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Encyclopedia > Irish mythology
Series on
Celtic mythology
Coventina

Celtic polytheism
Celtic deities Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Image File history File links Hope-coventina01a. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Celts. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ...

Ancient Celtic religion

Druids · Bards · Vates
British Iron Age religion
Celtic religious patterns
Gallo-Roman religion
Romano-British religion Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... A bard is a poet or singer, in religious or feudal contexts. ... Vates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gallo-Roman religion was a fusion of Roman religious forms and modes of worship with Gaulish deities from Celtic polytheism. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ...

British mythology

Welsh mythology
Breton mythology
Mabinogion · Taliesin
Cad Goddeu
Trioedd Ynys Prydein
Matter of Britain · King Arthur Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... Breton mythology is the mythology or corpus of explanatory and herioc tales originating in Brittany, now in France. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Cad Goddeu (Welsh: The Battle of the Trees) is a sixth-century Welsh poem from the Book of Taliesin. ... The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... The Arthurian legend or the Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, especially those focused on King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ...

Gaelic mythology

Irish mythology
Scottish mythology
Tuatha Dé Danann
Mythological Cycle
Ulster Cycle
Fenian Cycle
Immrama · Echtrae Scottish mythology consists of the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ... Áes dána redirects here. ... The Mythological Cycle is one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology, and is so called because it represents the remains of the pagan mythology of pre-Christian Ireland, although the gods and supernatural beings have been euhemerised by their Christian redactors into historical kings and heroes. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... The Fenian Cycle also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian Tales, Fian Tales, Féinne Cycle, Feinné Cycle, Ossianic Cycle and Fianaigecht, is a body of prose and verse centering on the exploits of the mythic hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his warriors the Fianna Éireann. ... An Immram (pl. ... An Echtra or Echtrae (pl. ...

See also

Celt · Gaul
Galatia · Celtiberians
Early history of Ireland
Prehistoric Scotland
Prehistoric Wales
This article is about the European people. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians) were a Celtic people living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Prehistoric Wales in terms of human settlements covers the period from about 225,000 years ago, the date attributed to the earliest human remains found in what is now Wales, to the year 48 when the Roman army began a campaign against one of the Welsh tribes. ...

Index of related articles
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The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. Although many of the manuscripts have failed to survive, and much more material was probably never committed to writing, there is enough remaining to enable the identification of four distinct, if overlapping, cycles: the Mythological Cycle, The Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the Historical Cycle. There are also a number of extant mythological texts that do not fit into any of the cycles. In addition, there are a large number of recorded folk tales that, while not strictly mythological, feature personages from one or more of these four cycles. // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... // Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article deals with Old Irish and Middle Irish literature // The earliest existing examples of the written Irish language as preserved in manuscripts do not go back farther than the 8th century; they are chiefly found in Scriptural glosses written between the lines or on the margins of religious works... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... The Mythological Cycle is one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology, and is so called because it represents the remains of the pagan mythology of pre-Christian Ireland, although the gods and supernatural beings have been euhemerised by their Christian redactors into historical kings and heroes. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... The Fenian Cycle also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian Tales, Fian Tales, Féinne Cycle, Feinné Cycle, Ossianic Cycle and Fianaigecht, is a body of prose and verse centering on the exploits of the mythic hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his warriors the Fianna Éireann. ... Cycle of the Kings, also known as the Kings Cycle or the Historical Cycle is a body of Old and Middle Irish Literature. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ...

Contents

The sources

The three main manuscript sources for Irish mythology are the late 11th/early 12th century Lebor na hUidre which is in the library of the Royal Irish Academy, the early 12th century Book of Leinster in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, and the Rawlinson manuscript B 502 (Rawl.), housed in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University. Despite the dates of these sources, most of the material they contain predates their composition. The earliest of the prose can be dated on linguistic grounds to the 8th century, and some of the verse may be as old as the 6th century. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Lebor na hUidre, or the Book of the Dun Cow, is the oldest Irish manuscript to contain primarily native narrative materials. ... The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) is one of Irelands premier learned societies and cultural institutions. ... The Book of Leinster (Irish Lebor Laignech), formerly known as the Book of Noughaval (Lebor na Nuachongbála), is a medieval Irish manuscript compliled ca. ... Trinity College, Dublin, corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ...


