FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Irish language
Irish
Gaeilge 
Pronunciation: ˈgeːlʲɟə
Spoken in: Ireland, United Kingdom (especially Northern Ireland
Region: Gaeltachtaí, but also spoken throughout Ireland
Total speakers: 355,000 fluent or native speakers (1983)[1]
1,860,000 some knowledge (2006)
Language family: Indo-European
 Celtic
  Insular Celtic
   Goidelic
    Irish 
Writing system: Latin (Irish variant
Official status
Official language in: Ireland
Northern Ireland (UK) European Union
Regulated by: Foras na Gaeilge
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ga
ISO 639-2: gle
ISO 639-3: gle
Percentage of Irish speakers by county of the Republic; the six Northern Ireland counties have been considered as one.
Percentage of Irish speakers by county of the Republic; the six Northern Ireland counties have been considered as one.

Irish (Gaeilge) is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Irish is now spoken natively by only a small minority of the Irish population - mostly in parts of officially designated Gaeltachtaí (sing. Gaeltacht) - but still has a visible symbolic and important role in the life of the Irish state. It enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and it is an official language of the European Union. Irish is also an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland. Shelta (also known as Gammen, Sheldru, Pavee, or simply the Cant) is a language spoken by parts of the Irish Traveller people that is often used to conceal the meaning from those outside the group. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Gaeltacht, plural Gaeltachtaí, is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Irish orthography has a reputation as being very difficult to learn and bearing only a tenuous relationship to the pronunciation. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Foras na Gaeilge is the governing body of the Irish language, set up on 2 December 1999, which is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Cainteoirí_Gaeilge_-_Irish_Speakers. ... Image File history File links Cainteoirí_Gaeilge_-_Irish_Speakers. ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist, while several county names have changed. ... Anthem:  The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Demonym Irish Government Republic and Parliamentary democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Estimates of fully native speakers range from 20,000 to 50,000 people [2]. The Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs estimated in 2007 that 17,000 people lived in areas where Irish was the community language, and a further 10,000 in areas where it is partly the community language[3]. But since Irish is an obligatory subject in schools, many more are reasonably fluent second-language speakers. Furthermore, a much larger number regularly regard themselves as competent to some degree in the language: 1,656,790 (41.9% of the total population aged three years and over) regard themselves as competent Irish speakers [4]. Of these, 538,283 (32.5%) speak Irish on a daily basis, 97,089 (5.9%) weekly, 581,574 (35.1%) less often, 412,846 (24.9%) never, and 26,998 (1.6%) didn't state how often. Today, complete monolingualism is almost unheard of, and probably restricted to the very elderly in Gaeltacht regions and to native speakers under school age.[citation needed]


The number of inhabitants of the offical-designated Gaeltacht regions of Ireland is 91,862, as of the 2006 census. Of these, 70.8% aged three and over speak Irish and approximately 60% speak Irish on a daily basis.[4] Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ...


The 2001 census in Northern Ireland showed that 167,487 (10.4%) people "had some knowledge of Irish". Combined, this means that around one in three people (~1.8 million) on the island of Ireland can understand Irish to some extent. The Irish language is a minority language in Northern Ireland, known in Irish as Tuaisceart Éireann or na sé chontae (the six counties). ... -1...


On 13 June 2005, EU foreign ministers unanimously decided to make Irish an official language of the European Union. The new arrangements came into effect on 1 January 2007, and Irish was first used at a meeting of the EU Council of Ministers, by Minister Noel Treacy, T.D., on 22 January 2007. is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Noel Treacy (Irish: ; born December 18, 1951), is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Contents

Names of the language

In English

The language is usually referred to in English as Irish, sometimes as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic. Gaelic or the Gaelic is often used by the older generation and by the Irish diaspora but now rarely by Irish learners of the language themselves.[citation needed] The younger generation (mostly those whose first language is English) call the language "Irish".[citation needed] Use of the term Gaelic acknowledges the language's close relationship with other Goidelic languages, and it is this form that is usually preferred by native speakers.[citation needed] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand...


The term Irish Gaelic is often used when English speakers discuss the relationship among the three Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx). Scottish Gaelic is often referred to in English as simply Gaelic. The archaic term Erse (from Erisch), originally a Scots form of the word Irish applied in English-speaking Scotland (by Lowlanders) to all of the Goidelic languages, is no longer used for any Goidelic language, and in most current contexts is considered derogatory.[5][6] Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... A word or phrase is pejorative or derogatory (sometimes misspelled perjorative) if it expresses contempt or disapproval; dyslogistic (noun: dyslogism) is used synonymously (antonyms: meliorative, eulogistic, noun eulogism). ...


In Irish

In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge (IPA: /ˈgeːlʲɟə/), which reflects the southern Connacht pronunciation. Connacht Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Connacht. ...


Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg, the form used in classical Modern Irish. Older spellings of this include Gaoidhealg in Middle Irish and Goídelc in Old Irish. The modern spelling results from the deletion of the silent dh in the middle of Gaedhilge. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Early Modern Irish, also called Classical Irish or Classical Gaelic, is the form of the Irish language used as a literary language in Ireland from the 13th to the 17th century and in Scotland from the 13th to the 18th century. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ...


Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic/Gaeilic/Gaeilig (IPA: /ˈgeːlʲəc/) or Gaedhlag (IPA: /ˈgeːɫ̪əg/) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn (IPA: /ˈgeːɫ̪əɲ/) in Munster Irish. Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster. ... Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster. ...


Official status

In Ireland

Irish is given recognition by the Constitution of Ireland as the national and first official language of Ireland (with English being a second official language). Since the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922 (see also History of the Republic of Ireland), the Irish Government required a degree of proficiency in Irish for all those who became newly appointed to civil service positions (including postal workers, tax officials, agricultural inspectors, etc.).[7] Proficiency in just one official language for entrance to the public service was introduced in 1974, in part through the actions of protest organizations like the Language Freedom Movement. The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The state known today as the Republic of Ireland came into being when twenty-six of the counties of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom (UK) in 1922. ... The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... The civil service (an stát-sheirbhís in Irish) of the Republic of Ireland consists of two broad components, the Civil Service of the Government and the Civil Service of the State. ... Founded in 1966, the Language Freedom Movement was an organization dedicated to the opposition of the state-sponsored Gaelic Revival of the Irish language in the Republic of Ireland. ...


While the First Official Language requirement was also dropped for wider public service jobs, Irish remains a required subject of study in all schools within the Republic which receive public money (see also Education in the Republic of Ireland). Those wishing to teach in primary schools in the State must also pass a compulsory examination called "Scrúdú Cáilíochta sa Ghaeilge". The need for a pass in Leaving Certificate Irish or English for entry to the Gardaí (police) was introduced in September 2005, although applicants are given lessons in the language during the two years of training. All official documents of the Irish Government must be published in both Irish and English or Irish alone (this is according to the official languages act 2003, which is enforced by "an comisinéir teanga", the language ombudsman). The Republic of Irelands education system is quite similar to that of most other western countries. ... The Leaving Certificate (Irish: Ardteistiméireacht), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the final course in the Irish secondary school system and culminates with the Leaving Certificate Examination. ... Garda Síochána na hÉireann (pronounced ; Irish for Peace Guard of Ireland, often rendered[1] as The Guardians of the Peace of Ireland) is the police force of the Republic of Ireland. ...


In 1938, the founder of Conradh na Gaeilge (The Gaelic League), Douglas Hyde, was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland. The record of his delivering his auguration Declaration of Office in his native Roscommon Irish remains almost the only surviving remnant of anyone speaking in that dialect. The Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge) is an organization for the purpose of keeping the Irish language spoken in Ireland. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: ) is the head of state of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Roscommon Code: RN Area: 2,547 km² (983 mi²) Population (2006) 58,700 County Roscommon (Irish: ) is a county located in central Ireland. ...


The National University of Ireland, Galway is required to appoint a person who is competent in the Irish language, as long as they meet all other respects of the vacancy they are appointed to. This requirement is laid down by the University College Galway Act, 1929 (Section 3).[8] It is expected that the requirement may be repealed in due course.[9] The National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI, Galway) (Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann, Gaillimh or OÉ, Gaillimh) can trace its existence to 1845 as Queens College, Galway and was known until recently as University College, Galway (UCG) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile, Gaillimh or COG). ...


