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Encyclopedia > Irish potato famine

For other uses, please see Great Famine. For the article on the book about the famine, went bankrupt due to the Great Hunger.[citation needed] Many small tenancies, lacking long-term leases, rent control or security of tenure, became so small and unsustainable — through subdivision — that the tenants struggled to survive even in the good years, and depended on the potato crop, as only potatoes would provide enough nutrition on such small farms. Yet, the large landlord estates — owned by absentee Britons — exported many tons of cattle and other foodstuffs to foreign markets. Any attempt by the tenant farmer to increase productivity of their land-holding was actively discouraged by threats of disproportionately high increase in rent — and even eviction. Great Famine can refer to multiple historical events that refer to themselves as the Great Famine. Great Famine of 1315-1317 - Northern European famine of the 14th century. ...

Contents

Evictions

Relief of Ireland's poor people was then directed by Poor Law legislation. The Poor Law Union raised money from rates (local taxes) on landlords, based on how many tenants farmed that estate. Renting small farms to subsistence farmers was unprofitable; the British Government used the rating system to encourage consolidation of holdings — thought more profitable and, theoretically, able to pay for those no longer able to farm. Former workhouse at Nantwich, dating from 1780 The Poor Law was the system for the provision of social security in operation in England and the rest of the United Kingdom from the 16th century until the establishment of the Welfare State in the 20th century. ...


Food exports to England

Records show Irish lands exported food, even during the worst years of the Famine. When Ireland experienced a famine in 1782-83, ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but government in the 1780s overrode their protests; that export ban did not happen in the 1840s.


Cecil Woodham-Smith, an authority on the Irish Famine, wrote in The Great Hunger; Ireland 1845-1849 that, "...no issue has provoked so much anger or so embittered relations between the two countries (England and Ireland) as the indisputable fact that huge quantities of food were exported from Ireland to England throughout the period when the people of Ireland were dying of starvation." Ireland remained a net exporter of food throughout most of the five-year famine.


Christine Kinealy, a University of Liverpool fellow and author of two texts on the Irish Famine: This Great Calamity and A Death-Dealing Famine, writes that Irish exports of calves, livestock (except pigs), bacon and ham actually increased during the famine. The food was shipped under guard from the most famine-stricken parts of Ireland. But the poor had no money to buy food and the government then did not ban exports.


Irish meteorologist Austin Bourke, in The use of the potato crop in pre-famine Ireland disputes some of Woodham-Smith's calculations, and notes that during December 1846 imports almost doubled. He opines that "it is beyond question that the deficiency arising from the loss of the potato crop in 1846 could not have been met by the simple expedient of prohibiting the export of grain from Ireland." Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...


The Quakers came to Ireland during the Great Famine and set up soup kitchens.


Claims of potato dependency

Many people say that the Irish depended too much on potatoes as a food. If so, Ireland was not unique in its single-crop dependency, common among exporting nations. (For example, China with rice.) Ireland's rapid shift to potato cultivation about 1790 helped Ireland's population grow despite political upheaval and warfare. Soldiers and wars tend to disrupt most farming; not so for the sub-surface potato. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, potatoes were a staple for most Europeans. The blight spread across Europe, but only in Ireland were its consequences so drastic. Dispossession, subdivision, small tenant farms, and reliance on a single crop for home consumption [not export], are just a few of many potential reasons why Ireland suffered so much more than the Continent.


Death Toll

No one knows for certain how many people died in the Famine. State registration of births, marriages or deaths had not yet begun, while records kept by the Roman Catholic Church are incomplete. Many of the Church of Ireland's records (which included records of local Catholics due to the collection of Tithes (10% of income) from Catholics to finance the Church of Ireland) were destroyed by irregular IRA troops in 1922. Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ...


