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Encyclopedia > Irish diaspora
'Emigrants Leave Ireland', engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusack's Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868
'Emigrants Leave Ireland', engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusack's Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868

Contents

The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. The diaspora, maximally interpreted, contains over 80 million people, which is over fourteen times the population of the island of Ireland itself (6.11 million in 2007) [1]. Emigration is the action and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


The term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. One, preferred by the government of Ireland, is defined in legal terms: the Irish diaspora are those of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland. This includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It also includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission. Under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is considerably smaller than popular belief - some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants. This is still an extraordinarily large ratio for any nation. This article is about the current Irish body. ...


However, the Irish diaspora is generally not limited by citizenship status, leading to an estimated (and fluctuating) membership of 80 million persons - the second and more emotive definition. The Irish Government acknowledged this interpretation - although it did not acknowledge any legal obligations to it - when Article 2 of Bunreacht na hÉireann (Constitution of Ireland) was amended in 1998 to read "[f]urthermore, the Irish nation cherishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry living abroad who share its cultural identity and heritage." The Irish government recognizes all people with a heritage on the island of Ireland. The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ...


This was demonstrated, in 2002, when a group of Argentineans with Irish great-grandparents attempted to register themselves as Irish citizens. Their applications were rejected because the right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation. This contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel, Japan and other countries which make no legal reference to cherishing special affinities with their diasporas but which nonetheless permit legal avenues through which members of the diaspora can register as citizens. This article is about the demographics features of the population of Argentina, including distribution, ethnicity, economic status and other. ...


Scots-Irish / Ulster Scots

The term Irish-American is one of some controversy. It it claimed with a large body of evidence that of the estimated 44.1 million Irish-Americans that up to 27 million are actually Scots-Irish / Ulster Scots. Although technically still from Ireland they are mainly descendant's of Protestant Presbyterian's from what is today's Northern Ireland (Ulster) . The term Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irish is an Americanism, used to separate the Protestant Irish Presbyterian migration in the mid to late 16th century from the later Irish Catholic migration of the 19th century. British historians and today's Ulster Protestants rarely use the term and favor what they consider the more correct term, of Ulster-Scot or Northern Irish. It can be said that because of the lack of emphasis upon origins of the Scotch Irish people, their desire and intent to be Americans, they did not have any great consciousness of their history and so many simply refear to themselves as Irish-Americans. Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... Ulster-Scots are an Irish ethnic group descended from mainly Lowland Scots who settled in the Province of Ulster in Ireland, first beginning in large numbers during the 17th century. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ...


In the United States Census of 2000, 4.3 million Americans (1.5% of the population of the United States) claimed Scots-Irish ancestry, US Senator and author Jim Webb suggests estimates that the true number of people with some Scotch-Irish heritage in the USA is more in the region of 27 million. For other persons named James Webb, see James Webb (disambiguation). ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ...


Britain

The Irish have traditionally been involved in the building trade and transport particularly as dockers, following an influx of Irish workers, or navvies, who built the canal, road and rail networks in the 19th century. This is largely due to the flow of immigrants from Ireland during The Great Famine of 1845 - 1850. Many Irish servicemen, particularly sailors, would settle in Britain; during the 18th and 19th century a third of the Army and Royal Navy were Irish. Since the 1950s and 1960s in particular, the Irish have become assimilated into the indigenous population. Immigration continued into the next century; over half million Irish came to Britain in World War II to work in industry and serve in the British armed forces. In the post-war reconstruction era, the numbers of immigrants began to increase, many settling in the larger cities and towns of Britain. According to the 2001 census, around 850,000 people in Britain were born in Ireland and much of the working class has some Irish heritage.[citation needed] The Irish community in Britain are residents of Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) whose birth place and/or ancestry originates in the island nation of Ireland. ... Navvy is a shorter form of the word navigator and is particularly applied to describe the manual labourers working on major civil engineering projects. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ...


London once more holds an official St. Patrick's Day. St Patrick's Day, public celebration of which had been cancelled in the 1970s because of terrorist activity, is now a national celebration, with over 60%[citation needed] of the population regularly celebrating the day regardless of their ethnic origins. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... St. ...


The largest Irish communities are located predominantly in the cities and towns across Britain, with the largest by far being in London, in particular from Kilburn (which has one of the largest Irish-born communities outside of Ireland) out to the west and north west of the city, closely followed by the large port cities such as Liverpool, Manchester and Portsmouth. Coventry and Birmingham also have large diaspora populations due to the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. As with their experience in the U.S, the Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK, most especially in local government but also at national level. Prime Ministers Callaghan and Blair have been amongst the many in Britain of part Irish ancestry, with Blair's mother from County Donegal. For other uses, see Kilburn (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British city. ... Callaghan may stand for: USS Callaghan (DDG-994) Morley Callaghan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ...


Central to the Irish community in Britain was the community's relationship with the Roman Catholic Church, with which it maintained a strong sense of identity. The Church remains a crucial focus of communal life among some of the immigrant population and their descendants. The largest ethnic group among the Catholic priesthood of mainland Britain remains Irish. As with in the United States, the upper ranks of the Church's hierarchy are of predominantly Irish descent. The current head of the Catholic Church in England & Wales is His Eminence Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor. In Scotland it is Cardinal Keith O'Brien. Catholic Church redirects here. ... Cormac Cardinal Murphy-OConnor (born 24 August 1932 in Reading, Berkshire) is a priest of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Keith Michael Patrick Cardinal OBrien (born March 17, 1938 in Ballycastle, County Antrim, Northern Ireland) is the current Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Scotland experienced a significant amount of Irish immigration, particularly in Glasgow and Edinburgh. This led to the formation of the Celtic Football Club (as today close to 50% of the Glaswegian population has some Irish ancestry[citation needed]) in 1888 by Marist Brother Walfrid, to raise money to help the community. In Edinburgh Hibernian were founded in 1875 and in 1909 another club with Irish links, Dundee United, was formed. Likewise the Irish community in London formed the London Irish rugby club. For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Celtic Football Club, commonly referred to simply as Celtic (pronounced seltic) or the Bhoys (pronounced boys), are one of the worlds most famous football clubs. ... The Marist Brothers is a Roman Catholic religious order of brothers and lay people. ... Brother Walfrid is the religious name of Andrew Kerins, a Marist Brother and founder of Celtic F.C.. He was born in Ballymote, County Sligo, Ireland on May 18, 1840 and moved to Scotland in 1887, founding the club a year later as a means of raising funds for the... There are several uses of the term Hibernian The Scottish football club Hibernian F.C. An inhabitant of the ancient country Hibernia A member of the Hibernian Society A common name for a Pub This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Dundee United Football Club is a Scottish football (soccer) club from the city of Dundee. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Official website www. ...