Even though modern parliamentary legislation is supposed to be issued in both Irish and English, in practice it is frequently only available in English. This is notwithstanding that Article 25.4 of the Constitution of Ireland requires that an "official translation" be provided of any law in one official language be translated immediately into the other official language—if not already passed in both official languages.[10] The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ...


In Northern Ireland

A sign for the Department of Culture, Leisure, and Arts in Northern Ireland, in English, Irish, and Ulster Scots.
A sign for the Department of Culture, Leisure, and Arts in Northern Ireland, in English, Irish, and Ulster Scots.

Prior to the establishment of the Northern Ireland state in 1921, Irish Gaelic was recognised as a school subject and as "Celtic" in some third level institutions. This policy continued in spite of attempts in the 1930s to restrict it further in the curriculum. Between 1921 and 1972, Northern Ireland had a measure of devolved government. During those years the political party holding power in the Storment Parliament, the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), were hostile to Gaelic. In broadcasting, was an exclusion on the reporting of minority cultural issues, the Irish language was banned from radio and television for almost the first fifty years of the Northern Ireland state.[11] The language received a degree of formal recognition in Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom, under the 1998 Good Friday Agreement.[12] The British government promised to create legislation encouraging the language as part of the 2006 St Andrews Agreement.[13] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 664 × 600 pixels Full resolution (962 × 869 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ulster Scots language Languages of... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 664 × 600 pixels Full resolution (962 × 869 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ulster Scots language Languages of... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish language is a minority language in Northern Ireland, known in Irish as Tuaisceart Éireann or na sé chontae (the six counties). ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The St Andrews Agreement is an agreement proposed by the British and Irish Governments in relation to devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...


In the European Union

While an official language of the European Union, only direct correspondence with the public and co-decision regulations must be produced in Irish for the moment, due to a renewable five-year derogation on what has to be translated, requested by the Irish Government when negotiating the language's new official status. Any expansion in the range of documents to be translated will depend on the results of the first five-year review and on whether the Irish authorities decide to seek an extension. Before Irish became an official language on 1st January 2007, it was afforded the status of treaty language and only the highest-level documents of the EU had been translated into Irish. Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... (Redirected from 1 January) January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ...


Gaeltacht

Main article: Gaeltacht
Official Gaeltacht areas
Official Gaeltacht areas

There are parts of Ireland where Irish is spoken as a traditional, native language. These regions are known collectively as the Gaeltachtaí. These are in County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe), including Connemara (Conamara), the Aran Islands (na hOileáin Árann), Carraroe (An Cheathrú Rua) and Spiddal (An Spidéal); on the west coast of County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall); in the part which is known as Tyrconnell (Tír Chonaill); and Dingle Peninsula (Corca Dhuibhne) in County Kerry (Contae Chiarraí). Smaller ones also exist in Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo), Meath (Contae na Mí), Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge), and Cork (Contae Chorcaí). However, even within the Gaeltacht areas, the Irish-speaking populations have declined since the Gaeltacht boundaries were drawn up. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... Image File history File links Gaeltacht. ... Image File history File links Gaeltacht. ... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... Gaeltacht, plural Gaeltachtaí, is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... Connemara (Irish Conamara), which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning: descendants of Con Mhac, of the sea), is a district in the west of Ireland (County Galway). ... Not to be confused with Isle of Arran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spiddal (Irish: Bud Asal ) is a village on the shore of Galway Bay in County Galway in the Republic of Ireland, home to the stuff of lengends Diarmaid O Connor. ... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County seat: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Tír Chonaill (anglicized as Tyrconnel) was the name of a kingdom which covered much of what is now County Donegal; indeed Tír Chonaill is still the name by which it is referred to amongst its many native Irish speakers, in addition to many other Irish people. ... Location map of the Dingle Peninsula The Dingle Peninsula (Irish: ), sometimes anglicized as Corkaguiney) is located in County Kerry and is the most westerly point of the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Navan Code: MH Area: 2,342 km² Population (2006) 162,831 Website: www. ... County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County seat: Cork Code: C Area: 7,457 km² (2,879 sq mi) Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ...


To summarise the extent of the survival: (See Hindley, 'The Death of the Irish Language') Irish remains as a natural vernacular in the following areas: south Connemara, from a point west of Spiddal, covering Inverin, Carraroe, Rosmuck, and the islands; the Aran Islands, with the exception of the town of Kilronan on Inishmore; northwest Donegal in the area around Gweedore, including Rannafast, Gortahork,the surrounding townlands and Tory Island; in the townland of Rathcarn, Co. Meath.


Irish remains the normal language of the older population, but has not been transmitted as such to the younger generation in the following areas: south Connemara in the area around Spiddal; parts of the Joyce country on the border between Galway and Mayo; the parish of Carrowteigue in northwest Mayo; in Co. Kerry, the far west of the Dingle peninsula, including the areas around Dunquin, Ballyferriter and Ventry; other parts of northwest Donegal, and a halo of townlands on the further outskirts as Gweedore, up to the edge of the English-speaking town of Dungloe; a pocket in the Waterford Gaeltacht in Ring.


Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair), County Donegal is the largest Gaeltacht parish in Ireland. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference B847228 Statistics Province: Ulster County: Dáil Éireann: Donegal South West Dialling Code: 074, +000 353 74 Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   1,388  1,253 Website: http://www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County seat: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ...


The numerically and socially strongest Gaeltacht areas are those of South Connemara, west Dingle and northwest Donegal, in which the majority of residents (although not all in North-West Donegal) use Irish as their primary language. These areas are often referred to as the Fíor-Ghaeltacht ("true Gaeltacht") and collectively have a population just under 20,000.

"Caution Children"
"Caution Children"

Irish summer colleges are attended by tens of thousands of Irish teenagers annually. Students live with Gaeltacht families, attend classes, participate in sports, go to céilithe and are obliged to speak Irish. All aspects of Irish culture and tradition are encouraged. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A céilidh (pronounced ) is the traditional Gaelic social dance in Ireland, Scotland and Atlantic Canada. ...


According to data compiled by the Irish Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs, only one quarter of households in Gaeltacht areas possess a fluency in Irish. The author of a detailed analysis of the survey, Donncha Ó hÉallaithe, described the Irish language policy followed by Irish governments a "complete and absolute disaster". The Irish Times (January 6, 2002), referring to his analysis, which was initially published in the Irish language newspaper Foinse, quoted him as follows: "It is an absolute indictment of successive Irish Governments that at the foundation of the Irish State there were 250,000 fluent Irish speakers living in Irish-speaking or semi Irish-speaking areas, but the number now is between 20,000 and 30,000." It has been suggested that Irish Times Trust be merged into this article or section. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Foinse is the biggest Irish language newspaper in Ireland. ...


Dialects

There are a number of distinct dialects of Irish. Roughly speaking, the three major dialect areas coincide with the provinces of Munster (Cúige Mumhan), Connacht (Cúige Chonnacht) and Ulster (Cúige Uladh). Newfoundland, in eastern Canada, is also seen to have a minor dialect of Irish, closely resembling the Irish spoken during the 16th to 17th centuries (See Newfoundland Irish). A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Newfoundland Irish (Irish: Gaeilge Talamh an Éisc) is a dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland and widely spoken until the mid-20th century. ...


Munster dialects

Main article: Munster Irish

Munster Irish is mainly spoken in the Gaeltacht areas of Kerry (Contae Chiarraí), Ring (An Rinn) near Dungarvan (Dún Garbháin) in County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge) and Muskerry (Múscraí) and Cape Clear Island (Oileán Chléire) in the western part of County Cork (Contae Chorcaí). The most important subdivision in Munster is that between Decies Irish (Na Déise) (spoken in Waterford) and the rest of Munster Irish. Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference X259930 Statistics Province: Munster County: Elevation: 1m (3 ft) Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   7,220  232 Website: www. ... County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County seat: Cork Code: C Area: 7,457 km² (2,879 sq mi) Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ...