Other important sources include a group of four manuscripts originating in the west of Ireland in the late 14th or early 15th century: The Yellow Book of Lecan, The Great Book of Lecan, The Book of Hy Many, and The Book of Ballymote. The first of these contains part of the earliest known version of the Táin Bó Cúailnge and is housed in Trinity College. The other three are in the Royal Academy. Other 15th century manuscripts, such as The Book of Fermoy also contain interesting materials, as do such later syncretic works such as Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn (The History of Ireland) (ca. 1640), particularly as these later compilers and writers may have had access to manuscript sources that have since disappeared. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Táin Bó Cúailnge (the driving-off of cows of Cooley, more usually rendered The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin) is the central tale in the Ulster Cycle, one of the four great cycles that make up the surviving corpus of Irish mythology. ... Seathrún Céitinn, known in English as Geoffrey Keating, was a 17th century Irish clergyman, poet and historian. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ...


When using these sources, it is, as always, important to question the impact of the circumstances in which they were produced. Most of the manuscripts were created by Christian monks, who may well have been torn between the desire to record their native culture and their religious hostility to pagan beliefs resulting in some of the gods being euhemerized. Many of the later sources may also have formed part of a propaganda effort designed to create a history for the people of Ireland that could bear comparison with the mythological descent of their British invaders from the founders of Rome that was promulgated by Geoffrey of Monmouth and others. There was also a tendency to rework Irish genealogies to fit into the known schema of Greek or Biblical genealogy. // Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geoffrey of Monmouth Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. ...


It was once unquestioned that medieval Irish literature preserved truly ancient traditions in a form virtually unchanged through centuries of oral tradition back to the ancient Celts of Europe. Kenneth Jackson famously described the Ulster Cycle as a "window on the Iron Age", and Garret Olmsted has attempted to draw parallels between Táin Bó Cuailnge, the Ulster Cycle epic, and the iconography of the Gundestrup Cauldron. However, this "nativist" position has been challenged by "revisionist" scholars who believe that much of it was created in Christian times in deliberate imitation of the epics of classical literature that came with Latin learning. The revisionists would point to passages apparently influenced by the Iliad in Táin Bó Cuailnge, and the existence of Togail Troi, a very early Irish adaptation of the Aeneid found in the Book of Leinster, and note that the material culture of the stories is generally closer to the time of the stories' composition than to the distant past. A consensus has emerged which encourages the critical reading of the material. Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... A Celtic cross. ... Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson was a linguist and phonologist and a translator who specialized in the Brythonic languages. ... The Táin Bó Cúailnge, or Cattle Raid of Cooley, is the central tale in the Ulster Cycle, one of the four great cycles that make up the surviving corpus of Irish mythology. ... A photo of the Gundestrup cauldron. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... It has been suggested that Deception of Zeus be merged into this article or section. ... The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos): is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy where he...


Mythological cycle

The Mythological Cycle, comprising stories of the former gods and origins of the Irish, is the least well preserved of the four cycles. The most important sources are the Metrical Dindshenchas or Lore of Places and the Lebor Gabála Érenn or Book of Invasions. Other manuscripts preserve such Mythological tales as The Dream of Aengus, The Wooing Of Étain and Cath Maige Tuireadh, The (second) Battle of Magh Tuireadh. One of the best known of all Irish stories, Oidheadh Clainne Lir, or The Tragedy of the Children of Lir, is also part of this cycle. The Mythological Cycle is one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology, and is so called because it represents the remains of the pagan mythology of pre-Christian Ireland, although the gods and supernatural beings have been euhemerised by their Christian redactors into historical kings and heroes. ... The Metrical Dindshenchas, or Lore of Places, is probably the major surviving monument of Irish bardic verse. ... Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ... Tochmarc Étaín (Irish for The Wooing Of Étaín) is an Early Irish myth in the Mythological Cycle of Early Irish literature. ... Cath Maige Tuireadh (the (second) Battle of Magh Tuiredh) is a tale of the Irish Mythological Cycle in which the Tuatha Dé Danann defeat their enemies, the Fomorians. ... The Children of Lir (or Children of Lear) is an Irish legend. ...