One possible estimate has been reached by comparing the expected population with the eventual numbers in the 1850s (see Irish Population Analysis). Earlier predictions expected that by 1851, Ireland would have a population of eight to nine million. This calculation is based on numbers contained in the ten year census results compiled since 1821. However, a recent re-examination of those returns raise questions as to their accuracy; the 1841 Census, for example, incorrectly classed farm children as labourers, affecting later calculations on how many adults capable of childbearing existed to produce children between 1841 and 1851.[citation needed] In 1851 the actual population was 6.6 million. Making straightforward calculations is complicated by a secondary effect of famine, a key side-effect of malnutrition, namely plummeting fertility and sexual activity rates. The scale of that effect on population numbers was not fully recognized until studies done during African famines in the twentieth century. As a result, corrections based on inaccuracies in census returns and on the previous unrealized decline in births due to malnourishment have led to an overall reduction in the presumed death numbers. Modern historians and statisticians estimate that between 500,000 and 2,000,000 died. Some historians suggest the death toll was in the region of 700,000 to 800,000.[1] One website claims a figure of over five million - no serious historian endorses a figure of even half this size.[2] In addition, in excess of one million Irish emigrated to the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and elsewhere, while more than one million emigrated over following decades; by 1911, a combination of emigration and an abnormally high number of unmarried men and women in the population, had reduced the population of Ireland to 4.4 million. The vast majority of the famine deaths were because of disease. Motto: none Anthem: Amhrán na bhFiann (The Soldiers Song) Capital Dublin Largest city Dublin Official language(s) Irish, English Government Republic  - President Mary McAleese  - Taoiseach Bertie Ahern Independence From United Kingdom   - Declared 21 January 1919   - Recognised 6 December 1922  Accession to EU January 1, 1973 Area    - Total 70... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

Decline in population 1841–51 (%)
Leinster Munster Ulster Connaught Ireland
15.3 22.5 15.7 28.8 20
Table from Joe Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society (Gill History of Ireland Series No.10) p.2

Detailed statistics into the population of Ireland since 1841 are available at Irish Population Analysis. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: none Anthem: Amhrán na bhFiann (The Soldiers Song) Capital Dublin Largest city Dublin Official language(s) Irish, English Government Republic  - President Mary McAleese  - Taoiseach Bertie Ahern Independence From United Kingdom   - Declared 21 January 1919   - Recognised 6 December 1922  Accession to EU January 1, 1973 Area    - Total 70...


Reactions

1848 rebellion

Main article: Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 The Young Irelander Rebellion or Famine Rebellion of 1848 was a failed uprising of the Young Ireland political movement, which took place on July 29, 1848 in the village of Ballingarry in the Republic of Ireland. ...


In 1847 William Smith O'Brien, the leader of the Young Ireland party, founded the Irish Confederation to campaign for a Repeal of the Act of Union, and called for the the export of grain to be stopped and the ports closed.[3] The following year he tried to incite rebellion in County Tipperary, leading peasants in a battle against the police. William Smith OBrien (born Dromoland, Ireland, October 17, 1803; died Bangor, Wales, June 18, 1864) was an Irish Nationalist and MP and leader of the Young Ireland movement. ... Young Ireland was an Irish nationalist revolutionary movement, active in the mid-nineteenth century. ... The Irish Confederation was an Irish nationalist independence movement, established on January 13, 1847 by members of the Young Ireland movement who had seceded from the Repeal Association. ... Act of Union can mean: United Kingdom The Act of Union is a name given to several acts passed by the English, Scottish and British Parliaments from 1536 onwards. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ...


Response of United Kingdom Government

The initial British government policy towards the famine was, in the view of historians such as F.S.L. Lyons, "very delayed and slow".[4] Professor Joe Lee contends: "There was nothing unique (by the standards of pre-industrial subsistence crisis) about the [Irish] famine. The death rate had been frequently equalled in earlier European famines, including, possibly, in Ireland itself during the famine of 1740–41".[5] This 1740–1741 famine is commonly referred to as The Forgotten Famine. Commonly, the government would encourage land owners to evict their tenants. F. S. L. Lyons (1923 - 1983) was one of Irelands premier historians. ... Though most people know only of the Great Famine of 1847-49, Ireland in fact experienced a famine of similar magnitude almost 110 years earlier, also called its day the Great Famine, or the Irish Famine of 1740-41. ...


During the 1846–49 Irish Famine, Tory government head Sir Robert Peel bought some foreign maize for delivery to Ireland, and repealed the Corn Laws, which prohibited imports of cheaper foreign grain to Ireland. The Irish called the maize imported by the government 'Peel's brimstone' — partly because of maize's yellow colour, partly that it had to be ground twice, partly that maize does not have--as potatoes do have--Vitamin C. Repeal of the Corn Laws during 1846 to 1849, came too late to help the starving Irish, and was politically unpopular, ending Sir Robert's ministry. Succeeding him was a Whig ministry under Lord John Russell, later Earl Russell. Lord John's ministry focused on providing support through "public works" projects. Such projects mainly consisted of the government employing Irish peasantry on wasteful projects, such as filling in valleys and flattening hills, so the government could justify the cash payments. Such projects proved counterproductive, as starving labourers expended the energy gained from low rations on the heavy labour. Furthermore, prospects of paid labour influenced Irish peasants to remain at work, far from their farmlands. So they did not farm, which fact worsened the famine. Eventually, a soup-kitchen network, which fed three million people, replaced the public works projects. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ...