Some typical features of Munster Irish are:

  1. The use of personal endings instead of pronouns with verbs, thus "I must" is in Munster caithfead, while other dialects prefer caithfidh mé ( means "I"). "I was and you were" is Bhíos agus bhís in Munster but Bhí mé agus bhí tú in other dialects.
  2. In front of nasals and ll some short vowels are lengthened while others are diphthongised.
  3. A copular construction involving is ea is frequently used.
  4. Stress is often on the second syllable of a word, e.g. bio-RÁN ("pin"), as opposed to BIO-rán in Connacht and Ulster.

In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... For other uses, see Copula (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ...

Connacht dialects

Main article: Connacht Irish

The strongest dialect of Connacht Irish is to be found in Connemara and the Aran Islands. In some regards this dialect is quite different from general Connacht Irish but since most Connacht dialects have died out during the 20th century Connemara Irish is sometimes seen as Connacht Irish. Much closer to the larger Connacht Gaeltacht is the dialect spoken in the smaller region on the border between Galway (Gaillimh) and Mayo (Maigh Eo). The northern Mayo dialect of Erris (Iorras) and Achill (Acaill) is in grammar and morphology essentially a Connacht dialect; but shows an affinity in vocabulary with Ulster Irish, due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Plantation of Ulster. Connacht Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Connacht. ... Connemara (Irish Conamara), which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning: descendants of Con Mhac, of the sea), is a district in the west of Ireland (County Galway). ... Not to be confused with Isle of Arran. ... Keem bay on Achill island is said to be one of the most beautiful beaches in Ireland. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ...


There are features in Connemara Irish outside the official standard—notably the preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan, e.g. lagachan instead of lagú, "weakening". The non-standard pronunciation with lengthened vowels and heavily reduced endings give Connemara Irish its distinct sound. Distinguishing features of this dialect include the pronunciation of broad bh as [w], rather than as [vˠ] in Munster. For example mo bhád ("my boat") is pronounced [mˠə wɑːd̪ˠ] in Connacht and Ulster as opposed to [mˠə vˠɑːd̪ˠ] in the south. In addition Connacht and Ulster speakers tend to include the "we" pronoun rather than use the standard compound form used in Munster e.g. bhí muid is used for "we were" instead of bhíomar elsewhere.


Ulster dialects

Main article: Ulster Irish

Linguistically the most important of the Ulster dialects today is that of the Rosses (na Rossa), which has been used extensively in literature by such authors as the brothers Séamus Ó Grianna and Seosamh Mac Grianna, locally known as Jimí Fheilimí and Joe Fheilimí. This dialect is essentially the same as that in Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair = Inlet of Streaming Water), and used by native singers Enya (Eithne) and Máire Brennan and their siblings in Clannad (Clann as Dobhar = Family .from the Dobhar[a section of Gweedore]) Na Casaidigh, and Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh from another local band Altan. Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... The Rosses is a geographical and social region in County Donegal, Ireland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Seosamh Mac Grianna (1900 - 1990), is an Irish writer, under the pen-name Iolann Fionn. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference B847228 Statistics Province: Ulster County: Dáil Éireann: Donegal South West Dialling Code: 074, +000 353 74 Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   1,388  1,253 Website: http://www. ... For the letter Ñ pronounced Enye, see Ñ. Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin[4] on 17 May 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland), sometimes presented in the media as Enya Brennan, is an Irish singer and songwriter. ... Máire Ní Bhraonáin, better known as Máire Brennan (born August 4, 1952, Gweedore, County Donegal, Ireland), is a Celtic folk singer, best known for her work with the band Clannad. ... This article is about the Irish musical group. ... Na Casaidigh (The Cassidys in English ) is a Irish traditional group. ... Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh is the lead vocalist for famed Irish traditional band Altan. ... Altan are an Irish folk and traditional musical group, who originated in Gweedore, County Donegal. ...


Ulster Irish sounds very different and shares several unusual features with Scottish Gaelic, as well as having lots of characteristic words and shades of meanings. However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish. For instance, Scottish Gaelic has many non-Ulster features in common with Munster Irish. Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


One noticeable trait of Ulster Irish is the use of the negative particle cha(n) in place of the Munster and Connacht version . Even in Ulster, cha(n)—most typical of Scottish Gaelic—has largely ousted the more common (except in níl "is not") in northernmost dialects (e.g. Rosguill and Tory Island).[14][15] Rosguill is a peninsula. ... Tory Island (Irish; Oileán Thoraigh or earlier Oileán Thúr Rí) is an island of the Republic of Ireland, located nine miles off the Donegal coast of Northwest Ireland. ...


An Caighdeán Oifigiúil

An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ("The Official Standard"), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is the standard language, and was introduced in the 1950s/1960s in an attempt to make Irish easier to learn, as it was composed using elements of the Munster and Ulster dialects, but strongly based on the dialect of Connacht. It is the form of Irish that is taught in most schools in Ireland. A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


The dialects of Irish native to Leinster, the fourth province of Ireland, became extinct during the 20th century, but records of some of these were made by the Irish Folklore Commission among other bodies prior to this. Statistics Area: 19,774. ... The Irish Folklore Commission (Coimisiún Béaloideasa Éireann in Irish) was set up in 1935 by the Irish Government to study and collect information on the folklore and traditions of Ireland. ...


The present-day Irish of Meath (in Leinster) is a special case. It belongs mainly to the Connemara dialect. The Irish-speaking community in Meath is mostly a group of Connemara speakers who moved there in the 1930s after a land reform campaign spearheaded by Máirtín Ó Cadhain (who subsequently became one of the greatest modernist writers in the language). This article needs to be wikified. ...


What has been called "Dublin Irish" (Gaeilge Bhaile Átha Cliath) and "Gaelscoil Irish" is also spoken in the capital and amongst the students of Irish-speaking schools throughout the country. This is, arguably, simply the national standard of Irish, or An Caighdeán Oifigiúil but with strong influence from English in the form of idioms and expressions. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Bunscoil in Newry A gaelscoil (Plural: gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-speaking school often also co-educational usually found in Ireland, but outside the Irish speaking Gaeltacht areas. ...


Comparisons

The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish. A good example is the greeting "How are you?". Just as this greeting varies from region to region, and between social classes, among English speakers, this greeting varies among Irish speakers:

  • Ulster: Cad é mar atá tú? ("What is it as you are?" Note: caidé or goidé and sometimes are alternative renderings of cad é)
  • Connacht: Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú? ("What way [is it] that you are?")
  • Munster: Conas taoi? or Conas tánn tú? ("How are you?")
  • Leinster (Casual Dublin): Con's 'tá? ("How are [you]?")
  • Standard Irish: Conas atá tú? ("How are you?")

In recent decades contacts between speakers of different dialects have become frequent and mixed dialects have originated. With the growth in the Irish language media—and in particular the television channel TG4—it has become much easier for speakers of different dialects to understand one another, although this is mostly seen in the younger generations. TG4 (Irish: TG Ceathair or TG a Ceathair; IPA: /tiː dÊ’iː kʲahəɾʲ/) is a television channel in Ireland, aimed at Irish-language speakers and established as a wholly owned subsidiary by Radio Telefís Éireann on 31 October 1996. ...


Linguistic structure

The features most unfamiliar to English speakers of the language are the orthography, the initial consonant mutations, the Verb Subject Object word order, the use of two different forms for "to be", and noun genders. However, initial mutations are found in other Celtic languages as well as in some Italian and Sardinian dialects, as an independent development. They are also found in some West African languages. Irish orthography has a reputation as being very difficult to learn and bearing only a tenuous relationship to the pronunciation. ... Initial consonant mutation is the phenomenon in which the first consonant of a word is changed according to a certain grammatical environment. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ... A feature common to all Indo-European languages is the presence of a verb corresponding to the English verb to be. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ...


Syntax

Main article: Irish syntax

Word order in Irish is of the form VSO (Verb-Subject-Object) so that, for example, "He hit me" is Bhuail [hit-past tense] [he] [me]. Irish syntax is rather different from that of most Indo-European languages, notably because of its VSO word order. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ...