The 2001 UK Census states 869,093 people born in Ireland as living in the UK, with over 10% of the country population (over 6 million) being of Irish descent. Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Elsewhere in Europe

Irish links with the continent go back many centuries. During the early Middle Ages, many Irish religious went abroad to preach and found monasteries. Saint Brieuc founded the city that bears his name in Brittany, Saint Colmán founded the great monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy and one of his monks was Saint Gall for whom the Swiss town of St Gallen and canton of St Gallen. Saint-Brieuc (Breton: Sant-Brieg) is a commune France, situated in Côtes-dArmor and in the Brittany région. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Stone arch bridge over the Trebbia river Bobbio is a city in the Piacenza province of the Emilia-Romagna region in northern Italy. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... Saint Gall or Gallus (c. ... St. ... Valais Ticino Graubünden (Grisons) Geneva Vaud Neuchâtel Jura Berne Thurgau Zurich Aargau Lucerne Solothurn Basel-Land Schaffhausen Uri Schwyz Glarus St. ... The Canton of St. ...


During the Counter-Reformation, Irish religious and political links with Europe became stronger. Leuven in Belgium grew into an important centre of learning for Irish priests. The Flight of the Earls, in 1607, led much of the Gaelic nobility to flee the country, and after the wars of the 17th century many others fled to Spain, France, Austria, and other Catholic lands. The lords and their retainers and supporters joined the armies of these countries, and were known as the Wild Geese. Some of the lords and their descendants rose to high ranks in their adoptive countries, such as the French royalist Patrice de MacMahon, who became president of France. The French Cognac brandy maker, James Hennessy and Co., is named for an Irishman. In Spain and its territories, many Irish descendants can be found with the name Obregón (O'Brien), including Madrid-born actress Ana Victoria García Obregón. The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... The Flight of the Earls (Irish: Teitheadh na nIarlaí) refers to the departure from Ireland on 14 September 1607 of Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory ODonnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell. ... The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Cognac is a commune in the French département of Charente, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Bottle of Hennessy XO Cognac Hennessy is one of the oldest and most famous manufacturers of cognac, a type of French distilled wine, or brandy. ...


During the 20th century, certain Irish intellectuals made their homes in continental Europe, particularly James Joyce, and later Samuel Beckett (who became a courier for the French Resistance). Eoin O'Duffy led a brigade of 700 Irish volunteers to fight for Franco during the Spanish Civil War, and Frank Ryan led the Connolly column who fought on the opposite side, with the Republican International Brigades. William Joyce became an English-language propagandist for the Third Reich, known colloquially as Lord Haw-Haw. This article is about the writer and poet. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... “Franco” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... This article is about the Second World War propagandist. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Lord Haw-Haw was the nickname of several announcers on the English language propaganda radio programme Germany Calling, broadcast by Nazi German radio to audiences in Great Britain on the mediumwave station Radio Hamburg and by shortwave to the United States. ...


Bermuda

Bermuda was England's third successful overseas territory to be established (as an extension of the second, Virginia) [1] [2], and is the oldest remaining. Settlement, which began accidentally in 1609, was primarily by English indentured servants, but there were four minority groups by the end of the 17th century. These were Native American slaves, free and enslaved blacks, Irish prisoners-of-war (POW), and ethnically-cleansed civilians, sold into slavery for seven years, and smaller numbers of Scottish POWs. The Irish and Scots[citation needed] slaves were the result of Oliver Cromwell's invasions of their countries in the 1650s, in order to force his protectorship upon them. In Ireland, this had been preceded by a native uprising against the Anglo-Irish settler state, and Cromwell's response was the large-scale ethnic cleansing of parts of Ireland, and the repopulation of those areas with new settlers from England and Scotland. The Irish proved to be troublesome slaves, in Bermuda. Following the uncovering of a plot between Irish and black slaves to overthrow the colony, a ban was placed on the importation of any further Irish. Over the following century, the Irish and Scots, who were ostracised by the white-Anglo majority, combined with Bermuda's blacks and Native Americans (and some part of its white-Anglo majority) to create a single demographic group, which, in the spirit of racial polarisation, is known as black. With the large scale emigration, primarily of white-Anglo Bermudians, during that time, blacks were left with a slight majority. The Irish (and other non-African) roots of Bermuda's black population are rarely mentioned, today. The area with the strongest awareness of both its Irish and Native American origins is Saint David's Island, at the east of the archipelago. The western-most island is Ireland Island. The origin of this name is uncertain. Popular myth in Bermuda attributes it to the large number of Irish convicts who laboured there in the 19th century, during the building of the dockyard (these included the nationalist politician John Mitchel). This explanation is patently false as many records show the island bore that name two centuries before. Although there is little surviving evidence of Irish culture, elderly islanders, who can remember when marine turtles were hunted in Bermuda, described the method of capyure as being the laying of a net to one side of the reptile, and the throwing of a cilig (a length of rope with one end knotted round a stone) into the water on the opposite side. Hearing the splash of the cilig, the turtle moves away from it, into the net. The word cilig appears to be meaningless in English, but in some dialects of Gaelic is used as an adjective meaning "easily deceived". Characteristics of older Bermudian accents, such as the pronunciation of the letter 'd' as 'dj', as in Bermudjin (Bermudian), may also indicate an Irish origin. Later Irish immigrants have continued to contribute to Bermuda's makeup, with names like Crockwell (Ó Creachmhaoil) , and O'Connor now being thought of, locally, as Bermudian names. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Storehouse Building, HMD Bermuda, Ireland Island, Bermuda. ... John Mitchel John Mitchel (Irish: Seán Uí Mistéil; b. ...


