddy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many Irish Americans were enthusiastic supporters of Irish independence; the Fenian Brotherhood movement was based in the United States and launched several attacks on British-controlled Canada known as the "Fenian Raids". The Provisional IRA received significant funding for its paramilitary activities from a group of Irish American supporters — in 1984, the US Department of Justice won a court case forcing the Irish American fundraising organization NORAID to acknowledge the Provisional IRA as its "foreign principal".[12] The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish nationalist organization based in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. ... Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... Noraid or the Irish Northern Aid Committee is an Irish American fundraising organization founded after the start of the Troubles in Northern Ireland in 1969. ...


Irish Catholic Americans settled in large and small cities throughout the North--railroad centers and mill towns especially. They became perhaps the most urbanized group in America, as few became farmers.[13] Strongholds include the metropolitan areas of Boston, Philadelphia, New York City, Chicago, and San Francisco, where most new arrivals of the 1830-1910 period settled. As a percentage of the population, Massachusetts is the most Irish state, with about a quarter of the population claiming Irish descent.[citation needed] The most Irish American town in the United States is Milton, MA, with 38% of its 26,000 or so residents being of Irish descent. Boston, New York, and Chicago have neighborhoods with higher percentages of Irish American residents. Regionally, the most Irish American part of the country remains central New England. Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Delaware are the three states in which Irish heritage is the most dominant. Interestingly, in consequence of its unique history as a mining center, Butte, Montana is also one of the country's most thoroughly Irish American cities. Greeley, Nebraska (population 527) has the highest percentage of Irish American residents (43%) of any town or city with a population of over 500 in the United States. The town was part of the Irish Catholic Colonization effort of Bishop O'Connor of New York in the 1880's. Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Milton is a town located in Norfolk County, Massachusetts. ...

Population density of people born in Ireland, 1870; these were mostly Catholics; the older Scots Irish immigration is not shown.
Population density of people born in Ireland, 1870; these were mostly Catholics; the older Scots Irish immigration is not shown.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1103x1266, 142 KB)From The Statistics of the Population of the United States, Compiled from the Original Returns of the Ninth Census, 1872. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1103x1266, 142 KB)From The Statistics of the Population of the United States, Compiled from the Original Returns of the Ninth Census, 1872. ...

Irish in politics and government

The Catholic Irish moved rapidly into law enforcement, and (through the Catholic Church) built hundreds of schools, colleges, orphanages, hospitals, and asylums. Political opposition to the Catholic Irish climaxed in 1854 in the short-lived Know Nothing Party.


By the 1850s, the Irish Catholics were a major presence in the police departments of large cities. In New York City in 1855, of the city's 1,149 policemen, 305 were natives of Ireland. The creation of a unified police force in Philadelphia opened the door to the Irish in that city. By 1860 in Chicago, 49 of the 107 on the police force were Irish. Chief O'Leary headed the police force in New Orleans and Malachi Fallon was chief of police of San Francisco.[14]