One aspect of Irish syntax that is unfamiliar to speakers of other languages is the use of the copula (known in Irish as an chopail). The copula is used to describe what or who someone is, as opposed to how and where. It is used to say that a noun is another noun, rather than an adjective. This has been likened to the difference between the verbs ser and estar in Spanish and Portuguese (see Romance copula), although this is only a rough approximation. For other uses, see Copula (disambiguation). ... The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be) in all Romance languages derive from the Latin verbs SVM and STO. The former was the copular verb to be (ultimately from the Indo-European copula *h1es-), and the latter mainly meant to stand (ultimately from the Indo-European...


Morphology

Another feature of Irish grammar that is shared with other Celtic languages is the use of prepositional pronouns (forainmneacha réamhfhoclacha), which are essentially conjugated prepositions. For example, the word for "at" is ag, which in the first person singular becomes agam "at me". When used with the verb ("to be") ag indicates possession; this is the equivalent of the English verb "to have". The morphology of Irish is in some respects typical of an Indo-European language. ... The nominals of Irish include the nouns, the definite article, and the adjectives. ... Irish verb forms are constructed either synthetically or analytically. ...

Tá leabhar agam. "I have a book." (Literally, "there is a book at me.")
Tá leabhar agat. "You have a book."
Tá leabhar aige. "He has a book."
Tá leabhar aici. "She has a book."
Tá leabhar againn. "We have a book."
Tá leabhar agaibh. "You (plural) have a book."
Tá leabhar acu. "They have a book."

Orthography and pronunciation

"Gaelach" in the Gaelic script.
"Gaelach" in the Gaelic script.

The written language looks rather daunting to those unfamiliar with it. Once understood, the orthography is relatively straightforward. The acute accent, or síneadh fada (´), serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality. For example, in Munster Irish (Kerry), a is /a/ or /ɑ/ and á is /ɑː/ in "law" but in Ulster Irish (Donegal), á tends to be /æː/. Image File history File links Gaelic-font-Gaelach. ... Image File history File links Gaelic-font-Gaelach. ... The word Corcaigh in the Gaelic-script font of same name. ... Irish orthography has a reputation as being very difficult to learn and bearing only a tenuous relationship to the pronunciation. ... The phonology of Irish varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of the language. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ...


Around the time of World War II, Séamas Daltún, in charge of Rannóg an Aistriúcháin (the official translations department of the Irish government), issued his own guidelines about how to standardise Irish spelling and grammar. This de facto standard was subsequently approved of by the State and called the Official Standard or Caighdeán Oifigiúil. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


It simplified and standardised the orthography. Many words had silent letters removed and vowel combination brought closer to the spoken language. Where multiple versions existed in different dialects for the same word, one or more were selected.


Examples:

  • Gaedhealg / Gaedhilg(e) / Gaedhealaing / Gaeilic / Gaelainn / Gaoidhealg / GaolainnGaeilge, "Irish language" (Gaoluinn or Gaolainn is still used in books written in dialect by Munster authors, or as a facetious name for the Munster dialect)
  • Lughbhaidh, "Louth"
  • biadhbia, "food" (The spelling biadh is still used by the speakers of those dialects that show a meaningful and audible difference between biadh (nominative case) and bídh (genitive case) "of food, food's". For example, in Munster Irish the latter ends in an audible -g sound, because final -idh, -igh regularly delenites to -ig in Munster pronunciation.)

Modern Irish has only one diacritic sign, the acute (á é í ó ú), known in Irish as the síneadh fada "long mark", plural sínte fada. In English, this is frequently referred to as simply the fada, where the adjective is used as a noun. The dot-above diacritic, called a ponc séimhithe or sí buailte (often shortened to buailte), derives from the punctum delens used in medieval manuscripts to indicate deletion, similar to crossing out unwanted words in handwriting today. From this usage it was used to indicate the lenition of s (from /s/ to /h/) and f (from /f/ to zero) in Old Irish texts. Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dundalk Code: LH Area: 820 km² Population (2006) 110,894 Website: www. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese. ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a null morpheme is a morpheme that is realized by a phonologically null affix (an empty string of phonological segments). ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ...


Lenition of c, p, and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of other sounds was left unmarked. Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n, and two competing systems were used: lenition could be marked by a buailte or by a postposed h. Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were writing using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.


Today the Gaelic script and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e.g. the motto on the University College Dublin coat of arms or the symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, The Irish Defence Forces cap badge (Óglaiġ na h-Éireann). Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character sets (see Latin Extended Additional chart).[16] The word Corcaigh in the Gaelic-script font of same name. ... University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin - more commonly University College Dublin (UCD) - is Irelands largest university, with over 20,000 students. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Commissioned Officer and Senior NCO Bronze Cap Badge. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... ISO 8859-14, also known as Latin-8 or Celtic, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ...


Mutations

In Irish, there are two classes of initial consonant mutations: Irish, like all modern Celtic languages, is characterized by its initial consonant mutations. ... Consonant mutation is the phenomenon in which a consonant in a word is changed according to its morphological and/or syntactic environment. ...

  • Lenition (in Irish, séimhiú "softening") describes the change of stops into fricatives. Indicated in old orthography by a buailte written above the changed consonant, this is now shown in writing by adding an -h:
    • caith! "throw!" — chaith mé "I threw" (this is an example of the lenition as a past-tense marker, which is caused by the use of do, although it is now usually omitted)
    • margadh "market", "market-place", "bargain" — Tadhg an mhargaidh "the man of the street" (word for word "Timothy of the market-place"; here we see the lenition marking the genitive case of a masculine noun)
    • Seán "Seán, John" — a Sheáin! "O John!" (here we see lenition as part of what is called the vocative case — in fact, the vocative lenition is triggered by the a or vocative marker before Sheáin)
  • Nasalisation (in Irish, urú "eclipsis") covers the voicing of voiceless stops, as well as the true nasalisation of voiced stops.
    • athair "father" — ár nAthair "our Father"
    • tús "start", ar dtús "at the start"
    • Gaillimh "Galway" — i nGaillimh "in Galway"

Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ...

History

Written Irish is first attested in Ogham inscriptions from the fourth century AD; this stage of the language is known as Primitive Irish. Old Irish, dating from the sixth century, used the Latin alphabet and is attested primarily in marginalia to Latin manuscripts. Middle Irish, dating from the tenth century, is the language of a large corpus of literature, including the famous Ulster Cycle. Early Modern Irish, dating from the thirteenth century, was the literary language of both Ireland and Gaelic-speaking Scotland, and is attested by such writers as Geoffrey Keating. The history of the Irish language begins with the arrival of speakers of Celtic languages in Ireland. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Primitive Irish is the oldest known form of the Irish language, known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 4th century. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Marginalia is the general term for notes, scribbles, doodles and editorial comments made in the margin of a book. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... Early Modern Irish, (Irish: [1] also called Classical Irish (Irish: or Classical Gaelic, is the form of the Irish language used as a literary language in Ireland from the 13th to the 17th century and in Scotland from the 13th to the 18th century. ... Seathrún Céitinn, known in English as Geoffrey Keating, was a 17th century Irish clergyman, poet and historian. ...


From the eighteenth century the language went into a decline, rapidly losing ground to English due in part to restrictions dictated by British occupation - a conspicuous example of the process known by linguists as Language shift. In the mid-nineteenth century it lost a large portion of its speakers to death and emigration resulting from poverty, particularly in the wake of the Great Irish Famine (1845-1849). Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ...


At the end of the nineteenth century, members of the Gaelic Revival movement made efforts to encourage the learning and use of Irish in Ireland. For the Gaelic resurgence to overthrow English supremacy in the 14th-16th century, see: Gaelic resurgence. ...