Lebor Gabála Érenn is a pseudo-history of Ireland, tracing the ancestry of the Irish back to Noah. It tells of a series of invasions or "takings" of Ireland by a succession of peoples, one of whom was the people known as the Tuatha Dé Danann, who were believed to have inhabited the island before the arrival of the Gaels, or Milesians. They faced opposition from their enemies, the Fomorians, led by Balor of the Evil Eye. Balor was eventually slain by Lug Lámfada (Lug of the Long Arm) at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. With the arrival of the Gaels, the Tuatha Dé Danann retired underground to become the fairy people of later myth and legend. Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Áes dána redirects here. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... In Irish mythology the Milesians or Sons of Míl Espáine were the final inhabitants of Ireland, representing the Goidelic Celts. ... In Irish mythology, the Fomorians, Fomors, or Fomori (Irish Fomóiri, Fomóraig) were a semi-divine race who inhabited Ireland in ancient times. ... In Irish mythology, Balor (Balar, Bolar) of the Evil Eye was a king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. ... Lugh (earlier Lug, modern Irish Lú, pronounced //) is an Irish deity represented in mythological texts as a hero and High King of the distant past. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ...


The Metrical Dindshenchas is the great onomastic work of early Ireland, giving the naming legends of significant places in a sequence of poems. It includes a lot of important information on Mythological Cycle figures and stories, including the Battle of Tailtiu, in which the Tuatha Dé Danann were defeated by the Milesians.


It is important to note that by the middle ages the Tuatha Dé Danann were not viewed so much as gods as the shape-shifting magician population of an earlier Golden Age Ireland. Texts such as Lebor Gabála Érenn and Cath Maige Tuireadh present them as kings and heroes of the distant past, complete with death-tales. However there is considerable evidence, both in the texts and from the wider Celtic world, that they were once considered deities. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Even after they are displaced as the rulers of Ireland, characters such as Lug, the Mórrígan, Aengus and Manannan appear in stories set centuries later, betraying their immortality. A poem in the Book of Leinster lists many of the Tuatha Dé, but ends "Although [the author] enumerates them, he does not worship them". Goibniu, Creidhne and Luchta are referred to as Trí Dée Dána ("three gods of craftsmanship"), and the Dagda's name is interpreted in medieval texts as "the good god". Nuada is cognate with the British god Nodens; Lug is a reflex of the pan-Celtic deity Lugus; Tuireann may be related to the Gaulish Taranis; Ogma to Ogmios; the Badb to Catubodua. Lugh (earlier Lug, modern Irish Lú, pronounced //) is an Irish deity represented in mythological texts as a hero and High King of the distant past. ... The Mórrígan (great queen) or Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology widely considered to be a goddess or former goddess. ... In Irish mythology, Aengus (Áengus, Óengus, Angus, Aonghus, Anghus) aka Aengus Óg (Aengus the Young), Mac ind Óg (son of the young), Maccan or Mac Óg (young son) was a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann and probably a god of love, youth and poetic inspiration. ... In Irish mythology, Manannan mac Lir was a sea and weather god. ... The Book of Leinster (Irish Lebor Laignech), formerly known as the Book of Noughaval (Lebor na Nuachongbála), is a medieval Irish manuscript compliled ca. ... In Irish mythology Goibniu or Goibhniu (pronounced Goive-nu) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the smith of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology, Creidhne (or Credne) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the artificer of the Tuatha Dé Danann, working in bronze, brass and gold. ... In Celtic mythology, Luchtaine (or Luchta) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and a god of craftwork and smithing. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cognate (Latin: cognatus co+gnatus, ie. ... Nodens, or Nodons, was a Celtic deity worshipped in Britain. ... Lugh (earlier Lug, modern Irish Lú, pronounced //) is an Irish deity represented in mythological texts as a hero and High King of the distant past. ... This article is about the European people. ... Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... In Celtic mythology, Tuireann was the father of Creidhne, Luchtaine and Giobhniu by Brigid. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... In Celtic mythology Taranis was a god of thunder worshipped in Gaul and Britain and mentioned, along with Esus and Toutatis, by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia. ... OGMA-Indústria Aeronáutica de Portugal, S.A., founded in 1918, is a major representative of the Portuguese Aviation Industry, dedicated to aircraft and aircraft component maintenance, repair and manufacturing. ... Ogmios was a Gaulish deity, usually depicted as a bald old man with a bow and club who leads an apparently happy band of men with chains attached to their ears and tongues. ... In Irish mythology, the Badb ( crow in Old Irish; modern Irish Badhbh means vulture or carrion-crow) was a goddess of war who took the form of a crow, and was thus sometimes known as Badb Catha (battle crow). ... Catubodua (battle-crow) is a Gaulish goddess known from a single inscription in Haute Savoie, eastern France. ...