The Irish had a reputation for being very well organized, and, since 1850, have produced a majority of the leaders of the Catholic Church in the U.S., labor unions, the Democratic Party in larger cities, and Catholic high schools, colleges and universities. Politically, the Irish Catholic typically voted 80-95% Democratic in elections down to 1964. John F. Kennedy was their greatest political hero. Al Smith, who lost to Herbert Hoover in the 1928 presidential election, was the first Irish Catholic to run for president. From the 1830s to the 1960s, Irish Catholics voted 80-95% Democratic, with occasional exceptions like the election of 1920. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Today, most Irish Catholic politicians are associated with the Democratic Party, although some have become Republican leaders, such as former GOP national chairman Ed Gillespie, House Homeland Security Chairman Peter T. King and retired Congressman Henry Hyde. Ronald Reagan boasted of his Irishness. (The son of an Irish Catholic father, he was raised as a Protestant.) Historically, Irish Catholics controlled many city machines and often served as chairmen of the Democratic National Committee, including County Monaghan native Thomas Taggart, Vance McCormick, James Farley, Edward J. Flynn, Robert E. Hannegan, J. Howard McGrath, William H. Boyle, Jr., John Moran Bailey, Larry O'Brien, Christopher J. Dodd, and Terry McAuliffe. The majority of Irish Catholics in Congress are Democrats; currently Susan Collins of Maine is the only Irish Catholic Republican senator. Exit polls show that in recent presidential elections Irish Catholics have split about 50-50 for Democratic and Republican candidates; large majorities voted for Ronald Reagan.[15] The pro-life faction in the Democratic party includes many Irish Catholic politicians, such as senator Bob Casey, Jr., who defeated Senator Rick Santorum in a high visibility race in Pennsylvania in 2006. [16] Presidential hopeful Barack Obama is "at least three per cent Irish" and may have roots in County Meath, according to the Sunday Independent (18 March 2007). Edward Gillespie (born 1962) is an American conservative Republican political lobbyist. ... For the United States Cabinet department, see United States Department of Homeland Security. ... Peter T. King (born April 5, 1944) is a Republican politician from the U.S. state of New York, currently the U.S. Representative for the states 3rd Congressional District (map). ... Henry John Hyde (born April 18, 1924), American politician, has been a philandering member of the United States House of Representatives since 1975, representing the 6th District of Illinois (map). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Monaghan Code: MN Area: 1,294 km² Population (2006) 55,816 Website: www. ... Thomas Taggart Thomas Taggart (November 17, 1856–March 6, 1929) was a U.S. political figure. ... House Resolution 368, 97th Congress, 2nd Session, March 2 1982 Robert Caro, The Path to Power James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politician who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... Edward J. Flynn of the Bronx, New York was a member of New York state assembly from 1918 to 1921. ... Robert Emmet Hannegan was born on June 30, 1903, in St. ... McGrath (middle left) with Theodore Francis Green (right) and Harry S. Truman (far right). ... John Moran Bailey (1904 - 1975) was a U.S. political figure. ... OBrien, c. ... Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944), is an American politician. ... Terry McAuliffe opening the 2004 Democratic National Convention Terrence Richard Terry McAuliffe (born 1957) is an American political leader from the Democratic Party; he served as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee from February 2001 to February 2005. ... Susan Margaret Collins (born December 7, 1952, in Caribou, Maine) is an American politician, the junior U.S. Senator from Maine and a Republican. ... Robert Patrick Casey, Jr. ... “Santorum” redirects here. ... “Barack” redirects here. ...

Distribution of Irish Americans according to the 2000 Census

In some states such as Connecticut, the most heavily Irish communities now tend to be in the outer suburbs and generally support Republican candidates, such as New Fairfield. [10][11] Image File history File links Irish1346. ... Image File history File links Irish1346. ... By county. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... New Fairfield is a town located in Fairfield County, Connecticut. ...


Many major cities have elected Irish American Catholic mayors. Indeed, Boston, Cincinnati, Houston, Newark, New York City, Omaha, Scranton, Pittsburgh, Saint Louis, Saint Paul, and San Francisco have all elected natives of Ireland as mayors. Chicago, Boston, and Jersey City have had more Irish American mayors than any other ethnic group. The cities of Chicago, Baltimore, Milwaukee, Oakland, Omaha, St. Paul, Jersey City, Rochester, Springfield, Rockford, San Francisco, Scranton, and Syracuse currently (as of 2006) have Irish American mayors. All of these mayors are Democrats. Pittsburgh mayor Bob O'Connor died in office in 2006. New York City has had at least three Irish-born mayors and over eight Irish American mayors. The most recent one was County Mayo native William O'Dwyer, elected in 1949. Boston redirects here. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Houston redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “Omaha” redirects here. ... Scranton redirects here. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Nickname: Gateway City, Gateway to the West, or Mound City Motto: Official website: http://stlouis. ... For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis-Saint Paul. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... The skyline of Jersey City, as seen from Lower New York Bay. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... Oakland redirects here. ... The skyline of Jersey City, as seen from Lower New York Bay. ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... , Nickname: The Forest City Country State County Township Elevation 715 ft (218 m) Coordinates , Area 56. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Nickname: Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: , City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll (D) Area  - City 66. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Bob OConnor (born December 9, 1944) is the Democratic Mayor of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... ODwyer (left) visiting a cancer-ravaged Babe Ruth in 1948. ...


The Irish Protestant vote has not been studied nearly as much. Since the 1840s, it has been uncommon for a Protestant politician to be identified as Irish (though Ronald Reagan notably did and Bill Clinton claims to have Irish ancestry). In Canada, by contrast, Irish Protestants remained a cohesive political force well into the 20th century with many (but not all) belonging to the Orange Order. Throughout the 19th century, sectarian confrontation was commonplace between Protestant Irish and Catholic Irish in Canadian cities. Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ...