The history of the Irish community of Barbados and other British-settled Caribbean islands is similar in many respects, including the circumstances of its originating from an indentured servant class deported there by Cromwell. Over time, the Irish community there dwindled as they intermarried with the growing black population; the white descendants, known as redlegs, emigrated or died off and now form a tiny percentage of the population. Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. ...


Montserrat

The tiny Caribbean island of Montserrat was first settled in 1631 when Irish Catholics left St. Kitts and Nevis due to anti- Irish Catholic sentiment and persecution by the English on the islands.[citation needed] Saint Kitts (also/previously known as Saint Christopher) is an island in the Caribbean. ...


After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (notably at the siege of Drogheda in 1649), Irish political prisoners were transferred to Montserrat. To this day, Montserrat is the only country or territory in the world, apart from the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, and the Canadian province of Newfoundland to observe a public holiday on St Patrick's Day. The population is predominantly of mixed Irish and African descent. Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - December 1650) Ulick Burke, Earl of Clanricarde (December 1650-April 1653) Oliver Cromwell (1649-May 1650) Henry Ireton (May 1650-November 1651) Charles... Drogheda, a town in eastern Ireland, was besieged twice in the 1640s, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Newfoundland may refer to: Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province (known simply as Newfoundland until 2001) Dominion of Newfoundland, an independent country (from 1907 to 1934) Colony of Newfoundland, a British colony prior to 1907 Newfoundland (island), a Canadian island that forms part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador... St. ...


United States

Main article: Irish American

The diaspora to America was immortalized in the words of many songs including the famous Irish ballad, "The Green Fields of America": Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ...

So pack up your sea-stores, consider no longer,
Ten dollars a week is not very bad pay,
With no taxes or tithes to devour up your wages,
When you're on the green fields of America.

The experience of Irish immigrants in America has not always been harmonious, however. Irish newcomers were sometimes uneducated and often found themselves fighting Americans for manual labor jobs or being recruited off the docks by the U.S. Army. This view of the Irish-American experience is depicted by another traditional song, "Paddy's Lamentation". The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...

Hear me boys, now take my advice,
To America I'll have ye's not be going,
There is nothing here but war, where the murderin' cannons roar,
And I wish I was at home in dear old Dublin.

The classic image of an Irish immigrant is led occasionally by racist and anti-Catholic stereotypes. In modern times, in the United States, the Irish are largely perceived as hard workers. Most notably they are associated with the positions of police officer, firefighter, Roman Catholic Church leaders and politicians in the larger Eastern-Seaboard metropolitan areas. Irish Americans number over 44 million, making them the second largest ethnic group in the country, after German Americans. The largest Irish American communities are in Chicago, Boston, New York City, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Kansas City. New York City and Savannah, Georgia have the largest Saint Patrick's Day. The parade in Boston is closely associated with Evacuation Day, when George Washington and his troops forced the British out of Boston during the Revolutionary War. At state level, Texas has the largest number of Irish Americans. According to the 1990 U.S. Census, Arkansas list 9.5% of the population as Irish descendent , primarily located in the southeast part of the state. In percentage terms, Boston is the most Irish city in the United States, and Massachusetts the most Irish state, in percentage of population terms. Greeley, Nebraska (population 580) has the highest percentage of Irish-American residents (46%) of any town or city with a population of over 500 in the United States. The town was part of the Irish Catholic Colonization effort of Bishop O'Connor of New York in the 1880's. Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Police officers in South Australia A police officer (or policeman/policewoman) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... This article is about the profession. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Savannah redirects here. ... St. ... March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts is Evacuation Day, an official holiday commemorating the evacuation of the city (which was a town at the time) of Boston by British forces during the American Revolutionary War. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Before the Great Hunger ("Irish Potato Famine") and the associated British policies resulted in over a million dead and more emigrated, there had been the Penal Laws which had already resulted in significant emigration from Ireland. Under these laws, "Dissenters" or non-Anglicans had certain civil rights suppressed by the British Crown, encouraging the massive migration of several hundred thousand people from Ireland - particularly from the province of Ulster. Because a majority of these were Presbyterians, and many of those had settled in Ulster from Scotland, they became known as the "Scotch-Irish" in the United States, to which they formed a steady stream of emigration throughout the 18th century. The more widely accepted term abroad is Scots-Irish or Ulster-Scots. Many settled in the mountains of the southeastern states and due to their affiliation with William III of Orange, or "King Billy", they became known as "Billy-Boys of the Hills" - later Hillbillies. Some of them wore red or orange neck-scarves to signify that they were signaturees of Ulster's Solemn League and Covenant and were also known as Rednecks. Starvation during the famine The Irish Potato Famine, also called The Great Famine or The Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór), is the name given to a famine which struck Ireland between 1846 and 1849. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The Penal laws in Ireland (Irish: Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... This article needs cleanup. ... The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians. ... In modern usage, redneck predominantly refers to a particular stereotype of whites from the Southern United States. ...


In the United States Census of 2000, 4.3 million Americans (1.5% of the population of the United States) claimed Scots-Irish ancestry, the author James Webb suggests estimates that the true number of people with some Scotch-Irish heritage in the USA is more in the region of 27 million Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... James Webb or Jim Webb may refer to: Politics Jim Webb (born 1946), former US Secretary of the Navy and Senator-elect from Virginia Jim Webb (Canada), a Canadian politician James Webb (governor) (died 1761), Commodore Governor for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador for 1760 Sciences James Edwin...


See also Irish immigration to Puerto Rico. In the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. ...


Canada

Main article: Irish Canadians
See also: Irish Quebecers, Irish Newfoundlanders.

The 2001 census by Statcan, Canada's Official Statistical office revealed that the Irish were the 4th largest ethnic group with 3,822,660 Canadians with full or partial Irish descent or 12.9% of the nation's total population. Irish Canadians are people of Irish descent living in Canada or born as native Canadians. ... In modern Quebec many Quebecers are partly of Irish descent, making them Irish Quebecers. ... Newfoundland and Ireland In modern Newfoundland, many Newfoundlanders are partly of Irish descent. ...