Other important Tuatha Dé Danann figures

In Irish mythology, Boann or Boand (white cow) was the goddess of the River Boyne. ... In Irish mythology, Banba, sometimes spelled Banbha, was the patron spirit of Ireland, wife of King MacCuill, and a goddess of war and fertility. ... In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Creidhne (or Credne) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the artificer of the Tuatha Dé Danann, working in bronze, brass and gold. ... In Irish mythology, Danu or Dana was the mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann (peoples of the goddess Danu), although little is recorded about her as a character. ... In Irish mythology, Dian Cecht was a god of healing. ... In Irish mythology, Donn was the Lord of the Dead and father of Diarmuid Ua Duibhne. ... In Irish mythology, Ériu, daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann (Tribes of the god(ess) Danu), was one of the patron goddesses of Ireland. ... Étain may refer to Étaín, a sun goddess, in early Irish mythology Étaín, was one of Ailills daughters, supposedly with Medb, in Irish mythology Étain, a commune in the Meuse département, France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise... In Irish mythology, Fódla (later Fódhla, Fóla), daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was one of the patron goddesses of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... In Irish mythology, Nechtan was the father and/or husband of Boann. ... Sídhe (IPA , shee, Modern Irish: sí) is an Irish and Scottish Gaelic word referring first to earthen mounds that were thought to be home to a supernatural race related to the fey and elves of other traditions, and later to these inhabitants themselves. ... Look up banshee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Ulster cycle

The Ulster Cycle is set around the beginning of the Christian era and most of the action takes place in the provinces of Ulster and Connacht. It consists of a group of heroic stories dealing with the lives of Conchobar mac Nessa, king of Ulster, the great hero Cúchulainn, the son of Lug, and of their friends, lovers, and enemies. These are the Ulaid, or people of the North-Eastern corner of Ireland and the action of the stories centres round the royal court at Emain Macha, close to the modern city of Armagh. The Ulaid had close links with the Irish colony in Scotland, and part of Cúchulainn's training takes place in that colony. The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Connaught redirects here. ... In Irish mythology, Conchobar mac Nessa (also Conchobor, Conchubar, Conchobhar, Conchubhar, Conchúr, Conchúir, Conor) was king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... Young Cúchulainn, 1912 illustration by Stephen Reid. ... The Ulaid, also known as the Ulaidh and the Ulad, are a people of Early Ireland who gave their name to the Irish Province of Ulster. ... Emain Macha, (Old Irish , Emuin Macha, Modern Irish Eamhain Mhacha , Emania) known in English as Navan Fort, is an ancient monument in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


The cycle consists of stories of the births, early lives and training, wooings, battles, feastings and deaths of the heroes and reflects a warrior society in which warfare consists mainly of single combats and wealth is measured mainly in cattle. These stories are written mainly in prose. The centrepiece of the Ulster Cycle is the Táin Bó Cúailnge. Other important Ulster Cycle tales include The Tragic Death of Aife's only Son, Bricriu's Feast, and The Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel. The Exile of the Sons of Usnach, better known as the tragedy of Deirdre and the source of plays by John Millington Synge, William Butler Yeats, and Vincent Woods, is also part of this cycle. Táin Bó Cúailnge (the driving-off of cows of Cooley, more usually rendered The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin) is the central tale in the Ulster Cycle, one of the four great cycles that make up the surviving corpus of Irish mythology. ... Briccriu (Bricriu, Briccirne, Bricne), is a warrior, poet and troublemaker in the Ulster Cycle of Irish Mythology. ... The Destruction of Da Dergas Hostel or Togail Bruidne Dá Derga is an Old Irish language epic. ... Deirdre or Derdriu is the foremost tragic heroine in Irish mythology. ... John Millington Synge John Millington Synge (April 16, 1871 - March 24, 1909) was an Irish dramatist, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. ... W.B. Yeats in Dublin on 24 January 1908. ... Vincent Woods is an Irish poet and playwright born in County Leitrim in 1960 . ...