Current status

Republic of Ireland

The number of native Irish-speakers in the Republic of Ireland today is a smaller fraction of the population than it was at independence. The main reason for the decline was, according to some, the pressure the state put upon Irish-speakers to use English [17].[unreliable source?] Also, many Irish speaking families encouraged their children to speak English as it was the language of education and employment. The Official Languages Act of 2003 gave people the right to interact with state bodies in Irish. It is too early to assess how well this is working in practice. Other factors were outward migration of Irish speakers from the Gaeltacht (see related issues at Irish diaspora) and inward migration of English-speakers. The Planning and Development Act (2000) attempted to address the latter issue, with varied levels of success. Planning controls now require new housing in Gaeltacht areas to be allocated to English-speakers and Irish-speakers in the same ratio as the existing population of the area. This will prevent new houses allocated to Irish-speakers being immediately sold on to English-speakers. However, the restriction only lasts for a few years. Also, people are not required to reach native speaker standards of fluency to qualify as Irish-speakers. The Official Languages Act 2003 is a Act of the Oireachtas of the Republic of Ireland. ... Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


On 19 December 2006 the government announced a 20-year strategy to help Ireland become a fully bilingual country. This involved a 13 point plan and encouraging the use of language in all aspects of life.[18][19] is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


Daily life

Several computer software products have the option of an Irish-language interface. Prominent examples include KDE,[20] Mozilla Firefox,[21] Mozilla Thunderbird,[21] OpenOffice.org,[22] and Microsoft Windows XP,[23] Look up interface in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... Firefox redirects here. ... Mozilla Thunderbird is a free, cross-platform e-mail and news client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. ... OpenOffice. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ...


Many English-speaking Irish people use small and simple phrases (known as cúpla focal, "a few words") in their everyday speech, e.g. Slán ("goodbye"), Slán abhaile ("get home safely"), Sláinte ("good health"; used when drinking like "bottoms up" or "cheers"), Go raibh maith agat ("thank you"), Céad míle fáilte ("a hundred thousand welcomes", a tourist board saying), Conas atá tú? ("How are you?"). There are many more small sayings that have crept into Hiberno-English. The term craic has been popularised outside Ireland in this made-up Gaelicized spelling: "How's the craic?" or "What's the craic'?" ("how's the fun?"/"how is it going?"), though the word is not Irish in origin, and the expression "How's the crack?" was widely used in Ireland since at least the 1960s before the Irish-language spelling "craic" became the common journalistic style. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up crack in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Bilingual sign in English and Irish in Tesco store, Ballyfermot, Dublin.
Bilingual sign in English and Irish in Tesco store, Ballyfermot, Dublin.

Many public bodies have Irish language or bilingual names, but some have downgraded the language. An Post, the Republic's postal service, continues to have place names in the language on its postmarks, as well as recognising addresses (as does the Royal Mail in Northern Ireland). Traditionally, the private sector has been less supportive, although support for the language has come from some private companies. For example, Irish supermarket chain Superquinn introduced bilingual signs in its stores in the 1980s, a move which was followed more recently by the British chain Tesco for its stores in the Republic. Woodies DIY now also have bilingual signs in their chain of stores. Image File history File links Tescogaeilge. ... Image File history File links Tescogaeilge. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Tesco Ireland Limited is a supermarket company in the Republic of Ireland. ... Ballyfermot (Irish: Baile Formaid ) is a suburb in the city of Dublin, Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The An Post logo An Post (English literal translation: The Post, English official title: The Post Office) is the State-owned provider of postal services in Ireland. ... Many place names in Ireland in the English language are either anglicisations of those in the Irish language, or completely different, such as the name for the capital of the Republic of Ireland, which in English is Dublin, but in Irish is Baile Átha Cliath. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... Superquinn is an Irish supermarket chain. ... , For other uses, see Tesco (disambiguation). ...


In an effort to increase the use of the Irish language by the State, the Official Languages Act was passed in 2003. This act ensures that most publications made by a governmental body must be published in both official languages, Irish and English. In addition, the office of Language Commissioner has been set up to act as an ombudsman with regard to equal treatment for both languages. Effectively this is to protect Irish as a minority language. The Official Languages Act 2003 is a Act of the Oireachtas of the Republic of Ireland. ... For the Canadian television series, see Ombudsman (TV series). ...


A major factor in the decline of natively-spoken Irish has been the movement of English speakers into the Gaeltacht (predominantly Irish speaking areas) and the return of native Irish-speakers who have returned with English-speaking families. This has been stimulated by government grants and infrastructure projects [24] "only about half Gaeltacht children learn Irish in the home... this is related to the high level of in-migration and return migration which has accompanied the economic restructuring of the Gaeltacht in recent decades".[25] Many see this as a deliberate attempt by anti-nationalist politicians to wipe out the language.[citation needed] "That economic development of the kind undertaken was likely to have such consequences was readily predictable a decade ago".[26] In a last-ditch effort to stop the demise of Irish-speaking in Connemara in Galway, planning controls have been introduced on the building of new homes in Irish speaking areas.

Advertisement for Guinness in Kilkenny. The sign reads, "Fáilte go dtí Guinness - Ceol agus Comhrá" (Welcome to Guinness - Music and Conversation)
Advertisement for Guinness in Kilkenny. The sign reads, "Fáilte go dtí Guinness - Ceol agus Comhrá" (Welcome to Guinness - Music and Conversation)

Attempts have been made to offer support for the language through the media, notably with the launch of Raidió na Gaeltachta (Gaeltacht radio) and Teilifís na Gaeilge (Irish language television, initially abbreviated to 'TnaG', now renamed TG4). Both have been relatively successful. TG4 has offered Irish-speaking young people a forum for youth culture as Gaeilge (in Irish) through rock and pop shows, travel shows, dating games, and even a controversial award-winning soap opera in Irish called Ros na Rún. Most of TG4's viewership, however, tends to come from showing Gaelic football, hurling and rugby union matches and also films in English, and English pop music programmes, although some of its Irish language programmes attract large audiences. In 2007 TG4 reported that overall it "has a share of 3% of the national television market".[27] This market share is up from about 1.5% in the late 1990s. TG4 delivers 16 hours a day of television from an annual budget of €30 million, which is widely judged to be relatively efficient. The budget has the full support of all political parties in parliament.[27] TG4 is the most successful and high-profile government initiative for the Irish language for the past fifty years. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Guinness logo Guinness is Good for You — Irish language advertisement. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta (RnaG; Irish for Gaeltacht Radio) is the Irish-language radio service of Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ) in Ireland, and is available on 92-94FM in Ireland and via the Internet. ... TG4 is a television channel for speakers of the Irish language which was launched on 31 October 1996; it was known as Teilifís na Gaeilge or TnaG before a rebranding campaign in 1999. ... TG4 (Irish: TG Ceathair or TG a Ceathair; IPA: /tiː dÊ’iː kʲahəɾʲ/) is a television channel in Ireland, aimed at Irish-language speakers and established as a wholly owned subsidiary by Radio Telefís Éireann on 31 October 1996. ... The first TIME cover devoted to soap operas: Dated January 12, 1976, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of our Lives are featured with the headline Soap Operas: Sex and suffering in the afternoon. A soap opera is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television... Ros na Rún is an Irish language soap opera produced for Irish language TV channel TG4 (previously Teilifís na Gaeilge) which will begin its ninth season in September 2004. ... Gaelic Football (Irish: Peil, Peil Gaelach or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, or Gaelic , is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ...


The Irish language daily newspaper Lá Nua publishes five days a week and has circulation of several thousand as well as a website. There is also a weekly paper, Foinse. These require government sponsorship. The Irish News has two pages in Irish every day. The Irish Times had up until recently one article in Irish every week. Now it has several articles with some articles appended with short lists giving the meaning of some of the words used in English. Another paper, Saol, and about 5 magazines are also published in the language, as well as internet-only publications such as "Beo!". The immigrants magazine Metro Éireann also has articles in Irish every issue, as do many local papers throughout the country, including university publications such as Trinity News. The BBC offers a website for beginners called Blas ("a taste").[28] Lá Nua (meaning New Day) is an Irish language daily newspaper based in Belfast. ... Foinse is the biggest Irish language newspaper in Ireland. ... The Irish News is the only quality newspaper published in Northern Ireland. ... The Irish Times is Irelands newspaper of record, launched in the late 1850s. ... Information Editor(s) Gearoid O’Rourke[1] Location Dublin, Ireland Founded 1953[2] Frequency Fortnightly Price Free Circulation 8000 Format Broadsheet Printer Midland Print Ltd Awards Newspaper of the Year, Irish Student Media Awards Mailing address 6 Trinity College Dublin 2, Ireland[3] Web address http://www. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Thanks in large part to Gael-Taca and Gaillimh Le Gaeilge a large number of residential developments are named in Irish today in most of the Republic of Ireland.[29] Currently residential developments cannot be named in Irish-only in Northern Ireland.