In the autumn of 1847, the soup-kitchens were shut down and responsibility for famine relief was transferred to the Poor Laws unions, through the raising of Poor Law taxes. The Irish Poor Laws were even harsher on the poor than their English counterparts; those paupers with over a quarter-acre of land were expected to abandon it before entering a workhouse — something many of the poor would not do. Furthermore, Ireland had too few workhouses. Many of the workhouses that existed were closed due to financial problems; authorities in London refused to give large amounts of aid to bankrupt Poor Laws unions. As a result, disaster became inevitable; only about a million people were on workhouse relief rolls on any given day. The Poor Law was the system for the provision of social security in operation in England and the United Kingdom from the 16th century until the establishment of the Welfare State in the 20th century. ...


Britain tried in turn government direct aid, reliance on private charities (some to be financed by taxes on landlords), public works programs, soup kitchens, workhouses, and a laissez-faire policy backed by military force. Nothing worked, or, if something did work, it was not funded sufficiently. Discussions then on how to solve this problem so closely mirror modern-day arguments as to suggest that close study of the Potato Famine might yet help the modern world.


Charity

Large sums of money were donated by charities; Calcutta is credited with making the first donation of £14,000. The money was raised by Irish soldiers serving there and Irish people employed by the East India Company. Pope Pius IX sent funds, Queen Victoria donated the equivalent of €70,000 in today's money, while the Choctaw Indians themselves victims of the genocidal Trail of Tears famously sent $710 and grain, an act of generosity still remembered to this day, and publicly commemorated by President Mary Robinson on the 150th anniversary of the famine. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... The Choctaws are a Native American group who, in times past, lived in the land occupied by the southeast United States, using the trail that is now known as the Natchez Trace as a trade route to the north. ... This monument at the New Echota Historic Site honors Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears. ... Mary Robinson (Irish name Máire Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. ...


Aftermath

Potato blights continued in Ireland, especially in 1872 and 1879–1880. These killed few people, partly because they were less severe, but mainly for a complex range of reasons. But, on the other hand, the population in Ireland soon shrank from over 8 million to about 6 million due to starvation and exodus from the famine. The growth in the numbers of railways made the importation of food easier; in 1834, Ireland had 9.7 km (6 miles) of railway tracks; by 1912, the total was 5 480 km (3,403 miles). The banning of subdivision, coupled with emigration, increased the average farm size; greater acreage let farmers grow crops other than potatoes alone. The increasing wealth in urban areas meant alternative sources of food, grain, potatoes and seed were available in towns and villages. The 1870s agricultural economy thus was more efficient and less dependent on potatoes, as well as having access to new farm machinery and product control. // Political reaction resulted from the Famine, because of the extremely limited franchise that existed at the time. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ...


After the famine the Encumbered Estates Act completely reorganized agriculture during 1870s–1900s, as small owned farms replaced mass estates and multiple tenants. Many of the large estates in the 1840s were debt-ridden and heavily mortgaged. In contrast, estates in the 1870s, many of them under new Irish middle class owners thanks to the Encumbered Estates Act, were on a better economic footing, and so capable of reducing rents and providing locally organized relief, as was the Roman Catholic Church, which was better organised and funded than it had been in 1847–49.


If subdivision produced earlier marriage and larger families, its abolition produced the opposite effect; the 'inheriting' child would wait until they found the 'right' partner, preferably one with a large dowry to bring to the farm. Other children, no longer with the possibility of inheriting a farm (or part of it at least) had no economic attraction and no financial resources to consider an early marriage. A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to the grooms at the time of their marriage. ...


As a result, later mini-famines made only minimal effect and are generally forgotten, except by historians. By the 1911 census, the island of Ireland's population had fallen to 4.4 million, about the same as the population in 1800 and 2000 and only a half of its peak population.


The same water mold (Phytophthora infestans) was responsible for the 1847–51 and later famines. When people speak of "the Irish famine", or "an Gorta Mór", they nearly always mean the one of the 1840s, even though a similar Great Famine did in fact hit in the early 18th century. The fact that only four types of potato were brought from the Americas was a fundamental cause of the famine, as the lack of genetic diversity made it possible for a single oomycete to have much more devastating consequences than it might otherwise have had. Binomial name Phytophthora infestans (Mont. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ...


