FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Irish Republicanism
Irish Political History series
REPUBLICANISM

Republicanism
- in Ireland
- in Northern Ireland
Irish republican legitimatism
Physical force republicanism
See also List of IRAs
for organisation claiming that name.

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Ireland-up. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... In 1921, Ireland was partitioned. ... Irish republican legitimatism is a term that may be used to describe a current within Irish republicanism that denies the legitimacy of the political entities of Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and argues that the Irish Republic continues to exist. ... Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... The IRA (Irish Republican Army) is a name used to describe several paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries. ...


Key documents
Proclamation of the Republic
Declaration of Independence
Message to Free Nations
Democratic Programme
Dáil Constitution
Anglo-Irish Treaty
External Relations Act 1936
Bunreacht na hÉireann
Republic of Ireland Act 1948
The Green Book
New Ireland Forum Report
Anglo-Irish Agreement
Good Friday Agreement
Articles 2 & 3 The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... The Declaration of Independence was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21st January, 1919. ... In 1919 the First Dáil issued a Message to the Free Nations of the World. ... The Democratic Programme was a declaration of economic and social principles adopted by the First Dáil at its first meeting on 21st January, 1919. ... The Constitution of Dáil Éireann (Irish: Bunreacht Dála Éireann), more commonly known as the Dáil Constitution, was a short, provisional constitution adopted by the First Dáil in January 1919. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... The Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936 was an enactment of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament) in 1936. ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949[1] and which declared that the official description of the Irish state was to be the Republic of Ireland. ... The IRA Green Book is a training and induction manual issued by the Irish Republican Army to new volunteers. ... The New Ireland Forum was established in Ireland in 1983 by then Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald to discuss ways of bringing peace and stability to the whole of Ireland, and the structures and processes through which this might be achieved. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ...


Parties & Organisations
Aontacht Éireann
Clan na Gael
Clann na Poblachta
Communist Party of Ireland
Cumann na mBan
Cumann na Poblachta
Cumann Poblachta nahÉ
Córas na Poblachta
Fianna Éireann
Fianna Fáil · Ind FF
Irish Citizen Army
Irish National Invincibles
INLA
Irish Republican Army
Anti-Treaty IRA
Continuity IRA
Official IRA
Provisional IRA
Real IRA
IRB · ISRP · IRSP
Official Sinn Féin
Red Republican Party
Republican Congress
Republican Sinn Féin
Saor Éire
Sinn Féin
United Irishmen
Workers Party ·
Young Ireland
32CSM
See also: Party youth wings Aontacht Éireann was a short lived Irish political party founded by Kevin Boland (former Fianna Fail government minister) after his resignation from that party in 1971. ... With Irish immigration to the United States of America in the 18th_century there arose Irish ethnic organizations. ... Clann na Poblachta (literally meaning Family of the Republic) was an Irish republican political party founded by former IRA Chief of Staff Sean MacBride in 1946. ... The Communist Party of Ireland (CPI; Irish: Páirtí Cumannach na hÉireann) is a small all-Ireland Marxist party. ... Cumann na mBan (IPA: ; literally Womens League) was an Irish republican womens paramilitary organisation formed in April 1914 as an auxiliary of the Irish Volunteers (IV). ... Cumann na Poblachta (League of the Republic in English) was an Irish republican political party. ... Cumann Poblachta na hÉireann was a political party established by the Irish Republican Army in 1936. ... Córas na Poblachta (Republican Plan in English) was a minor Irish republican political party founded in 1940. ... A recruitment poster for the now-defunct Fianna Éireann group associated with Provisional Sinn Féin. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Independent Fianna Fáil was a splinter republican party created by Neil Blaney after his expulsion from Fianna Fáil following the Irish Arms Crisis (1969-1970). ... The Irish Citizen Army`s Starry Plough banner. ... Irish National Invincibles usually known as the Invincibles was largely composed of former Irish Republican Brotherhood members operating independently of the IRB. They planned to kill the Permanent Under Secretary at the Irish Office Thomas Henry Burke and it was Chief Secretary for Ireland Lord Frederick Cavendishs misfortune that... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The split in Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Army following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921 led to the emergence of group of Anti-Treatyites, sometimes referred to as the Irregulars, who continued to use the name Irish Republican Army (IRA) or in Irish Óglaigh... The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation that emerged from a split in the Provisional IRA in 1986. ... The term Official IRA relates to one of the two elements of the Irish Republican Army - the other being the Provisional IRA - that emerged from the ideological split in the Irish Republican movement in 1969-70. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... The Real Irish Republican Army, otherwise known as the Real IRA (RIRA), is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation founded before the signing of the 1998 Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement by former members of the Provisional IRA who opposed the latters 1997 cease-fire and acquiescence in the Agreement in... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... The Irish Socialist Republican Party was an Irish political party founded in 1896 by James Connolly. ... Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) describes itself as a republican socialist party and claims to be both Marxist-Leninist and republican. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Workers Party of Ireland. ... The Red Republican Party was a small socialist organisation in Ireland. ... The Republican Congress was an Irish Republican political organisation founded in 1934, when left wing republicans left the Irish Republican Army. ... Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a political party[2] operating in Ireland. ... Saor Éire (meaning Free Ireland) was a left-wing political organisation established in September 1931 by communist-leaning members of the Irish Republican Army, with the backing of the IRA leadership. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Society of the United Irishmen was a political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought independence from Great Britain. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... Young Ireland was an Irish nationalist revolutionary movement, active in the mid-nineteenth century. ... The 32 County Sovereignty Movement (often abbreviated to 32CSM or 32csm) is an Irish republican political organisation favouring a united Ireland and British withdrawal from Northern Ireland. ...