Presidents of Irish descent

At least thirteen presidents of the United States have some Irish ancestral origins, although the extent of this varies. For example, both of Andrew Jackson's parents were Irish born while George W. Bush has a rather distant Irish ancestry. President Kennedy had far stronger Irish origins, which fell much closer in terms of date. Also Ronald Reagan's father had some Irish Catholic ancestry, and his mother some Scots-Irish. James K. Polk also had Scots-Irish Ancestry. Only Kennedy was raised and a practicing Catholic. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

  1. Andrew Jackson, 7th President 1829-37
  2. James Knox Polk, 11th President 1845-49
  3. James Buchanan, 15th President 1857-61
  4. Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President 1869-77
  5. Chester Alan Arthur, 21st President 1881-85
  6. Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President 1885-89, 1893-97
  7. William McKinley, 25th President 1897-1901
  8. Woodrow Wilson, 28th President 1913-21
  9. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35th President 1961-63
  10. Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President 1963-69
  11. Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President 1969-74
  12. Ronald Wilson Reagan, 40th President 1981-89
  13. William Jefferson Clinton, 42nd President 1993-2001 (his mother's maiden name was Cassidy)

Also, Jefferson Davis, first and only President of the Confederate States of America St Patrick Cathedral, New York picture by ivo meier - switzerland www. ... St Patrick Cathedral, New York picture by ivo meier - switzerland www. ... St. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Reagan redirects here. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


[12] and [17]


Contributions to literature and the arts

Irish Americans have made numerous contributions to the arts, especially in literature and on the stage. One of the most well-known Irish American authors is Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winning playwright Eugene O'Neill. Others from his generation include F. Scott Fitzgerald, James T. Farrell and Raymond Chandler. Henry James was also of partly Irish descent. Also well known is the Irish American short story author Flannery O'Connor. Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... James Thomas Farrell was born on 27 February 1904, in Chicago. ... For other persons named Raymond Chandler, see Raymond Chandler (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... Mary Flannery OConnor (March 25, 1925–August 3, 1964) was an American author. ...


Wayne S. Peck - Artist born in 1987 Is know for his Comics as well for his Poetry. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Painters include Georgia O'Keeffe and William Harnett. Georgia Tottoeanocomita OKeeffe (November 15, 1887—March 6, 1986) was an American artist. ... Violin, 1886 Colt, 1890 William Michael Harnett (1848-1892) was an Irish-American painter who helped pioneer a trompe loeil (literally, fool the eye) style of realistic painting. ...


Irish American William F. Buckley was perhaps the most prominent intellectual force behind American conservative politics in the 20th Century, as his magazine National Review was a vocal ally of such successful Republican candidates as Ronald Reagan. William F. Buckley may refer to: William Francis Buckley, U.S. Army officer and CIA operative William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Look up republican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


Showbiz personalities such as: Walt Disney, Bing Crosby, Judy Garland, Gene Kelly, Grace Kelly, Tyrone Power, John Ford, Conan O'Brien and James Cagney often reflected upon their Irish heritage. Irish born actress Maureen O'Hara became a naturalized American citizen and her image as the stereotypical "Irish Colleen" in popular films such as The Quiet Man and The Long Gray Line established her beautiful but feisty image firmly within Irish American culture. For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Harry Lillis Bing Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... For the similarly-named American actress, see Jean Kelly. ... For the Mika song, see Grace Kelly (song). ... Tyrone Edmund Power, Jr. ... For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... Conan Christopher OBrien (born April 18, 1963)[1] is an Emmy-winning American comedian, writer and television personality best known as host of NBCs late-night talk/variety show Late Night with Conan OBrien. ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... Maureen OHara Maureen OHara (born Maureen FitzSimons) on August 17, 1920 is an Irish film actress. ... The Quiet Man is a 1952 American film starring John Wayne, Maureen OHara, Victor McLaglen, and Barry Fitzgerald, and directed by John Ford. ... The Long Gray Line is the title of a 1955 film starring Tyrone Power about the life of long-time United States Military Academy instructor Marty Maher. ...


Dropkick Murphys are a celtic punk band formed in Quincy, Massachusetts, USA and Pierce Brosnan of 007 James Bond fame is also an Irish import who became a naturalised American Citizen. “DKM” redirects here. ... Pierce Brendan Brosnan, OBE[1] (born May 16, 1953) is an Irish actor and producer best known for portraying James Bond in four films from 1995 to 2002: GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, The World Is Not Enough and Die Another Day. ...