Many Newfoundlanders are of Irish descent. It is estimated that about 80% of Newfoundlanders have Irish ancestry on at least one side of their family tree. The family names, the features and colouring, the predominant Catholic religion, the prevalence of Irish music – even the accents of the people – are so reminiscent of rural Ireland that Irish author Tim Pat Coogan has described Newfoundland as "the most Irish place in the world outside of Ireland".[2] Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Timothy Patrick Coogan is an Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and was appointed editor of the Irish Press newspaper in 1968. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Newfoundland Irish, the dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland was widely spoken until the mid-20th century. It is very similar to the language heard in the southeast of Ireland centuries ago, due to mass immigration from the counties Tipperary, Waterford, Wexford and Cork. Newfoundland Irish (Irish: Gaeilge Talamh an Éisc) is a dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland and widely spoken until the mid-20th century. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ...


Guysborough County, Nova Scotia has many Irish villages. Erinville, Salmon River, Ogden, among others, where Irish last names are prevalent and the accent is reminiscent of the Irish as well as the music, traditions, religion (Roman Catholic), and the love for the old country of Ireland itself. Some of the Irish counties from which these people arrived were County Kerry (Dingle Peninsula), County Cork, and County Roscommon, along with others. Guysborough County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... Location map of the Dingle Peninsula The Dingle Peninsula (Irish: ), sometimes anglicized as Corkaguiney) is located in County Kerry and is the most westerly point of the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Roscommon Code: RN Area: 2,547 km² (983 mi²) Population (2006) 58,700 County Roscommon (Irish: ) is a county located in central Ireland. ...


Argentina

Argentine commemorative stamp of Admiral William Brown, circa 1979. Founder of the Federal Navy, he was doubtlessly the most famous Irish citizen in Argentina.
Argentine commemorative stamp of Admiral William Brown, circa 1979. Founder of the Federal Navy, he was doubtlessly the most famous Irish citizen in Argentina.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, over 50,000 Irish emigrated to Argentina.[citation needed] Distinct Irish communities and schools existed until the Perón era in the 1950s. In the 1880s the Argentine government sought to promote immigration from Ireland and sent two agents to Ireland to recruit young and able-bodied migrants. A minor scandal known as the Dresden affair happened when the agents promised more than they could deliver, and when 1,774 Irish arrived aboard the City of Dresden ship they were plunged into destitution. Many children died. Irish settlement in Argentina is part of the story of immigration in Argentina and the Irish diaspora. ... Image File history File links Guillermo_brown1. ... Image File history File links Guillermo_brown1. ... Admiral William Brown, also known as Guillermo Brown, was born in Foxford, County Mayo, Ireland, on June 22, 1777, and died in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1857. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... Government After years of post-World War II instability, Argentina is today a fully functioning democracy. ...


Today there are an estimated 500,000 people of Irish ancestry in Argentina,[citation needed] approximately 12.5% of the Republic of Ireland's current population; however, these numbers may be far higher, given that many Irish newcomers declared themselves to be British,[citation needed] as Ireland at the time was still part of the United Kingdom and today their descendants integrated into Argentine society with mixed bloodlines.


Che Guevara, whose grandmother's surname was Lynch, was another famous member of this diaspora. Guevara's father, Ernesto Guevara Lynch, said of him: "The first thing to note is that in my son's veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels". However, Che Guevara considered himself Latin American, Argentine and Cuban, and his connection with Ireland was remote. On March 13, 1965, the Irish Times journalist Arthur Quinlan interviewed Che at Shannon Airport during a stopover flight from Prague to Cuba. Guevara talked of his Irish connections through the name Lynch and of his grandmother's Irish roots in Galway. Later, Che, and some of his Cuban comrades, went to Limerick City and adjourned to the Hanratty's Hotel on Glentworth Street. According to Quinlan, they returned that evening all wearing sprigs of shamrock, for Shannon and Limerick were preparing for the St. Patrick's Day celebrations.[3] Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Irish Times is Irelands newspaper of record, launched in the late 1850s. ... Arthur Quinlan is a print journalist for the Irish Times, formerly based at Shannon Airport. ... Shannon Airport (IATA: SNN, ICAO: EINN), or Aerfort na Sionna in Irish is one of Irelands primary three airports (Dublin, Shannon, Cork). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... The Shamrock Oxalis acetosella as The Shamrock The shamrock, an unofficial symbol of Ireland and Boston, Massachusetts, is a three-leafed old white clover, sometimes (rarely nowadays) Trifolium repens (white clover, known in Irish as seamair bhán) but more usually today Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí). However...


Widely considered a national hero, William Brown is doubtlessly the most famous Irish citizen in Argentina. Creator of the Argentine Navy (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) and leader of the Argentine Armed Forces in the wars against Brazil and Spain, he was born in Foxford, County Mayo on June 22, 1777 and died in Buenos Aires in 1857. The Almirante Brown class destroyer is named after him. Admiral William Brown, also known as Guillermo Brown, was born in Foxford, County Mayo, Ireland, on June 22, 1777, and died in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1857. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... The armed forces of Argentina are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Almirante Brown class (MEKO 360H2 type) destroyers were all commissioned between 1983 and 1984 for the Argentine Navy. ...


The first entirely Catholic English language publication published in Buenos Aires, The Southern Cross is an Argentine newspaper founded on January 16, 1875 by Dean Patricio Dillon, an Irish immigrant, a deputy for Buenos Aires Province and president of the Presidential Affairs Commission amongst other positions. The newspaper continues in print to this day and publishes a beginners guide to the Irish language, helping Irish Argentines keep in touch with their cultural heritage. Previously to The Southern Cross Dublin-born brothers Edward and Michael Mulhall successfully published The Standard, allegedly the first English-language daily paper in South America. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Southern Cross was an Argentine newspaper was founded on January 16, 1875 by Dean Patricio Dillon, an Irish immigrant, a deputy for Buenos Aires Province and president of the Presidential Affairs Commission amongst other positions. ... The Buenos Aires province (IPA: , Spanish: Provincia de Buenos Aires) is the wealthiest and most populated province of Argentina. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Irish settlement in Argentina is part of the story of immigration in Argentina and the Irish diaspora. ... The Southern Cross was an Argentine newspaper was founded on January 16, 1875 by Dean Patricio Dillon, an Irish immigrant, a deputy for Buenos Aires Province and president of the Presidential Affairs Commission amongst other positions. ...


In more recent times, between 1943 and 1946, the leader of Argentina was Edelmiro Julian Farrell whose paternal ancestry was from Ireland.