Emigration

While the famine in question was responsible for a massive increase of anywhere from 45% to nearly 85%, depending on the year and the county, of emigration from Ireland it was not the sole cause, nor even the era when massive emigration became a fact of life in Ireland. That can be traced to the 1814-1815 post-Napoleon world when when cereal crops and linen -- Ireland's two primary exports -- which had commanded high prices during the war years, collasped with the advent of peace in Europe; the famine merely quickened the pace. From the defeat of Napoleon and the beinging of the famine "at least 1,000,000 and possibly 1,500,000 emigrated"[6] During the worst of the famine emigration reached somewhere around 250,000 per year, with far more emigrates coming from western Ireland than any other.



Two other notions in regard to Irish emigration at this time are generally mistaken.

  • Families did not emigrate. Individual members did.

While it is undeniable that eviction(s) played a key role, another factor was excess population and the desire to keep the family farm and landholding in tact. This meant that, as a rule, families en masse did not emigrate, younger members of it did. So much so that emigration almost became a rite of passage, as evidenced by the data that show that, unlike similar emigration throughout world history, women emigrated just as often, just as early, and in the same numbers as men. The emigrant started a new life in a new land, sent remittances "reached ₤1,404,000 by 1851"[7] back to his/her family in Ireland which, in turn, allowed another member of the family to emigrate.

  • Emigration during this time was not mainly the United States

The massive influx of Irish emigration to the Unite States, over any other country, came mainly in tghe final quarter of the nineteenth and first quarter of the twentieth century. Generall speaking, during the famine years of 1845 to 1850 was Northern Ireland, then England, Scotland, the United States, Canada, and Australia. [8]


By 1854, between 1½ and 2 million Irish left their country due to evictions, starvation, and harsh living conditions. In America, most Irish became city-dwellers: with little money, many had to settle in the cities that the ships they came on landed in. By 1850, the Irish made up a quarter of the population in Boston, Massachusetts; New York City; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Baltimore, Maryland. In addition, Irish populations became prevalent in some American mining communities.


The 1851 census reported that more than half the inhabitants of Toronto, Ontario were Irish, and in 1847 alone, 38,000 famine Irish flooded a city with less than 20,000 citizens. Other Canadian cities such as Saint John, New Brunswick; Quebec City and Montreal, Quebec; Ottawa, Kingston and Hamilton, Ontario also received large numbers of Famine Irish since Canada, as part of the British Empire, could not close its ports to Irish ships (unlike the United States), and they could get passage cheaply (or free in the case of tenant evictions) in returning empty lumber holds. The largest Famine grave site outside of Ireland is at Grosse-Île, Quebec, an island in the St. Lawrence River used to quarantine ships near Quebec City.


In 1851, about a quarter of Liverpool's population was Irish-born. The Famine is often seen as an initiator in the steep depopulation of Ireland in the 19th century; however, it is likely that real population began to fall in 1841 with the Famine accelerating any population changes already occurring. Some may argue the Famine was necessary to restore population equilibrium to Ireland given that population increased by 13–14% in the first three decades of the 19th century (using Thomas Malthus's idea of population expanding geometrically, resources increasing arithmetically), nonetheless there is a tendency among Irish historians to dispute this. Statistics show that between 1831 and 1841 population grew by only 5% so this gives more value to those who argue that population was already falling by 1844. Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (February 13, 1766 – December 23, 1834), usually known as Thomas Malthus, although he preferred to be known as Robert Malthus, was an English demographer and political economist. ...


The mass exodus in the years following the famine must be seen in the context of overpopulation, industrial stagnation, land shortages, religious discrimination, declining agricultural employment and inadequate diet. These factors were already combining to choke off population growth by the 1830s. It would be wrong, therefore, to attribute all the population loss during the famine to the potato blight alone.

Suggestions of genocide

"Ireland's Holocaust" mural in The Falls, Belfast. "An Gorta Mór, Britain's genocide by starvation, Ireland's holocaust 1845-1849."
"Ireland's Holocaust" mural in The Falls, Belfast. "An Gorta Mór, Britain's genocide by starvation, Ireland's holocaust 1845-1849."

That the Famine "amounted to genocide" by the British against the Irish, few historians--even few Irish historians--accept outright, as "genocide" implies a deliberate policy of extermination. Many agree that the British policies during the Famine, particularly those applied under Lord John Russell, were misguided, ill-informed, and catastrophic. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1396x1066, 1212 KB) Summary Irelands Holocaust mural in The Falls, Belfast. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1396x1066, 1212 KB) Summary Irelands Holocaust mural in The Falls, Belfast. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ...