The Placenames Order (Gaeltacht Districts)/An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Ceanntair Gaeltachta) (2004) requires the original Irish placenames to be used in the Gaeltacht on all official documents, maps and roadsigns. This has removed the legal status of those placenames in the Gaeltacht in English. Opposition to these measures comes from several quarters including some people within popular tourist destinations located within the Gaeltacht (namely in Dingle/An Daingean) who claim that tourists may not recognise the Irish forms of the placenames. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference Q445012 Statistics Province: Munster County: Population (2006) 1,920  John Street, Dingle Dingle (Irish: or ) is a town in County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland, on the Atlantic coast some 50 km west-south-west of Tralee and 80 km west-north...


However following a campaign in the 1960s and early 1970s, most roadsigns in Gaeltacht regions have been in Irish only. Maps and government documents did not change, though. Previously Ordnance Survey (government) maps showed placenames bilingually in the Gaeltacht (and generally in English only elsewhere). Unfortunately, most other map companies wrote only the English placenames, leading to significant confusion in the Gaeltacht. The act therefore updates government documents and maps in line with what has been reality in the Gaeltacht for the past 30 years. Private map companies are expected to follow suit. Beyond the Gaeltacht only English placenames were officially recognised (pre 2004). However, further placenames orders have been passed to enable both the English and the Irish placenames to be used. The village of Straffan is still marked variously as An Srafáin, An Cluainíní and Teach Strafáin, even though Irish has not been the spoken widely there for two centuries. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 70 m Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   c. ...


Irish vehicle registration plates are bilingual: the county of registration is shown in Irish above the plate number as a kind of surtitle, and is encoded from English within the plate number. For example, a Dublin plate is surtitled Baile Átha Cliath and the plate number includes "-D-". A number plate for a car registered in 2001 in County Dublin Index marks on Number plates in the Republic of Ireland issued since 1987 have the format YY-CC-SSSSSS where the components are: YY — a 2-digit year (e. ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist, while several county names have changed. ... Supertitles or surtitles are commonly used in opera or other musical performances. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ...


From 1964 The Bible was translated at Maynooth for Roman Catholics for the first time under the supervision of Professor Pádraig Ó Fiannachta and was finally published in 1981.[30] The Church of Ireland Book of Common Prayer of 2004 is published in both English and Irish. The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


Education

The Irish language is a compulsory subject in government funded schools in the Republic of Ireland and has been so since the early days of the state. It is taught as a second language at second level (L2) even to native (L1)speakers . English is offered as a first ( L1) language only even to those who speak it as a second language. The curriculum was once arranged in the 1930s by Father Timothy Corcoran SJ of UCD, who could not speak the language himself. The Irish Government has endeavoured to address the unpopularity of the language by revamping the curriculum at primary school level to focus on spoken Irish. However, at secondary school level, students must analyse literature and poetry, and write lengthy essays, debates and stories in Irish for the (L2) Leaving Certificate examination. The exemption from learning Irish on the grounds of time spent abroad, or learning disability, is subject to Circular 12/96 (primary education) and Circular M10/94 (secondary education) issued by the Department of Education and Science. University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin - more commonly University College Dublin (UCD) - is Irelands largest university, with over 20,000 students. ... The Leaving Certificate (Irish: Ardteistiméireacht), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the final course in the Irish secondary school system and culminates with the Leaving Certificate Examination. ... The Department of Education and Science (An Roinn Oideachais agus Eolaíochta) is a department of the Irish government. ...


In March 2007, the Minister for Education, Mary Hanafin, announced that more focus would be devoted to the spoken language, and that from 2012, the percentage of marks available in the Leaving Certificate Irish exam would increase from 25% to 40% for the oral component.[31] This increased emphasis on the oral component of the Irish examinations is likely to change the way Irish is examined. [32][33] Mary Hanafin (Irish: ; born 1 June 1959) is an Irish politician. ...


Recently the abolition of compulsory Irish has been discussed. In 2005 Enda Kenny, leader of Ireland's main opposition party, Fine Gael, called for the language to be made an optional subject in the last two years of secondary school. Mr Kenny, despite being a fluent speaker himself (and a teacher), stated that he believed that compulsory Irish has done the language more harm than good. For the Australian singer of the same name, see Enda Kenny (singer) Enda Kenny (Irish: ; born 24 April 1951), an Irish politician, is the 10th leader of the Fine Gael party and Leader of the Opposition in Dáil Éireann. ... Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, usually referred to as Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ; approximate English translation: Family/Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland with a membership of over 34,000, and is the largest opposition party in...


Gaelscoileanna

A relatively recent development is the proliferation of gaelscoileanna (schools) in which Irish is the medium of education. By September 2005 there were 168 gaelscoileanna at primary level and 43 at secondary level in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland together (excluding the Gaeltacht, whose schools are not considered gaelscoileanna), which amounted to approximately 31,000 students. This has grown from a total of less than 20 in the early 1970s and there are 15 more being planned at present. With the opening of Gaelscoil Liatroma in County Leitrim in 2005 there is now at least one gaelscoil in each of the 32 traditional counties of Ireland. In Gaeltacht areas, the medium of education has been traditionally through Irish, ever since the foundation of the State. The majority of Gaeltacht students tend to be L1 Irish Gaelic speakers, but even in the Gaeltacht areas the language is taught as an L2 language whilst English is taught as an L1 language. The Irish Equality Authority recently questioned the official State practice of awarding 5-10% extra marks to students who take some of their examinations through Irish.[34] Bunscoil in Newry A gaelscoil (Plural: gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-speaking school often also co-educational usually found in Ireland, but outside the Irish speaking Gaeltacht areas. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Carrick-on-Shannon Code: LM Area: 1,588 km² Population (2006) 28,837 Website: www. ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist, while several county names have changed. ...


The Royal Irish Academy's 2006 conference on "Language Policy and Language Planning in Ireland" found that the study of Irish and other languages is declining in Ireland. The number of schoolchildren studying "higher level" Irish for the Leaving Certificate dropped from 15,719 in 2001 to 14,358 in 2005. To reverse this decline, it was recommended that training and living for a time in a Gaeltacht area should be "compulsory" for teachers of Irish.[35] The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) is one of Irelands premier learned societies and cultural institutions. ... The Leaving Certificate (Irish: Ardteistiméireacht), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the final course in the Irish secondary school system and culminates with the Leaving Certificate Examination. ...


Although the Gaeltacht is defined as an entirely Irish-language speaking area, the Irish government also pays families living in the Gaeltacht areas with school-age children to speak Irish. These are inspected and graded according to ability. In the 2006-07 school year, 2,216 families received the full grant of €260 p.a., 937 families received a reduced grant and 225 families did not meet the criteria. This payment scheme is called Sceim Labhairt na Gaeilge, the first example in Europe where citizens are paid to speak their first official language.[36].


Irish colleges

Supplementing the formal curriculum, and after the end of the primary (usually from 4th class onwards) and secondary school years, some pupils attend an "Irish college". These programmes are residential Irish language summer courses, and give students the opportunity to be immersed in the language, usually for periods of three weeks over the summer months. Some courses are college based while others are based with host families in Gaeltacht areas under the guidance of Bean an tí. Students attend classes, participate in sports, art, drama, music, go to céilithe and other summer camp activities through the medium of Irish. As with the conventional school set-up The Department of Education establishes the boundaries for class size and qualifications required by teachers. Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... A céilidh (pronounced ) is the traditional Gaelic social dance in Ireland, Scotland and Atlantic Canada. ... Summer camp is a supervised program for children and/or teenagers conducted (usually) during the summer months in some countries. ...


Northern Ireland

Sign at Irish primary school in Newry
Sign at Irish primary school in Newry

As in the Republic, the Irish language is a minority language in Northern Ireland, known in Irish as Tuaisceart Éireann. The Irish language is a minority language in Northern Ireland, known in Irish as Tuaisceart Éireann or na sé chontae (the six counties). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1322x713, 495 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Irish language in Northern Ireland Gaelscoil Bunscoil an Iúir Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1322x713, 495 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Irish language in Northern Ireland Gaelscoil Bunscoil an Iúir Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ...