This cycle is, in some respects, close to the mythological cycle. Some of the characters from the latter reappear, and the same sort of shape-shifting magic is much in evidence, side by side with a grim, almost callous realism. While we may suspect a few characters, such as Medb or Cú Roí, of once being deities, and Cúchulainn in particular displays superhuman prowess, the characters are firmly mortal and rooted in a specific time and place. If the Mythological Cycle represents a Golden Age, the Ulster Cycle is Ireland's Heroic Age. (, Medb, Medhbh, Meabh, Maeve, Maev) is queen of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology, Cú Roí (Cú Ruí, Cú Raoi) mac Dáire is a king of Munster and a sorcerer who can change his form at will. ... The Heroic Age was the period of Greek mythological history that lay between the purely divine events of the Theogony and Titanomachy and the advent of historical time after the Trojan War. ...


Fenian cycle

Like the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle is concerned with the deeds of Irish heroes. The stories of the Fenian Cycle appear to be set around the 3rd century and mainly in the provinces of Leinster and Munster. They differ from the other cycles in the strength of their links with the Irish-speaking community in Scotland and there are many extant Fenian texts from that country. They also differ from the Ulster Cycle in that the stories are told mainly in verse and that in tone they are nearer to the tradition of romance than the tradition of epic. The stories concern the doings of Fionn mac Cumhaill and his band of soldiers, the Fianna. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Verse is a writing that uses meter as its primary organisational mode, as opposed to prose, which uses grammatical and discoursal units like sentences and paragraphs. ... Fionn mac Cumhaill (pronounced /fuN mÉ™ ku:L/, /fiN mÉ™ ku:L/, /fu:n mÉ™ ku:l/ or /foun mÉ™ ku:l/ according to dialect)(earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, later Anglicised to Finn McCool) was a hunter-warrior of the Gaelic... In Irish mythology, the Fianna were Irish warrior-hunters who served the High King of Ireland in the 3rd century AD. Their adventures were recorded in the Fenian Cycle. ...


The single most important source for the Fenian Cycle is the Acallam na Senórach (Colloquy of the Old Men), which is found in two 15th century manuscripts, the Book of Lismore and Laud 610, as well as a 17th century manuscript from Killiney, County Dublin. The text is dated from linguistic evidence to the 12th century. The text records conversations between Caílte mac Rónáin and Oisín, the last surviving members of the Fianna, and Saint Patrick, and runs to some 8,000 lines. The late dates of the manuscripts may reflect a longer oral tradition for the Fenian stories. Acallam na Senórach (Modern Irish: Agallamh na Seanórach, translated to English as The Colloquy of the Ancients, Tales of the Elders, etc. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Lismore Castle, Co. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dublin Code: D Area: 921 km² Population (2002) 1,122,821 County Dublin (Irish: Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath), or more correctly the Dublin Region[1] (Réigiúin Átha Cliath), is the area that contains the city of Dublin, the capital and largest city of... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Caílte (or Caoilte) mac Rónáin was a nephew of Fionn mac Cumhail and a member of the fianna in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Oisín (or Ossian), son of Fionn mac Cumhail, is a poet and warrior of the fianna in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: , Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ...


The Fianna of the story are divided into the Clann Baiscne, led by Fionn, and the Clann Morna, led by his enemy, Goll mac Morna. Goll killed Fionn's father, Cumhal, in battle and the boy Fionn was brought up in secrecy. As a youth, while being trained in the art of poetry, he accidentally burned his thumb while cooking the Salmon of Knowledge, which allowed him to suck or bite his thumb in order to receive bursts of stupendous wisdom. He took his place as the leader of his band and numerous tales are told of their adventures. Two of the greatest Irish tales, Toraigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghrainne (The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Grainne) and Oisín in Tír na nÓg form part of the cycle. The Diarmuid and Grainne story, which is one of the few Fenian prose tales, is a probable source of Tristan and Iseult. Goll mac Morna (or Goal mac Morn) was a member of the fianna and an uneasy ally of Fionn mac Cumhail in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Cumhal (earlier Cumal, pronounced roughly Coo-al or Cool) son of Trénmór (strong-great) was a leader of the fianna and the father of Fionn mac Cumhail. ... Diarmuid is sound out, yet has down syndrome. ... In Irish mythology, Gráinne was the daughter of Cormac mac Airt. ... Tír na nÓg, called in English the Land of Eternal Youth or the Land of the Ever-Young, was the most popular of the Otherworlds in Irish mythology, perhaps best known from the myth of Oisín and Niamh of the Golden Hair. ... Tristan and Iseult as depicted by Herbert Draper (1863–1920). ...