Popular culture

Irish authors, songsters and actors made a major contribution to American popular culture, often portraying police officers and firefighters as being Irish American. In fact, the urban Irish cop and firefighter are virtual icons of American popular culture. In many large cities, the police and fire departments have been dominated by the Irish for over 100 years, even after the populations in those cities of Irish extraction dwindled down to small minorities. Many police and fire departments maintain large and active "Emerald Societies", bagpipe marching groups, or other similar units demonstrating their members' pride in their Irish heritage. Another place Irish American life is the most notably predicted is in movies such as Little Nellie Kelly, The Cardinal, The Boondock Saints, the labor epic On the Waterfront, gangster films Angels with Dirty Faces and The Departed and on television in series such as Ryan's Hope and The Black Donnellys. Martin Scorsese's film Gangs of New York centered on the violent 19th century confrontations between nativists and Irish immigrants in the Five Points area of lower Manhattan. In contemporary popular music, the indie band The Decemberists' CD "The Crane Wife' (with Irish American singer and songwriter Colin Meloy) contains the song "Shankill Butchers," depicting the Ulster Loyalist cell. The Irish Americans also maintain many fraternal organizations like the Ancient Order of Hibernians. The Emerald Society is organizations of American police officers or fire fighters of Irish heritage. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Cardinal is a 1963 film which was produced independently and directed by Otto Preminger, and distributed by Columbia Pictures. ... The Boondock Saints is a 1999 action crime drama film written and directed by Troy Duffy. ... For other uses, see On the Waterfront (disambiguation). ... Angels with Dirty Faces is a well-known and often referenced 1938 Warner Brothers film noir directed by Michael Curtiz and starring James Cagney, Humphrey Bogart, Pat OBrien, and the Dead End Kids. ... The Departed is a 2006 crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Leonardo DiCaprio (in his third movie with Scorsese), Matt Damon, Jack Nicholson and Mark Wahlberg. ... Ryans Hope was a soap opera which aired for fourteen years on ABC, from July 7, 1975 to January 13, 1989. ... This article is about the 2007 NBC Television Program. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, writer and producer and founder of the World Cinema Foundation. ... Gangs of New York is a 2002 film set in the middle 19th century in the Five Points district of New York City. ... The Shankill Butchers were a group of Ulster Volunteer Force members in Belfast, Northern Ireland, who abducted Roman Catholics usually walking home from a night out, tortured and/or savagely beat them, and killed them, usually by cutting their throats. ... A fraternal organization, sometimes also known as a fraternity, is an organization that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Saint Patrick's Day is widely celebrated across the United States as a day of celebration of all things Irish and faux-Irish, especially in New York with the largest celebration of over 2 million. Savannah has the(second-largest celebration), though the largest per capita. Parades, parties, and other festive events mark the day. St. ... This article is about the state. ... Savannah redirects here. ...


The majority of Irish immigrants probably spoke English; some were bilingual or native speakers of Irish. According to the latest census, the Irish language ranks 66th out of the 322 languages spoken today in the U.S., with over 25,000 speakers. New York State has the most Irish speakers, and Massachusetts the highest percentage, of the fifty states.


See also

St. ... Irish Catholics are persons of predominantly Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ... // The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ... Its A Great Day for the Irish The original Irish-American song was written in 1940 by Roger Edens the Musical Director at MGM under the leadership of Arthur Freed for inclusion in the film version of the George M. Cohan 1922 Broadway show Little Nellie Kelly Directed by... Look up Plastic Paddy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... The Irish Mob, or Irish Mafia, is one of the oldest organized crime groups in the United States, in existence since the early 19th century. ... // St. ... South Side Irish is the term that refers to the large Irish Catholic community on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois. ... Demonstrators disrupt a 1999 academic conference in London at which 3 race and intelligence researchers were scheduled to speak. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This is a list of Irish-American communities in the United States: Massachusetts Boston: West Roxbury Brighton South Boston Allston Charlestown Dorchester Milton Quincy Somerville Melrose Reading, Massachusetts Chelmsford, Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts Weymouth, Massachusetts Hingham, Massachusetts Hull, Massachusetts Cohasset, Massachusetts Norwell, Massachusetts Holbrook, Massachusetts Avon, Massachusetts Dedham, Massachusetts Westwood, Massachusetts... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... Irish Canadians are people of Irish descent living in Canada or born as native Canadians. ... The 69th Infantry Regiment (Light), New York Army National Guard is the famed Fighting 69th combat unit out of New York City and part of the 42nd Rainbow Division. ... This article is about the unit of the United States Army during the Civil War. ... The Saint Patricks Battalion (Spanish: Batallón de San Patricio) was a unit of several hundred Irishmen, Germans, Scotsmen and other European Catholics who deserted the United States Army and fought as part of the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ...