Attitudes towards the language in Northern Ireland have traditionally reflected the political differences between its two divided communities. The language has been regarded with suspicion by unionists, who have associated it with the Roman Catholic-majority Republic, and more recently, with the republican movement in Northern Ireland itself. Erection of public street signs in Irish were effectively banned under laws by the Parliament of Northern Ireland, which stated that only English could be used. These laws were not repealed by the British government until the early 1990s.Many republicans in Northern Ireland, including Sinn Féin President Gerry Adams, learnt Irish while in prison, a development known as the jailtacht.[37] Although the language was taught in Catholic secondary schools (especially by the Christian Brothers), it was not taught at all in the Maintained School Sector which is mostly attended by Protestant pupils. However, Irish-medium schools, known as gaelscoileanna, had already been founded in Belfast and Derry, and an Irish-language newspaper called Lá Nua ("New Day") was established in Belfast. BBC Radio Ulster began broadcasting a nightly half-hour programme in Irish in the early 1980s called Blas ("taste, accent"), and BBC Northern Ireland also showed its first TV programme in the language in the early 1990s. In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent republic, whether as a unitary state, a federal state or as a confederal arrangement. ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Gerard Adams MP (Irish: [1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bunscoil in Newry A gaelscoil (Plural: gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-speaking school often also co-educational usually found in Ireland, but outside the Irish speaking Gaeltacht areas. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... Lá Nua (meaning New Day) is an Irish language daily newspaper based in Belfast. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... BBC Radio Ulster is a BBC Radio station based in Belfast and is part of BBC Northern Ireland. ... BBC Northern Ireland is the main public service broadcaster in Northern Ireland. ...


The Ultach Trust was also established, with a view to broadening the appeal of the language among Protestants, although hardline DUP politicians like Sammy Wilson ridiculed it as a "leprechaun language".[38] Ulster Scots, promoted by many loyalists, was, in turn, ridiculed by nationalists (and even some Unionists) as "a DIY language for Orangemen".[39] According to recent statistics, there is no significant difference between the number of Catholic and Protestant speakers of Ulster Scots in Ulster (see Ulster Scots language), although those involved in promoting Ulster-Scots as a language are almost always unionist. Ulster-Scots is defined in legislation (The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999) as: the variety of the Scots language which has traditionally been used in parts of Northern Ireland and in Donegal in Ireland.[40] The ULTACH Trust is a charitable trust established in 1989 aimed at promoting the Irish language in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... Sammy Wilson Sammy Wilson (born April 4, 1953, Belfast) is a politician in Northern Ireland and both Member of Parliament and a Member of the Legislative Assembly for East Antrim. ... This article is about the creature in Irish mythology. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... For other uses, see Loyalist (disambiguation). ... Unionism, in the context of Ireland, is a belief in the continuation of the Act of Union 1800 (as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920) so that Northern Ireland (created by the 1920 Act) remains part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Irish received official recognition in Northern Ireland for the first time in 1998 under the Good Friday Agreement. A cross-border body known as Foras na Gaeilge was established to promote the language in both Northern Ireland and the Republic, taking over the functions of the previous Republic-only Bord na Gaeilge. The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Foras na Gaeilge is the governing body of the Irish language, set up on 2 December 1999, which is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland. ... Anthem:  The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Demonym Irish Government Republic and Parliamentary democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21...

Bilingual (Irish/English) street sign in Newry, Co. Down.
Bilingual (Irish/English) street sign in Newry, Co. Down.

The British government has ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect to Irish in Northern Ireland. // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...


It has been claimed that Belfast now represents the fastest growing centre of Irish language usage on the island - and the Good Friday Agreement's provisions on 'parity of esteem' have been used to give the language an official status there. In March 2005, the Irish language TV service TG4 began broadcasting from the Divis transmitter near Belfast, as a result of agreement between the Department of Foreign Affairs and the Northern Ireland Office, although so far this is the only transmitter to carry it. This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... TG4 (Irish: TG Ceathair or TG a Ceathair; IPA: /tiː dÊ’iː kʲahəɾʲ/) is a television channel in Ireland, aimed at Irish-language speakers and established as a wholly owned subsidiary by Radio Telefís Éireann on 31 October 1996. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Department of Foreign Affairs (An Roinn Gnóthaí Eachtracha) in the Irish Government. ... The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) is an arm of the United Kingdom government, responsible for Northern Ireland affairs. ...


The Belfast city council has designated the Falls Road area (from Milltown Cemetery to Divis street) as The Gaeltacht Quarter of Belfast, one of the four cultural quarters of the city. There is a growing number of Irish-medium schools throughout Northern Ireland (see picture above), and, at English-medium schools, it is becoming more and more common that Irish be taught to children.


Under the St Andrews Agreement, the government has legislated to introduce an Irish Language Act. A consultation period ending on 2 March 2007 could see Irish becoming an official language, having equal validity with English, recognised as an indigenous language, or aspire to become an official language in the future.[13] The St Andrews Agreement is an agreement proposed by the British and Irish Governments in relation to devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Outside Ireland

The language spread of Irish Gaelic in the United States according to U. S. Census 2000 and other resources interpreted by research of U.S. ENGLISH Foundation, percentage of home speakers.
The language spread of Irish Gaelic in the United States according to U. S. Census 2000 and other resources interpreted by research of U.S. ENGLISH Foundation, percentage of home speakers.

An interest in the Irish language is maintained throughout the English speaking world among the Irish diaspora and there are active Irish language groups in North American, British, and Australian cities. In Australia, a network of people have established special Irish schools around the country teaching the language and music. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand...


The Irish language emigrated to North America along with the Irish people. Although Irish is one of the smaller European languages spoken in North America, it has cultural importance in the northeast United States and in Newfoundland, and according to the 2000 Census, approximately 26,000 people in the U.S. speak Irish at home.[41] Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


The Irish language came to Newfoundland in the late 1600s and was commonly spoken among the Newfoundland Irish until the middle of the 20th century. There is direct evidence to suggest that as high as 90% of the Irish in Newfoundland spoke only Irish as their mother tongue. Records from Newfoundland's courts, where defendants often required Irish-speaking interpreters, indicate that the dominant language of the Avalon Peninsula was Irish rather than English. Today it remains the only place outside of Ireland that can claim a unique Irish name (Talamh an Éisc, meaning Land of the Fish), and an area where Irish is natively spoken. In 2007 a number of Canadian speakers founded the first "Gaeltacht" outside of Ireland in an area near Kingston, Ontario (see main article Permanent North American Gaeltacht). The site (named Gaeltacht Bhaile na hÉireann) is located in Tamworth, Ontario and is to be a retreat centre for Irish-speaking Canadians and Americans.[42][43] Newfoundland Irish (Irish: Gaeilge Talamh an Éisc) is a dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland and widely spoken until the mid-20th century. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel Kingston, Ontario, the first capital[1] of Canada, is located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St. ... The Permanent North American Gaeltacht (Irish: ) is a settlement and designated Irish speaking area in the surrounding envirions of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, along the Salmon River. ... Tamworth is a small community in Lennox and Addington County, Ontario, Canada. ...


The Irish language reached Australia in 1788, along with English. In the early colonial period, Irish was seen as an opposition language used by convicts and repressed by the colonial authorities.[44] Although the Irish were a greater proportion of the European population than in any other British colony, the use of the language quickly declined. As legal barriers to the integration of the Irish and their descendants into Australian life were progressively removed, English became the language of social advancement. The 2001 census revealed that there are 828 speakers of the language in the country.[45]


In May 2007, the University of Cambridge in England started offering courses in Modern Irish and Medieval Irish. [46] The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Irish (Irish: Gaeilge), a Goidelic language spoken in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Australia, Canada, and the United States, is constitutionally recognised as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ...