Professor Joe Lee called what happened a holocaust[citation needed]. Others, however, note that over three million people were fed through soup kitchens (though much of it through non-governmental aid[citation needed] ), and that factors such as poor communication, primitive retail distribution networks and the inefficiencies of local government had exacerbated the situation.[citation needed] Look up holocaust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The debate is largely moral one, attempting to ascertain whether within the policies of the British Empire lay a nationalist, forgetful, laissez-faire, economic or religious discriminatory policy, or simply inconsiderate mentality that, despite its power, made it impotent to handle a humanitarian crisis in its own backyard ; or whether most British voters actually wanted a large reduction in Ireland's population and then decided to deny them effective aid[citation needed]. Some Irish, British and US historians (F.S.L. Lyons, John A. Murphy, Joe Lee, Roy Foster, and James S. Donnelly, Jr.), as well as historians Cecil Woodham-Smith, Peter Gray, Ruth Dudley Edwards and many others have long dismissed claims of a deliberate policy of extermination.[citation needed] F. S. L. Lyons (1923 - 1983) was one of Irelands premier historians. ... Robert Fitzroy Foster (born 1949) - generally known as Roy Foster - is the Carroll Professor of Irish History at Hertford College, Oxford in the UK. Foster grew up in Waterford, the son of two teachers: Betty Foster (nee Fitzroy), a primary teacher, and Fef Foster, a teacher of Irish. ... James S. Donnelly, Jr. ... Cecil Woodham-Smith Cecil Blanche Woodham-Smith (née Fitzgerald) (April 29, 1896 - March 16, 1977) was an acclaimed British historian and biographer. ... Ruth Dudley-Edwards is an Irish historian, crime novelist, journalist and broadcaster. ...


Some historians shift in emphasis from British causes to Irish ones[citation needed]. In essence the argument is that the British system was not wrong, it was simply natural misfortune and a convergence of ill circumstance that befell the Irish. Such Irish 'causes' include topics like excess dependence on potato crops, Catholic social values that led to overpopulation, and the practice of subdivision that made small parcels of land that limited crop diversity and maximised risk of failure.[citation needed].These arguments are equally controversial, seen as "blaming the victim" by others , but for the inverse reason that they gloss over or ignore the basic facts of British rule through the growing Protestant Ascendancy. What is claimed by some is that while the mostly poor, Catholic, lower-class Irish peasants met severe misfortune, landowners — most of whom were Anglican — continued to prosper. The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


"Genocide" is in essence a misnomer for the continuing debate over culpability and blame. Central to the issue of blame for some is how far capitalism, pro-Anglican rule, or broader nineteenth century British cultural influences came to take control of Ireland (continuing to the early 20th century). From their perspective the economic, class, and social systems that Britain instituted exceedingly favored the English over the Irish, Anglicans over Catholics and Presbyterians, and landowners over peasants and the rich over the poor. For some, with discrimination entrenched into law, society, and religion, this favouritism meant preserving an economic system took priority over even this humanitarian crisis. In their view British rule in Ireland ultimately meant denying to the Irish poor basic provisions of shelter and food - food that was being produced and available in Ireland but exported for sale by wealthy absentee landlords. Absentee landlord is an economic term for a person who owns and rents out a profit-earning property, but does not live within the propertys local economic region. ...


Memorials to the famine

The Great Famine is still remembered in many locations throughout Ireland, especially in those regions which suffered the greatest losses, and also in cities overseas with large populations descended from Irish immigrants.


In Ireland

Famine Memorial in Dublin
Famine Memorial in Dublin
  • Strokestown Park Famine Museum, Ireland
  • Dublin City Quays, Ireland. Painfully thin sculptural figures stand as if walking towards the emigration ships on the Dublin Quayside.
  • Murrisk, County Mayo, Ireland. This sculpture of a famine ship, near the foot of Croagh Patrick, depicts the refugees it carries as dead souls hanging from the sides.
  • Doolough, County Mayo. A memorial commemorates famine victims who walked from Louisburgh along the mountain road to Delphi Lodge to seek relief from the Poor Board who were meeting there. Returning after their request was refused, many of them died at this point.
  • Doagh Island, Inishowen, County Donegal, Ireland. Doagh Visitor Centre and Famine Museum has exhibits and memorial on the effects of the potato famine in Inishowen, Donegal. [4]

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 221 KB) Summary taken by me in 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 221 KB) Summary taken by me in 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Strokestown (Béal na mBuillí in Irish) is a town in County Roscommon, Ireland. ... Murrisk (Muraisc in Irish) is a village in County Mayo, on the south side of Clew Bay, about 6km west of Westport. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Croagh Patrick is a 764 m (2,510 ft) mountain in the west of Ireland and an important site of pilgrimage. ... Louisburgh (Cluain Cearbán in Irish) is a small town on the southwest corner of Clew Bay. ...