The world of the Fenian Cycle is one in which professional warriors spend their time hunting, fighting, and engaging in adventures in the spirit world. New entrants into the band are expected to be knowledgeable in poetry as well as undergo a number of physical tests or ordeals. Again, there is no religious element in these tales unless it is one of hero-worship.


Historical cycle

It was part of the duty of the medieval Irish bards, or court poets, to record the history of the family and the genealogy of the king they served. This they did in poems that blended the mythological and the historical to a greater or lesser degree. The resulting stories form what has come to be known as the Historical Cycle, or more correctly Cycles, as there are a number of independent groupings. A 1907 engraving of William Butler Yeats, one of Irelands best-known poets. ...


The kings that are covered range from the almost entirely mythological Labraid Loingsech, who became High King of Ireland around 431 BC to the entirely historical Brian Boru. However, the greatest glory of the Historical Cycle is the Buile Shuibhne (The Frenzy of Suibhne), a 12th century tale told in verse and prose. Labraid Loingsech, also known as Labraid Lorc, son of Ailill Áine, son of Lóegaire Lorc, was a legendary High King of Ireland of the 6th century BC. He is considered the ancestor of the Laigin, who gave their name to the province of Leinster. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC - 431 BC - 430 BC 429 BC... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Buile Shuibhne is the tale of Sweeney, a legendary king of Ulster in Ireland. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Suibhne, king of Dál nAraidi, was cursed by St Ronan and became a kind of half man, half bird, condemned to live out his life in the woods, fleeing from his human companions. The story has captured the imaginations of contemporary Irish poets and has been translated by Trevor Joyce and Seamus Heaney. Dál nAraidi (sometimes anglicised as Dalaradia — which should not be confused with Dalriada) was a kingdom of the Cruithne in the north-east of Ireland in the first millennium. ... Trevor Joyce (born October 26, 1947) is an Irish poet, born in Dublin. ... Seamus Heaney Seamus Heaney (IPA: //) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer from County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. ...


Other tales

Adventures

The adventures, or echtrae, are a group of stories of visits to the Irish Other World. The most famous, Oisin in Tir na nOg belongs to the Fenian Cycle, but several free-standing adventures survive, including The Adventure of Conle, The Voyage of Bran mac Ferbail and The Adventure of Lóegaire. An Echtra or Echtrae (pl. ... The Otherworld in Celtic mythology is the realm of the dead, the home of the deities, or the stronghold of other spirits and beings such as the Sídhe. ... The Beginning In Irish Mythology, Bran, son of Febal, embarks upon a quest to the Other World. ... Lóegaire (Laoghaire, Láegaire, Loeguire, sometimes anglicised as Leary) is a popular medieval Irish name borne by a number of historical and legendary figures, such as: Lóegaire Lorc, legendary High King of Ireland of the 6th century BC Lóegaire Búadach, hapless would-be hero of the...


Voyages

The voyages, or immrama, are tales of sea journeys and the wonders seen on them. These probably grew from the experiences of fishermen combined with the Other World elements that inform the adventures. Of the seven immrama mentioned in the manuscripts, only three survive: the Voyage of Mael Dúin, the Voyage of the Uí Chorra, and the Voyage of Snedgus and Mac Riagla. The Voyage of Mael Duin is the forerunner of the later Voyage of St. Brendan. An Immram (pl. ... Máel Dúin is the protagonist of Immram Maele Dúin or the Voyage of Máel Dúin, a Christian tale written in Old Irish around the end of the first millennium. ... The Voyage of the Ui Chorra is one of the three surviving Immrama, or ancient Irish voyage tales. ... The Voyage of Snedgus and Mac Riagla is one of the three surviving Immrama, or ancient Irish voyage tales. ... This article is about Saint Brendan of Clonfert. ...