Many Australian slang words are Irish-derived and there are arguments that Australian English is more influenced by Irish than other varieties of English. There is a small movement to re-establish the language in contemporary Australia.[47] The Special Broadcasting Service transmits Irish language radio and television. For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Ethnologue, Gaelic, Irish: a language of Ireland
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ a b Census 2006 – Principal Demographic Results (PDF). Central Statistics Office. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  5. ^ Door Raymond Hickey, 2002, A Source Book for Irish English, John Benjamins Publishing Company: Netherlands
  6. ^ Door Christopher Whyte, 2004, Modern Scottish Poetry, Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh
  7. ^ Ó Murchú, Máirtín (1993). "Aspects of the societal status of Modern Irish", in Martin J. Ball and James Fife (eds.): The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge, 471–90. ISBN 0-415-01035-7. 
  8. ^ Irish Statue Book, University College Galway Act, 1929. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  9. ^ Minister Hanafin publishes University College Galway (Amendment) Bill 2005. Department of education and Science (12 December 2005). Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  10. ^ Constitution of Ireland. Government of Ireland (1 July 1937). Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  11. ^ http://www.gppac.net/documents/pbp_f/part1/7_changi.htm Changing History - Peace Building in Northern Ireland By Mari Fitzduff
  12. ^ Belfast Agreement - Full text - Section 6 (Equality) - "ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES"
  13. ^ a b "Irish language future is raised", BBC News, 13 December 2006. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. 
  14. ^ Hamilton, John Noel (1974). A Phonetic Study of the Irish of Tory Island, County Donegal. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast. 
  15. ^ Lucas, Leslie W. (1979). Grammar of Ros Goill Irish, County Donegal. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast. 
  16. ^ Unicode 5.0, Latin Extended AdditionalPDF (163 KB). Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  17. ^ The state is the main force anglicising the Gaeltacht, http://homepage.ntlworld.com/r.a.mccartney/baile_nua/state_policies.html
  18. ^ RTÉ News, 2006-12-19, Govt announces 20-year bilingual strategy. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  19. ^ Government of Ireland, Statement on the Irish Language 2006PDF (919 KB). Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  20. ^ KDE Irish Gaelic translation. kde.ie. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  21. ^ a b Firefox in Irish. mozdev.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  22. ^ Bogearra den scoth, chomh maith agus a bhí sé ariamh, anois as Gaeilge (Irish). openoffice.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  23. ^ Windows XP ® Pacáiste Comhéadan Gaeilge (Irish). Microsoft. Retrieved on 2007-06-19..
  24. ^ The state has anglicised the Gaeltacht by encouraging the immigration of English-speakers, http://homepage.ntlworld.com/r.a.mccartney/baile_nua/migration.html
  25. ^ The Irish Language in a Changing Society: Shaping The Future, p. xxvi.
  26. ^ The Irish Language in a Changing Society: Shaping The Future, p. 47.
  27. ^ a b TG4 official website
  28. ^ Blas website URL
  29. ^ Sunday Times article on Gael-Taca
  30. ^ An Bíobla Naofa (Maynooth 1981)
  31. ^ Department of Education & Science, 2007-03-11, Minister Hanafin announces increase in marks for Oral Irish to 40% in exams. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  32. ^ Independent, 2007-07-12. Pupils lap up hi-tech learning of Irish. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  33. ^ Learnosity, National Council for Curriculum and Assessment: Ireland. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  34. ^ The Equality Authority (22 November 2006). "Landmark Decision for Leaving Certificate Students with Dyslexia". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  35. ^ 2006 RIA language conference report
  36. ^ Irish Independent, 20 November 2007, page 11
  37. ^ Allen Feldman. Formations of Violence: The Narrative of the Body and Political Terror in Northern Ireland.U of Chicago P, 1991. Chapter 3.
  38. ^ "Unionist fear of Irish must be overcome", newshound.com, quoting Irish News, 6 February 2003. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. 
  39. ^ "The rich heritage of Ulster Scots culture", newshound.com, quoting Irish News, 16 November 2002. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. 
  40. ^ Initial Periodical Report by the United Kingdom presented to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe in accordance with Article 15 of the Charter. Council of Europe, Legal Affairs Office (1 July 2002). Retrieved on 2007-06-19.(internet archive copy as of 14 May 2005)
  41. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center, Irish Gaelic. Retrieved on 2007-07-22
  42. ^ Gaelport, Irish at home in Canada, 17 February 2007
  43. ^ Gaelport, First Gaeltacht abroad planned for Canada, 23 January 2007
  44. ^ Cumann Gaeilge na hAstráile. The Irish Language in Australia. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  45. ^ "Languages Spoken At Home" from Australian Governament Office of Multicultural Interests website. Retrieved 27 December 2007
  46. ^ Irish becomes subject at Cambridge University. BreakingNews.ie (5 January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  47. ^ Transcript of Lingua Franca of 1998-09-26, Why Learn Irish?. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

For the Gaelic resurgence to overthrow English supremacy in the 14th-16th century, see: Gaelic resurgence. ... Dictionary of the Irish language is the definitive dictionary of the Irish language, specifically the Old Irish and Middle Irish stages; the modern language is not included. ... Many place names in Ireland in the English language are either anglicisations of those in the Irish language, or completely different, such as the name for the capital of the Republic of Ireland, which in English is Dublin, but in Irish is Baile Átha Cliath. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Hiberno-Latin, also called Hisperic Latin, was a playful and learned sort of Latin literature created and spread by Irish monks during the period from the sixth century to the tenth century. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... A formal Irish-language name consists of a given name and a surname, as in English. ... Non-nativized Irish words used in the English language, that have been officially and generally adopted in modern Ireland, include: Áras an Uachtaráin (Presidential Office) [pronounced ] Ard-Fheis(eanna) (party congress(es) of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael, Sinn Féin) [pronounced ] Ard-Rí (The High King (of Ireland... Founded in 1966, the Language Freedom Movement was an organization dedicated to the opposition of the state-sponsored Gaelic Revival of the Irish language in the Republic of Ireland. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Although Irish has been used as a literary language for more than a thousand years (see Irish literature), and in a form intelligible to contemporary speakers since at least the sixteenth century, modern Irish literature is thought to begin with the revival movement. ... An Cumann Gaelach, Irish for The Irish Society, is a society typically found in most colleges in Ireland. ... Béarlachas is a form of pidgin Irish, where English words or phrases are adapted such that they sound like Irish. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Irish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Look up Gaeilge in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Irish
Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Irish language
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Irish language

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

General

  • Irish Gaelic at Ethnologue
  • "Learning Irish?," BBC
  • Foras na Gaeilge - Official promotional body for the Irish language throughout the island of Ireland
  • Gaeilge ar an ghréasán Irish online resources
  • 'Gael-Taca (Corcaigh)'

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Grammar and pronunciation

  • Braesicke's Gramadach na Gaeilge (Engl. translation)
  • A dialect of Donegal (a phonological description of the dialect of Glenties by E. C. Quiggin, from 1906)
  • (German) Die araner mundart (a phonological description of the dialect of the Aran Islands by F. N. Finck, from 1899)

Glenties (Na Gleannta in Irish, meaning The Glens) is a small town in the northwest of Ireland in central County Donegal. ... Not to be confused with Isle of Arran. ...

Dictionaries

  • Acmhainn.ie - Dictionary and terminology resource
  • Online English-Irish dictionary
  • Foclóir Téarmaíochta, a large terminology database developed by FIONTAR, DCU
  • General Gaelic Dictionaries
The Bretons are a distinct celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Irish language, alphabet and pronunciation (1121 words)
Irish is a Celtic language spoken in mainly Ireland (Éire).
Irish is known as Irish, Gaelic or Irish Gaelic in English.
Today Irish is usually written with a version of the Latin alphabet similar to the one used for Scottish Gaelic, though a spelling reform in 1957 eliminated some of the silent letters which are still used in Scottish Gaelic.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Irish language (1631 words)
Munster Irish is spoken in the Gaeltachtaí of Kerry (Contae Chiarraí), Muskerry (Múscraí), Cape Clear (Oileán Cléire) in the western part of County Cork (Contae Chorcaí), and the tiny pocket of Irish-speakers in An Rinn near Dungarvan (Dún Garbháin) in County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge).
Irish is given recognition by the Constitution of Ireland as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland (with English being a second official language), despite the limited distribution of fluency among the population of that country.
Munster Irish is spoken in the Gaeltachtaí of Kerry (Contae Chiarraí), Muskerry (Múscraí), Cape Clear (Oileán Chléire) in the western part of County Cork (Contae Chorcaí), and the tiny pocket of Irish-speakers in An Rinn near Dungarvan (Dún Garbháin) in County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m