Notes

  1. ^ ?.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ [4]
  6. ^ [Greeley 1993] They Look Cool in their uniforms
  7. ^ [5], [6]
  8. ^ Potter p. 526; see also T. J. English, Paddy Whacked: The Untold Story of the Irish-American Gangster (2005). On stereotypes see Dale T. Knobel, Paddy and the Republic: Ethnicity and Nationality in Antebellum America (1986)
  9. ^ [7]
  10. ^ [8]
  11. ^ Gleeson, The Irish 192-93
  12. ^ Irish America and the Ulster Conflict 1968-1995
  13. ^ Kenny (2000) p 105-6
  14. ^ Potter p.530
  15. ^ [George J. Marlin, The American Catholic Voter (2004), pp 296-345
  16. ^ Prendergast, William B. The Catholic Voter in American Politics: The Passing of the Democratic Monolith (1999)
  17. ^ Roberts, Gary B & Otto, Julie H: "Ancestors of American Presidents", 1995. ISBN 0-936124-19-9

References

  • English, T. J. (2005). Paddy Whacked: The Untold Story of the Irish American Gangster. New York: ReganBooks.
  • Kenny, Kevin. The American Irish: A History (2000). New York: Longman.
  • Miller, Kerby M. (1985). Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • George W. Potter. (1960). To the Golden Door: The Story of the Irish in Ireland and America. New York: Greenwood Press.

Further reading

General surveys

  • Glazier, Michael, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, (1999).
  • Meagher, Timothy J. The Columbia Guide to Irish American History. (2005).
  • Negra, Diane (ed.) The Irish in Us (Duke University Press 2006).

Catholic Irish

  • Anbinder, Tyler. Five Points: The Nineteenth-Century New York City Neighborhood That Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections and Became the World's Most Notorious Slum (2001).
  • Bayor, Ronald and Timothy Meagher, eds. The New York Irish (1996) comprehensive overview by numerous scholars
  • Blessing, Patrick J. The Irish in America: A Guide to the Literature. Longaeva Books (1992)
  • Clark, Dennis. The Irish in Philadelphia: Ten Generations of Urban Experience (1973)
  • Diner, Hasia R. Erin's Daughters in America : Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century (1983).
  • Erie, Steven P. Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840—1985 (1988).
  • Gleeson; David T. The Irish in the South, 1815-1877 University of North Carolina Press, 2001
  • Greeley, Andrew M. The Irish Americans: The Rise to Money and Power. (1993).
  • Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White (1996).
  • Jensen, Richard. "No Irish Need Apply": A Myth of Victimization," Journal of Social History 36.2 (2002) 405-429
  • McCaffrey, Lawrence J. The Irish Diaspora in America (1976).
  • Meagher, Timothy J. Inventing Irish America: Generation, Class, and Ethnic Identity in a New England City, 1880-1928 (2000).
  • Mitchell, Brian C. The Paddy Camps: The Irish of Lowell, 1821—61 (1988).
  • Mulrooney, Margaret M. ed. Fleeing the Famine: North America and Irish Refugees, 1845-1851 (2003). Essays by scholars
  • O'Donnell, L. A. Irish Voice and Organized Labor in America: A Biographical Study (1997)

Protestant Irish

  • Blethen, Tyler Ulster and North America: Transatlantic perspectives on the Scotch-Irish (1999) online at ACLS History e-book project
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (1991), major scholarly study tracing colonial roots of four groups of immigrants, Irish, English Puritans, English Cavaliers, and Quakers.
  • Griffin, Patrick. The People with No Name: Ireland's Ulster Scots, America's Scots Irish, and the Creation of a British Atlantic World, 1689-1764. (2001)
  • Leyburn, James G. Scotch-Irish: A Social History (1989), scholarly survey; good starting point.
  • McWhiney, Grady. Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South (1989), scholarly interpretation
  • Webb, James. Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America(2004) by a popular novelist, not considered reliable by scholars.

External links

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