Folk tales

At the beginning of the 19th Century, Herminie T. Kavanagh wrote down many Irish folk tales which she published in magazines and in two books. Twenty-six years after her death, the tales from her two books, Darby O'Gill and the Good People, and Ashes of Old Wishes were made in to the film Darby O'Gill and the Little People. Noted Irish playwright Lady Gregory also collected folk stories to preserve Irish history. Herminie T. Kavanagh (1876 - 1933) was an Irish writer, most known for her short stories. ... Darby OGill and the Little People is a Disney film released in 1959 set in rural Ireland at the beginning of the 19th century. ... A photograph of Lady Gregory from her 1913 book Our Irish Theatre Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (15 March 1852–22 May 1932), née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish dramatist and folklorist. ...


References

Primary sources in English translation

  • Cross, Tom Peete and Clark Harris Slover. Ancient Irish Tales. Barnes and Noble Books, Totowa, New Jersey, 1936 repr. 1988. ISBN 1-56619-889-5.
  • Dillon, Myles. The Cycles of the Kings. Oxford University Press, 1946; reprinted Four Courts Press: Dublin and Portland, OR, 1994. ISBN 1-85182-178-3.
  • Dillon, Myles. Early Irish Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948; reprinted : Four Courts Press, Dublin and Portland, OR, 1994. ISBN 0-7858-1676-3.
  • Joseph Dunn: The Ancient Irish Epic Tale Táin Bó Cúailnge (1914)
  • Winifred Faraday: The Cattle-Raid of Cualng. London, 1904. This is a partial translation of the text in the Yellow Book of Lecan, partially censored by Faraday.
  • Gantz, Jeffrey. Early Irish Myths and Sagas. London: Penguin Books, 1981. ISBN 0-14-044397-5.
  • Kinsella, Thomas. The Tain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970. ISBN 0-19-281090-1.

1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Primary sources in Medieval Irish

  • Cath Maige Tuired: The Second Battle of Mag Tuired. Elizabeth A. Gray, Ed. Dublin: Irish Texts Society, 1982. Series: Irish Texts Society (Series) ; v. 52. Irish text, English translation and philological notes.
  • Táin Bo Cuailnge from the Book of Leinster. Cecile O'Rahilly, Ed. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1984.
  • Táin Bo Cuailnge Recension I. Cecile O'Rahilly, Ed. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies 1976. Irish text, English translation and philological notes.

Retellings of the myths in English

A photograph of Lady Gregory from her 1913 book Our Irish Theatre Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (15 March 1852–22 May 1932), née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish dramatist and folklorist. ... Morgan Llywelyn is an American-born Irish author of historical fantasy, historical fiction, and historical non-fiction. ... Red Branch 1989, by the Irish-American author Morgan Llewellyn, is a novel about the life of the Irish hero Cuchulainn. ... Morgan Llywelyn is an American-born Irish author of historical fantasy, historical fiction, and historical non-fiction. ... Finn Mac Cool is by the Irish-American author Morgan Llewellyn and was published in 1994. ... Morgan Llywelyn is an American-born Irish author of historical fantasy, historical fiction, and historical non-fiction. ...

Secondary sources

  • Coghlan, Ronan Pocket Dictionary of Irish Myth and Legend. Belfast: Appletree, 1985.
  • Mallory, J. P. Ed. Aspects of the Tain. Belfast: December Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-9517068-2-9.
  • O'Rahilly, T. F. Early Irish History and Mythology (1946)
  • O hOgain, Daithi "Myth, Legend and Romance: An Encyclopedia of the Irish Folk Tradition" Prentice Hall Press, (1991) : ISBN 0-13-275959-4 (the only dictionary/encyclopedia with source references for every entry)
  • Rees, Brinley and Alwyn Rees. Celtic Heritage: Ancient Tradition in Ireland and Wales. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1961; repr. 1989. ISBN 0-500-27039-2.
  • Sjoestedt, M. L. Gods and Heroes of the Celts. 1949; translated by Myles Dillon. repr. Berkeley, CA: Turtle Press, 1990. ISBN 1-85182-179-1.
  • Williams, J. F. Caerwyn. Irish Literary History. Trans. Patrick K. Ford. University of Wales Press, Cardiff, Wales, and Ford and Bailie, Belmont, Massachusetts. Welsh edition 1958, English translation 1992. ISBN 0-926689-03-7.

External links


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