In England

  • Liverpool, England. A memorial is in the grounds of St Luke's Church on Leece Street, itself a memorial to the victims of the Blitz. It recalls that from 1849–1852 1,241,410 Irish immigrants arrived in the city and that from Liverpool they dispersed to locations around the world. Many died despite the help they received within the city, some 7000 in the city perish within one year. The sculpture is dedicated to the memory of all famine emigrants and their suffering. There is also a plaque on the gates to Clarence Dock. Unveiled in 2000 The plaque inscription reads in Gaelic and English: "Through these gates passed most of the 1,300,000 Irish migrants who fled from the Great Famine and 'took the ship' to Liverpool in the years 1845–52" The Maritime Museum, Albert Dock, Liverpool has an exhibition regarding the Irish Migration, showing models of ships, documentation and other facts on Liverpool's history, The history started in 190.

Liverpool skyline. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκας Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...

In Wales

  • Cardiff, Wales. A Celtic Cross made of Irish Limestone on a base of Welsh stone stands in the city's Cathays Cemetery. The cross was unveiled in 1999 as the high point in the work of the Wales Famine Forum, remembering the 150th Anniversary of the famine. The memorial is dedicated to every person of Irish origin, without distinction on grounds of class, politics, allegiance or religious belief, who has died in Wales.

Cardiff (English:  Welsh: ) is the capital, largest and core city of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...

In Scotland

Carfin is a small town the place where cha scott grew up. ... Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Patrick Bartholomew Ahern (known as Bertie Ahern, Irish: ; born 12 September 1951 in Cork) is an Irish politician. ...