Mexico

Main article: Irish Mexican

Probably the most famous Irishman ever to reside in Mexico is the Wexfordman William Lamport, better known to most Mexicans as Guillen de Lampart, precursor of the Independence movement and author of the first proclamation of independence in the New World. His statue stands today in the Crypt of Heroes beneath the Column of Independence in Mexico City. Some authorities claim he was the inspiration for Johnston McCulley's Zorro, though the extent to which this may be true is disputed. Many Mexican Irish communities existed in Mexican Texas until the revolution. ... William Lamport (1615-1659) was an Irish-born Catholic adventurer who according to at least one historian gained a nickname of El Zorro, the Fox, due to his exploits in Mexico. ... For other uses, see Zorro (disambiguation). ...


After Lampart, the most famous Irishmen in Mexican history are probably "Los Patricios". Many communities also existed in Mexican Texas until the revolution there, when they sided with Catholic Mexico against Protestant pro-U.S. elements. The Batallón de San Patricio, a battalion of U.S. troops who deserted and fought alongside the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848, is also famous in Mexican history. Álvaro Obregón (possibly O'Brian, but more likely from the Spanish northern city of Obregón) was president of Mexico during 1920-24 and Obregón city and airport are named in his honour. Mexico also has a large number of people of Irish ancestry, among them the actor Anthony Quinn. There are also monuments in Mexico City paying tribute to those Irish who fought for Mexico in the 1800s. There is a monument to Los Patricios in the fort of Churubusco. During the Potato Famine, thousands of Irish immigrants entered the country, today, over 90,000 Irish descendants live in Mexico. Other Mexicans of Irish descent are: Romulo O'Farril, Juan O'Gorman, Edmundo O'Gorman, Anthony Quinn, Alejo Bay (Governor of the state of Sonora), Guillermo Purcell a businessman, former Miss Mexico Judith Grace Gonzalez, among many others. Today, the Irish community in Mexico is a thriving one and is mainly concentrated in Mexico City and the northern states. The province of Coahuila and Texas in 1833, showing the major land grants Mexican Texas is the given name by Texas history scholars to the period between 1821 and 1836, when Texas was governed by Mexico. ... Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ... The Saint Patricks Battalion (Spanish: Batallón de San Patricio) was a unit of several hundred Irishmen, Germans, Scotsmen and other European Catholics who deserted the United States Army and fought as part of the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to... Heroic Naval Military Academy cadets Mexicos armed forces number about 300,000. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Mexico is a country in North America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. ... General Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. ... // Between the time of Emperor Agustín de Iturbides abdication (March 19, 1823) and Guadalupe Victorias assumption of the office of President (October 10, 1824), there was a brief period when the executive power of the government was held by a committee. ... Central Plaza and Catedral del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús on Hidalgo Avenue Ciudad Obregón (locally known as Obregón) is the second largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and is situated 525 km south of the states border with the U.S. state... For other people named Anthony Quinn see Anthony Quinn (disambiguation) Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican/American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... Juan OGorman (1905 - 1982) was a Mexican artist, both a painter and an architect. ... Edmundo OGorman (* November 24, 1906 in Mexico City – + September 28, 1995 in Mexico City) was a Mexican writer, historian and philosopher. ... For other people named Anthony Quinn see Anthony Quinn (disambiguation) Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican/American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... Alejo Bay was born in Alamos, Mexico in 1891 and was a famous Irish Mexican political leader. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...


Other American Countries

In the wake of the mid 17th century Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Oliver Cromwell deported many Irish prisoners of war into slavery or indentured labour in Caribbean tobacco plantations. Most of these forced migrants ended up in Barbados, Monserrat or Jamaica (Tom McDermot was an Irish campaigner there against colonialism and slavery). In addition, many of the Irish Catholic landowning class in this period migrated voluntarily to the West Indies to avail of the business opportunities there occasioned by the trade in sugar, tobacco and cotton. They were followed by landless Irish indentured labourers, who were recruited to serve a landowner for a specified time before receiving freedom and land. The descendants of some Irish immigrants are known today in the West Indies as redlegs. Many of the Wild Geese, expatriate Irish soldiers who had gone to Spain, or their descendants, continued on to its colonies in South America. Many of them rose to prominent positions in the Spanish governments there. In the 1820's, some of them helped liberate the continent. Bernardo O'Higgins was the first president of Chile. When Chilean troops occupied Lima during the War of the Pacific in 1881, they put in charge certain Patricio Lynch, whose grandfather came from Ireland to Argentina and then moved to Chile. Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... National motto: Each Endeavouring, All Achieving Location of Montserrat Official language English Political status Non-sovereign, Overseas territory of the U.K Capital Plymouth (abandoned) Governor Deborah Barnes Jones Chief Minister John Osborne Area   - Total   - % water Ranked n/a 91 km² Negligible Population   - Total (2003)   - Density Ranked n/a   - 9... Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. ... The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Patricio Lynch (1825-1886) Chilean naval officer, was born in Valparaiso on the 18th of December 1825, his father being a wealthy Irish merchant resident in Chile, and his mother, Carmen Solo de Saldiva, a descendant of one of the best-known families in the country. ...


Traditions of Ireland

There are many tradtions in Ireland but the most popular of these is the "kiss me im irish" rule, this being on Saint Patricks Day you kiss an irish-man for luck, almost like catching a leprechaun is lucky. The "luck" is still per say "lucky" one week from Saint Patricks Day this meaning you have one week to kiss and irish-man to be lucky. In Ireland it is considered Rude not to oblige if asked.