In North America

Irish Hills Michigan "An Gorta Mor" top.
Irish Hills Michigan "An Gorta Mor" base.
  • In Boston, Massachusetts, a bronze statue located at the corner of Washington and School Streets on the Freedom Trail depicts a starving woman, looking up to the heavens as if to ask "Why?", while her children cling to her. A second sculpture shows the figures hopeful as they land in Boston. See [5].
  • Buffalo, New York has a stone memorial on its waterfront.
  • Cambridge, Massachusetts has a memorial to the famine on its Common.
  • Chicago, Illinois
  • Cleveland, Ohio A 12 foot high stone Celtic cross, located on the east bank of the Cuyahoga River.
  • Grosse-Île, Quebec, Canada, the largest famine grave site outside of Ireland. A large Celtic cross, erected by the Ancient Order of Hibernians, stands in remembrance overlooking the St. Lawrence River. The island is a Canadian national historic site.
  • Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, 12-foot limestone cross donated by the government of Ireland in 1997
  • Keansburg, NJ has a Hunger Memorial in Friendship Park on Main Street.
  • Kingston, Ontario, Canada, has three monuments. Celtic cross at An Gorta Mor Park on the waterfront. Another is located at Skeleton (McBurney) Park (formerly Kingston Upper Cemetery). Angel of Resurrection monument, first dedicated in 1894 at St. Mary's cemetery.
  • Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the "Boulder Stone" in Pointe-Saint-Charles
  • New York, New York has the Irish Hunger Memorial which looks like a sloping hillside with low stone walls and a roofless cabin on one side and a polished wall with lit (or white) lines on the other three sides. The memorial is in Battery Park City, a short walk west from the World Trade Center site. See [6]. Another memorial exists in V.E. Macy Park in Ardsley, New York about 32 km north of Manhattan.
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Phoenix, Arizona has a famine memorial in the form of a dolmen at the Irish Cultural Center.
  • Toronto, Ontario Under Construction – opening June 2007. Four bronze statues arriving at the Toronto wharves, at Ireland Park on Bathurst Quay, modeled after the Dublin Departure Memorial. List of names of those who died of thyphus in the Toronto fever sheds shortly after their arrival. Current memorial plaque at Metro Hall. Also a pieta statue outside St. Paul's Catholic Basilica in memory of the famine victims and Bishop Michael Power, who died tending to the sick.[9]
  • Irish Hills Michigan — The Ancient Order of Hibernian's An Gorta Mor Memorial is located on the grounds of St. Joseph's Shrine in the Irish Hills district of Lenawee County, Michigan. There are thirty-two black stones as the platform, one for each county. The grounds are surrounded with a stone wall. The Lintel is a step from Penrose Quay in Cork Harbor. The project was the result of several years of fundraising by the Ancient Order of Hibernians in Lenewee County. It was dedicated in 2004 by AOH Divisional President, Patrick Maguire, and many political and Irish figures from around the state of Michigan.
  • There is a memorial to the Famine victims in the chapel of Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 798 KB) Summary The author of this photograph is me, David Shankbone. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 798 KB) Summary The author of this photograph is me, David Shankbone. ... The Irish Hunger Memorial is located in the neighborhood of Battery Park City in New York City (USA), and is dedicated to raising awareness of the Irish potato famine that killed millions in Ireland between the years 1845 and 1852. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AnGortaMor_MI.jpg Summary The An Gorta Mor memorial in the Irish Hills, near Adrian and Brooklyn Michigan was the result of several years of fundraising by the Ancient Order of Hibernians in Lenawee County. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AnGortaMor_MI.jpg Summary The An Gorta Mor memorial in the Irish Hills, near Adrian and Brooklyn Michigan was the result of several years of fundraising by the Ancient Order of Hibernians in Lenawee County. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AnGortaMor_Memorialbowl. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AnGortaMor_Memorialbowl. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Bostons Freedom Trail is a red (mostly brick) path through downtown Boston which leads to sixteen significant historical sites. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown Area  - City 52. ... NY redirects here. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Common land, or just common, is frequently used to describe a parcel of land, usually near the centre of towns and villages, which is thought to be owned in common by all the members of the community. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Cuyahoga River in Cuyahoga Valley National Park The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga) is located in Northeast Ohio. ... Grosse Ile or Grosse Isle may refer to: Grosse Ile Township, Michigan Grosse Isle, Quebec, An island in Quebec where many Irish Immigrants to Canada were housed and site of the Grosse Isle Disaster. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Map of Keansburg in Monmouth County Keansburg is a Borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... New York, NY redirects here. ... NY redirects here. ... The Irish Hunger Memorial is located in the neighborhood of Battery Park City in New York City (USA), and is dedicated to raising awareness of the Irish potato famine that killed millions in Ireland between the years 1845 and 1852. ... The promenade of Battery Park City. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 in 2006 The World Trade Center site is the 16-acre (6. ... Ardsley is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Michael Power (October 17, 1804 – October 1, 1847) was the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Toronto. ... Fairfield University is a private, co-educational undergraduate and masters level university located in Fairfield, Connecticut, in the New England region of the United States. ... Fairfield is a town located in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ...

In Australia

  • Sydney, Australia. The Australian Monument to the Great Irish Famine[10] is located in the courtyard wall of the Hyde Park Barracks, Macquarie Street Sydney. It symbolises the experiences of young Irishwomen fleeing the Great Irish Famine of 1845–49.[11]

See http://www.irishfaminememorial.org The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of over 4,200,000 people, and 151,920, in the city limits. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Irish potato famine

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... // Political reaction resulted from the Famine, because of the extremely limited franchise that existed at the time. ... In the Highlands of Scotland, in the mid 19th century, most croftters were very dependent on potatoes as a source of food. ... This is a list of natural disasters in the United Kingdom. ... The Fields of Athenry is a song about the Irish Famine of the late 1840s, which was composed in the 1980s by Pete St. ... Child victim of the Holodomor The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933) or Holodomor was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of human life in the range of millions (estimates vary). ...

Books By Young Irelanders (Irish Confederation)

  • The Felon's Track, by Micheal Doheny, M.H. Gill &Sons, LTD. 1951. (Text at Project Gutenberg)
  • An Apology for the British Government in Ireland. By John Mitchel.O Donoghue & Company. 1905
  • Jail Journal: by John Mitchel, M.H. Gill &Sons, LTD. 1914.
  • Jail Journal: with continuation in New York & Paris, by John Mitchel, M.H. Gill & Son, Ltd
  • The Crusade of the Period, by John Mitchel, Lynch, Cole & Meehan, 1873.
  • Last Conquest Of Ireland (Perhaps), by John Mitchel, Lynch, Cole & Meehan, 1873.
  • History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the present time, by John Mitchel, Cameron & Ferguson
  • History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the present time, (2 Vol), by John Mitchel, James Duffy, 1869.
  • My Life In Two Hemispheres, (2Vol), Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, T.Fisher Unwin, 1898.
  • Young Ireland, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co. 1880.
  • Four Years of Irish History 1845-1849, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co. 1888.
  • A Popular History of Ireland: from the Earliest Period to the Emancipation of the Catholics, Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Cameron & Ferguson (Text at Project Gutenberg)

Additional reading

  • Mary E. Daly, The Famine in Ireland
  • R. Dudley Edwards and T. Desmond Williams (eds.), The Great Famine: Studies in Irish history 1845-52
  • Peter Gray, The Irish Famine
  • Joseph O'Connor, Star of the Sea
  • Cormac Ó Gráda, An Economic History of Ireland
  • Cormac O Grada, Black '47 and Beyond
  • Robert Kee, Ireland: A History (ISBN 0349106789)
  • Christine Kinealy, This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine 1845 - 1852
  • John Mitchel, The Last Conquest of Ireland (1861) (University College Dublin Press reprint, 2005 paperback) ISBN I-904558-36-4
  • Cecil Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, 1845-49 (Penguin, 1991 edition)
  • Marita Conlon-McKenna, Under the Hawthorn Tree
  • Thomas Gallagher, Paddy's Lament, Ireland 1846-1847: Prelude to Hatred
  • Canon John O'Rourke, The Great Irish Famine (ISBN 1853900494 Hardback) (ISBN 185390130X Paperback) Veritas Publications 1989. First published in 1874.
  • Liam O'Flaherty, Famine

Peter Gray is an American psychologist. ... Joseph Victor OConnor (born September 20, 1963) is an Irish novelist and brother of singer Sinéad OConnor. ... Robert Kee (born 1919) is a British journalist and writer, known for his historical works on World War II and on Ireland. ... John Mitchel John Mitchel (Irish: Seán Uí Mistéil; b. ... Cecil Woodham-Smith Cecil Blanche Woodham-Smith (née Fitzgerald) (April 29, 1896 - March 16, 1977) was an acclaimed British historian and biographer. ... Thomas Gallagher (1883–March 14, 1967), served as Mayor of Pittsburgh during the transition year of1959. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Joe Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p.1. Cormac Ó Grada suggests the higher number of one million.
  2. ^ http://www.catholicapologetics.net/Ireland's%20Holocaust.htm
  3. ^ History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the present time (2 Vol). By John Mitchel James Duffy 1869. pg414
  4. ^ FSL Lyons, Ireland Since the Famine p.42.
  5. ^ Lee, op.cit p.1.
  6. ^ C.Ó. Gráda, A Note on Nineteenth Emigration Statistics, Population Studies, Vol. 29, No.1 (March 1975)
  7. ^ Foster, R.F. ,The History of Ireland: 1600-1972,(The Peguine Press, England, 1988) p. 371
  8. ^ ibid. #2, p.268
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ [3]

External links

Modern Irish famines Irish famine

First Great Irish Famine (An Gorta Mór), 1740-1741 | Second Great Irish Famine (An Gorta Mór), 1845-1849 | Second Great Famine legacy | Irish Famine (An Gorta Beag), 1879 Download high resolution version (1291x1873, 539 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Irish Famine of 1740-41 (or The Potatocaust) was perhaps of similar magnitude to the better-known Great Famine of 1847-49. ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ... // Political reaction resulted from the Famine, because of the extremely limited franchise that existed at the time. ... The Irish famine of 1879 was the last main Irish famine. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
EH.Net Encyclopedia: Ireland's Great Famine (2520 words)
The proximate cause of the Great Irish Famine (1846-52) was the fungus phythophtera infestans (or potato blight), which reached Ireland in the fall of 1845.
Like all major famines, the Irish potato famine produced many instances of roadside deaths, of neglect of the very young and the elderly, of heroism and of anti-social behavior, of evictions, and of a rise in crimes against property.
The works did not contain the famine, partly because they did not target the neediest, partly because the average wage paid was too low, and partly because they entailed exposing malnourished and poorly clothed people (mostly men) to the elements during the worst months of the year.
Digital History (504 words)
A few days after potatoes were dug from the ground, they began to turn into a slimy, decaying, flish "mass of rottenness." Expert panels convened to investigate the blight's cause suggested that it was the result of "static electricity" or the smoke that billowed from railroad locomotives or the "mortiferous vapours" rising from underground volcanoes.
The Irish potato famine was not simply a natural disaster.
Irish peasants subsisted on a diet consisting largely of potatoes, since a farmer could grow triple the amount of potatoes as grain on the same plot of land.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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