South Africa

Nineteenth-century South Africa did not attract mass Irish migration, but Irish communities are to be found in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Kimberley, and Johannesburg, with smaller communities in Pretoria, Barberton, Durban and East London. A third of the Cape's governors were Irish, as were many of the judges and politicians. Both the Cape Colony and the Colony of Natal had Irish prime ministers: Sir Thomas Upington, "The Afrikaner from Cork"; and Sir Albert Hime, from Kilcoole in County Wicklow. Irish Cape Governors included Lord Macartney, Lord Caledon and Sir John Francis Cradock. Irish settlers were brought in small numbers over the years, as from other parts of the United Kingdom. Henry Nourse, a shipowner at the Cape, brought out a small party of Irish settlers in 1818. In 1823, John Ingram brought out 146 Irish from Cork. Single Irish women were sent to the Cape on a few occasions. Twenty arrived in November 1849 and 46 arrived in March 1851. The majority arrived in November 1857 aboard the Lady Kennaway. A large contingent of Irish troops fought in the Anglo-Boer War on both sides and a few of them stayed in South Africa after the war. Others returned home but later came out to settle in South Africa with their families. Between 1902 and 1905, there were about 5,000 Irish immigrants. Place names in South Africa include Upington, Porteville, Caledon, Cradock, Sir Henry Lowry's Pass, the Biggarsberg Mountains, Donnybrook and Belfast. Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ... Nickname: The Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (blue) within the Eastern Cape (dark grey) within South Africa Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality Founded 1820 Incorporated (Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality) 2001 Government  - Executive Mayor Nondumiso Maphazi  - Municipal Manager Graham Richards Area  - City 1,845 km²  (712. ... The Big Hole, a prominent tourist attraction in Kimberley Kimberley is a town in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Barberton, Mpumalanga, South Africa () is situated in the De Kaap Valley and is surrounded by the Mkhonjwa Mountains. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... East London Town Hall East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, Xhosa: eMonti) is a city on the southeast coast of South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province at 32. ... The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. ... Thomas Upington (1844 - 1898) born in Cork, Ireland was a British administrator in South Africa. ... This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O293080 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 8 m (26 ft) Population (2002) 2,826  Kilcoole (Irish: , meaning Church of Comghaill) is a village in County Wicklow, Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wicklow Code: WW Area: 2,024 km² Population (2007) 114,676 Website: www. ... George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, KB (14 May 1737 - 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. ... Silhouette of the 2nd Earl of Caledon Du Pre Alexander, 2nd Earl of Caledon (December 14, 1777 - April 8, 1839) was an Irish peer, landlord and colonial administrator, and was the second child and only son of James Alexander, 1st Earl of Caledon. ... John Caradoc, 1st Baron Howden (1759–1839), was a British peer and soldier. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Upington from the Air Upington is a town founded in 1871 and located in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, on the banks of the Orange River. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Caledon Caledon is a town in the Western Province in South Africa. ... Cradock is a town of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, in the upper valley of the Great Fish River, 181 mi. ... Belfast is a small town in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (not to be confused with Belfast in Limpopo, South Africa located at ). The town is renowned for its excellent trout fishing conditions. ...


External links: Irish Police in SA & Research in SA


Australia

Main article: Irish Australian

Irish Australians form the second largest ancestry group in Australia, numbering 1,919,727 or 9.0 per cent of respondents in the 2001 Census. Irish Australian is the third largest ethnic group in Australia, after Australian and English. ...


It is not clear whether the Irish-born are considered "Irish Australians" or if the term only refers to their Australian-born descendants. The 2001 Census recorded 50,320 Irish-born in Australia, although this is a minimal figure as it only includes those who wrote in "Ireland" or "Republic of Ireland" as their country of birth. Responses which mentioned "Northern Ireland" as birthplace were coded as "United Kingdom". This interpretation may omit as few as 21,500 Irish-born present in the country, as many as 29,500, or possibly even more. Nevertheless the number of persons born in Ireland, north and south, resident in Australia in 2001 may be confidently extrapolated at around 75,000.


According to the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs White Paper on Foreign Policy, there were 213,000 Irish citizens living in Australia in 1997; nearly three times the number of Irish-born immigrants to the country. Most Irish Australians, however, do not have Irish citizenship and define their status in terms of self-perception, affection for Ireland and an attachment to Irish culture. A foreign minister is a cabinet minister that helps to form foreign policy for sovereign nations. ... Irish nationality law is the law of the Republic of Ireland governing citizenship. ... A page from the Book of Kells. ...


Irish settlers - both voluntary and forced - were crucial to the Australian colonies from the earliest days of settlement. The Irish first came over in large numbers as convicts (50,000 were transported between 1791 and 1867), to be used as free labour; even larger numbers of free settlers came during the nineteenth century, partly due to the Donegal Relief Fund. Irish immigrants accounted for one-quarter of Australia's overseas-born population in 1871. Their children, the first Irish Australians in the sense we understand the term, played a definitive role in shaping Australian history, society and culture. Historian Patrick O'Farrell noted in The Irish in Australia (1987) that the term "Australia first" became "what amounted to the Australian Irish Catholic slogan". These Australians of Irish background did not tend to regard Ireland as their "mother country" - primarily because few had a wish to return to a home they had left in search of a better life. Rather, they tended to identify themselves as Australians. This article is about people who have been convicted of a crime. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... Patrick OFarrell, historian of Catholic Australia was born in Greymouth, New Zealand in 1933. ...


According to census data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004, Irish Australians are, by religion, 46.2% Roman Catholic, 15.3% Anglican, 13.5% other Christian denomination, 3.6% other religions, and 21.5% as "No Religion". Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


The high percentage of Catholics is largely the result of descendants of Irish immigrants. Today, those people include Nicole Kidman and Paul Hogan. Nicole Mary Kidman (born June 20, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning Australian [1] actress. ... For other persons named Paul Hogan, see Paul Hogan (disambiguation). ...


See also - Biographies

Politicians

Obregón's grandfather is said to have been an Irish railroad worker named O'Brian. Mexico's Obregón city and airport are named in honour of the president.
Guevara's father, Ernesto Guevara Lynch, said of him: "The first thing to note is that in my son's veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels". On March 13, 1965, the Irish Times journalist Arthur Quinlan interviewed Che at Shannon Airport during a stopover flight from Prague to Cuba. Guevara talked of his Irish connections through the name Lynch and of his grandmother's Irish roots in Galway. Later, Che, and some of his Cuban comrades, went to Limerick City and adjourned to the Hanratty's Hotel on Glentworth Street. According to Quinlan, they returned that evening all wearing sprigs of shamrock, for Shannon and Limerick were preparing for the St. Patrick's Day celebrations.

Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) (1870/75-1940/46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... Don Ambrosio OHiggins Neale, Marquis of Osorno (es: Ambrosio OHiggins, marqués de Osorno) (1720?, Ballinary, County Sligo, Ireland—1801) born Ambrose OHiggins (Ó hUigínn, in Gaelic), was a colonial Governor of the Capitancy General of Chile, part of the Spanish Empire. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Sligo Code: SO Area: 1,837 km² Population (2006) 60,894[1] Website: www. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Louis Stephen St. ... In modern Quebec many Quebecers are partly of Irish descent, making them Irish Quebecers. ... Chaim Herzog (‎, born Vivian Herzog, September 17, 1918 – April 17, 1997) served as the sixth President of Israel (1983–1993), following a distinguished career in both the British Army and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... John, Robert, and Edward Kennedy The Kennedy family is a prominent family in American politics and government descending from the marriage of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... Reagan redirects here. ... General Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. ... // Between the time of Emperor Agustín de Iturbides abdication (March 19, 1823) and Guadalupe Victorias assumption of the office of President (October 10, 1824), there was a brief period when the executive power of the government was held by a committee. ... Central Plaza and Catedral del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús on Hidalgo Avenue Ciudad Obregón (locally known as Obregón) is the second largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and is situated 525 km south of the states border with the U.S. state... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Irish Times is Irelands newspaper of record, launched in the late 1850s. ... Arthur Quinlan is a print journalist for the Irish Times, formerly based at Shannon Airport. ... Shannon Airport (IATA: SNN, ICAO: EINN), or Aerfort na Sionna in Irish is one of Irelands primary three airports (Dublin, Shannon, Cork). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... The Shamrock Oxalis acetosella as The Shamrock The shamrock, an unofficial symbol of Ireland and Boston, Massachusetts, is a three-leafed old white clover, sometimes (rarely nowadays) Trifolium repens (white clover, known in Irish as seamair bhán) but more usually today Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí). However... James Duane (February 6, 1733–February 1, 1797) was a lawyer, jurist, and revolutionary leader from New York. ... The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of the government of New York City, as stipulated by the Charter of the City of New York. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ... Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is a United States politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor of Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... John James Charest, PC, LL.B., MNA, known as Jean Charest IPA: (born June 24, 1958) is a Canadian lawyer and politician from the province of Quebec. ... Dalton James Patrick McGuinty, Jr. ... McGee in 1868 Thomas DArcy McGee, PC, (April 13, 1825 – April 7, 1868) was a Canadian journalist and Father of Confederation. ... Young Ireland was an Irish nationalist revolutionary movement, active in the mid-nineteenth century. ...

Artists and Musicians

Michael Ryan Flatley (born July 16, 1958 in Detroit, Michigan) is an Irish-American step dancer from the south side of Chicago. ... Riverdance Promotional Poster Riverdance is a theatrical show consisting of traditional Irish step dancing, notable for its rapid leg movements while body and arms are kept largely stationary. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist, poet, entrepreneur, painter, record producer, film producer and animal-rights activist. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... For other persons named George Harrison, see George Harrison (disambiguation). ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... Springsteen redirects here. ... Liam Gallagher (born William John Paul Gallagher on September 21, 1972, Burnage, Manchester, England) is an English singer and tambourine player of the band Oasis. ... Noel Thomas David Gallagher (born May 29, 1967 in Longsight, Manchester, England) is an English songwriter, guitarist and occasional vocalist with the Manchester rock band Oasis. ... Oasis are an English rock band, formed in Manchester in 1991, led by lead guitarist and primary songwriter Noel Gallagher and his younger brother, lead vocalist and songwriter Liam Gallagher. ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... For the similarly-named American actress, see Jean Kelly. ... For the Mika song, see Grace Kelly (song). ... Juan OGorman (1905 - 1982) was a Mexican artist, both a painter and an architect. ... For other persons named John Wayne, see John Wayne (disambiguation). ... Maureen OHara Maureen OHara (born Maureen FitzSimons) on August 17, 1920 is an Irish film actress. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... For other people named Anthony Quinn see Anthony Quinn (disambiguation) Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican/American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... John Lydon John Joseph Lydon (born January 31, 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten (a nickname derived from the state of his teeth) was the iconoclastic lead singer of the Sex Pistols and Public Image Ltd (PiL) and an Irish individualist anarchist. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... Colin Meloy in Atlanta, Georgia Colin Meloy in Brussels (2006) Colin Patrick Henry Meloy (born October 5, 1974) is the lead singer and songwriter for the Portland, Oregon, folk-rock band The Decemberists. ... The Decemberists are a five-piece indie pop band from Portland, Oregon, fronted by singer/songwriter Colin Meloy . ... Lafcadio Hearn, aka Koizumi Yakumo. ... Mike Joyce (born Michael Joyce on 1 June 1963) is a drummer from Fallowfield, Manchester, England. ... Johnny Marr (born John Martin Maher on 31 October 1963 in Ardwick, Manchester) is a prolific English guitarist, keyboardist, harmonica player and singer. ... For other uses, see Morrissey (disambiguation). ... Andy Rourke (born 17 January 1964) is a bass guitarist and guitar player from Manchester, England. ... The Smiths were an English rock band active from 1982 to 1987. ... William Maher, Jr. ... George Denis Patrick Carlin[15] (born May 12, 1937) is a Grammy-winning American stand-up comedian, actor, and author. ... Comedy Central is an American cable television and satellite television channel in the United States. ... Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director, and actress. ...

Scientists

Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Dame Kathleen Lonsdale (January 28, 1903 - April 1, 1971) was a prominent crystallographer, who discovered the planar hexagonal structure of benzene. ... The Front Quad University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (October 6, 1903 – June 25, 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with atom-smashing experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic...

Misc

Ellen Cashman (1845-January 4, 1925), better known as Nellie Cashman, was a native of County Cork, Ireland, who became famous across the United States west as a caretaker and gold prospector. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ... The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation incorporated in Michigan and based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty, promote international understanding, and advance human achievement. ... Margaret (Molly) Brown Margaret Tobin Brown (July 18, 1867 - October 26, 1932), also known as The Unsinkable Molly Brown, was an American socialite, philanthropist and activist who became famous as one of the survivors of the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... Louise OMurphy by Francois Boucher c. ... Louis XV King of France and Navarre Louis XV (February 15, 1710 - May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was king of France from 1715 to 1774. ... Mary Jemison (1743–1833) was an American frontierswoman and an adopted [Seneca Nation|Seneca]. Mary Jemison was born to Thomas and Jane Jemison aboard the ship William and Mary in the fall of 1743 while en route from Northern Ireland to America. ... For other uses, see Seneca. ... Margaretta Alexandra Eagar, also known as Margaret Eagar, (August 12, 1863 - 1936), was a nurse for the four daughters of Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra. ... For other uses, see Ned Kelly (disambiguation). ... Annie Moore was the first immigrant to be processed through the newly opened Ellis Island. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States from January 1, 1892 until November 12, 1954. ... James Cardinal Gibbons (July 23, 1834 - March 24, 1921) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Baltimore from 1877 until his death, and in 1886 became the second man from the United States to be made a Cardinal. ... Count Joseph Cornelius ORourke (1772-1849) was a Russian nobleman and military leader who fought in the Napoleonic Wars. ... The term Leib Guard (Russian: , from German leib, meaning body) collectively distinguished military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia. ... Martin Marty Maher (? - 1961) was an Irish immigrant who joined the United States Army and rose to the rank of master sergeant. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Kathy Griffin (born November 4, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning American stand-up comedienne, Producer, and actress. ... DUNLAP, John, printer, born in Strabane, Ireland, in 1747; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 27 November, 1812. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ...

See also - Irish Brigade

The Irish Brigade was a brigade in the French army composed of Irish exiles. ... The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... The Saint Patricks Battalion (Spanish: Batallón de San Patricio) was a unit of several hundred Irishmen, Germans, Scotsmen and other European Catholics who deserted the United States Army and fought as part of the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... This article is about the unit of the United States Army during the Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Tyneside Irish Brigade was a British First World War infantry brigade of Kitcheners Army, raised in 1914. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ...

See also - Causes of Irish emigration

Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... The Penal laws in Ireland (Irish: Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual... The Irish Famine of 1740-41 (or The Potatocaust) was perhaps of similar magnitude to the better-known Great Famine of 1847-49. ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ... The Irish famine of 1879 was the last main Irish famine. ... // History until the Enlightenment The first settlers in Ireland were seafarers who survived largely by fishing, hunting and gathering. ... The Irish pound (punt) served as the Republics currency from 1928 until 2002. ... The Anglo-Irish Trade War (also called the Economic War) was a retalitory trade war between the Irish Free State and the United Kingdom lasting from 1933 until 1938. ...

See also - General

The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a European ethnic group who originated in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Irish Americans are residents or citizens of the United States who claim Irish ancestry. ... Irish Canadians are people of Irish descent living in Canada or born as native Canadians. ... In modern Quebec many Quebecers are partly of Irish descent, making them Irish Quebecers. ... Newfoundland and Ireland In modern Newfoundland, many Newfoundlanders are partly of Irish descent. ... Newfoundland Irish (Irish: Gaeilge Talamh an Éisc) is a dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland and widely spoken until the mid-20th century. ... The Irish community in Britain are residents of Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) whose birth place and/or ancestry originates in the island nation of Ireland. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... This is a partial or incomplete list of places in countries other than Ireland named after places in Ireland. ... In the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. ... The Liverpool Irish is a unit of the British Territorial Army, raised as infantry in 1860 and transferred to the Royal Artillery as an anti-aircraft regiment in 1947. ... Against the Wind was a 1978 Australian television mini-series. ... Irish Migration Studies in Latin America (IMSLA) is an open access journal dedicated to the links between Ireland and Latin America. ... Count Joseph Cornelius ORourke (1772-1849) was a Russian nobleman and military leader who fought in the Napoleonic Wars. ...

References

  • Gerard Ronan - The Irish Zorro: The Extraordinary Adventures of William Lamport (1615-1659)
  • The Story of the Irish in Argentina, by Thomas Murray (1919)
  • The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, edited by Michael Glazier, University of Notre Dame Press , 1999, ISBN 0-268-02755-2
  1. ^ Ireland's population. en.wikipedia.org.
  2. ^ Tim Pat Coogan, "Wherever Green Is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora", Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
  3. ^ Scotsman Newspaper, The night Che Guevara came to Limerick, Sun 28 December 2003
  4. ^ The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, edited by Michael Glazier, University of Notre Dame Press , 1999, ISBN 0-268-02755-2
  5. ^ The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, edited by Michael Glazier, University of Notre Dame Press , 1999, ISBN 0-268-02755-2
  6. ^ The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, edited by Michael Glazier, University of Notre Dame Press , 1999, ISBN 0-268-02755-2
  7. ^ The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, edited by Michael Glazier, University of Notre Dame Press , 1999, ISBN 0-268-02755-2

Timothy Patrick Coogan is an Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and was appointed editor of the Irish Press newspaper in 1968. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Ulster American Folk Park (Irish: Daonpháirc Uladh-Mheiriceá) is an open-air museum in Castletown, just outside Omagh, in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. ... , Omagh (from the Irish: An Ómaigh meaning The Sacred (or Virgin) Plain) is the county town of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Irish language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7481 words)
Irish (Gaeilge), a Goidelic language spoken in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Australia, Canada, and the United States, is constitutionally recognised as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland.
Irish is given recognition by the Constitution of Ireland as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland (with English being a second official language), despite the limited distribution of fluency among the population of that country.
Munster Irish is spoken in the Gaeltachtaí of Kerry (Contae Chiarraí), Muskerry (Múscraí), Cape Clear (Oileán Chléire) in the western part of County Cork (Contae Chorcaí), and the tiny pocket of Irish-speakers in An Rinn near Dungarvan (Dún Garbháin) in County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge).
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Who were the first Irish to land on the American continent and the time of their arrival are perhaps matters of conjecture rather than of historical proof; but that the Irish were there almost at the beginning of the colonial era is a fact support by historical records.
While men of the Irish race were engaged on the battlefield in defence of their adopted country, accompanied and encouraged by the clergy, the religious orders of women within the Church were no less diligent in nursing the sick and wounded in camps and hospitals.
To the American-born son of Irish immigrants, Dr. Joseph O'Dwyer, humanity the world over is indebted for the process of intubation of the larynx in cases of diphtheria and the invention of the instruments used in that operation.
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