Publications
An Phoblacht · Daily Ireland
Irish Press · Sunday Press
Republican News · Saoirse
The Nation· United Irishman
Wolfe Tone Weekly
An Phoblacht is the official newspaper of Provisional Sinn Féin in Ireland. ... Daily Ireland was an Irish daily newspaper which existed from January 2005 to September 2006 to cover news stories from an Irish republican viewpoint. ... The Irish Press was an Irish newspaper published by Irish Press plc between 1931 and 1995. ... The Sunday Press was a weekly newspaper published in Ireland from 1949 until 1995. ... An Phoblacht/Republican News is the official newspaper of the Republican movement in Ireland. ... SAOIRSE Irish Freedom is the monthly organ of Republican Sinn Féin. ... The Nation was an Irish nationalist newspaper, published in the 19th century, co-founded by Thomas Davis and Charles Gavan Duffy, its first editor. ... This article is about the newspaper. ... The Wolfe Tone Weekly (1937–1939) was an Irish republican newspaper, edited by Brian OHiggins. ...


Strategies
Abstentionism
Éire Nua
Armed Struggle
Armalite and Ballot Box
TUAS
Abstentionism is the policy of seeking election to a body while refusing to take up the seats or even sitting in an alternative assembly. ... Éire Nua, or New Ireland, was a political strategy of the Provisional IRA and its political wing Sinn Féin during the 1970s and early 1980s. ... Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... The armalite and the ballot box strategy was pursued by the Irish Republican movement in the 1980s and early 1990s, a strategy where elections in Northern Ireland and the Republic were contested by Sinn Féin, while the IRA continued to pursue a paramilitary struggle against the British army, the... Tuas is largely an industrial zone located in the western part of Singapore. ...


Symbols
The Tricolour · Easter Lily French tricolour flag A tricolour is a flag or banner having three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or vertically) and lacking additional symbols. ... The Easter Lily is an artificial paper badge worn around Easter by Irish republicans chiefly as symbol of remembrance for Irish combatants who died during or were executed after the 1916 Easter Rising. ...


Other movements & links
Loyalism {{IrishL}}
Monarchism {{IrishM}}
Nationalism {{IrishN}}
Unionism {{IrishU}}
This article does not cite its references or sources. ... King George V, the first monarch to reign in the Irish Free State. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in...

This box: view  talk  edit


Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent republic, whether as a unitary state, a federal state or as a confederal arrangement.[1] An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In 1800 the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland following an English led takeover invasion. The development of nationalist and democratic sentiment throughout Europe was reflected in Ireland in the emergence of republicanism, in opposition to British rule. Discrimination against Roman Catholics and a feeling that Ireland was economically disadvantaged in the United Kingdom were among the specific factors leading to such opposition. This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... This box:      Most broadly, discrimination is the discernment of qualities and rejection of subjects with undesirable qualities. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


In Irish history and politics, it is common to draw a distinction between nationalism and republicanism. The term nationalism is used for any manifestation of national sentiment, including cultural manifestations; for movements demanding autonomy from Britain but not complete independence; and sometimes for secessionist movements committed to constitutional methods. The term republicanism denotes movements demanding complete independence under a republican government. It is frequently associated with a willingness to use force to achieve political goals (see Physical force Irish republicanism), and often, but not always, with a secular or non-sectarian outlook, whereas Irish nationalism is almost universally associated with Catholicism. Most frequently, Irish republicanism is also associated with left-wing politics, as many of the key Irish Republican thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries were avowed socialists and/or Marxists. Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...

Contents

History

See also Irish nationalism Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ...


Irish republicanism was born in the late eighteenth century. The republican revolutions in France and United States during the late 18th century influenced radical Irish people, who wanted democratic reforms, more independence from Britain and an end to discrimination against Catholics. The United Irishmen were the first group to advocate an independent Irish republic. With military aid from the republican government in France, they organized the failed Irish Rebellion of 1798. Theobald Wolfe Tone famously summarised the inclusive agenda of republicanism as the uniting of Catholic, Protestant and Dissenter. Thereafter, republicanism was to play a central part in the development of Irish nationalism. For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Society of the United Irishmen was a political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought independence from Great Britain. ... Combatants United Irishmen French First Republic Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Commanders Local leaders, General Humbert Cornwallis Lake Strength  ? Various, at peak mid-June c. ... Theobald Wolfe Tone, commonly known as Wolfe Tone (June 20, 1763 – November 19, 1798) was a leading figure in the United Irishmen Irish independence movement and is regarded as the father of Irish republicans. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ...


After the Act of Union in 1801 merging Ireland with Britain into the United Kingdom, Irish independence movements were suppressed by the British. Nationalist rebellions against British rule in 1848 (by the Young Irelanders) and 1865 and 1867 (by the Irish Republican Brotherhood) were followed by harsh reprisals by British forces. The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Young Ireland was a Irish nationalist revolutionary movement, active in the mid nineteenth century. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ...


In 1916 the Easter Rising was launched in Dublin against British rule. Even though the rebellion failed and most of its leaders were executed by the British, it was to be a turning point in history, leading to the end of British rule in most of Ireland. Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ...


From 1919-1921 a newly organized guerrilla army, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) led by Michael Collins fought against British forces. During the Anglo-Irish War (or War of Irish Independence) the British sent paramilitary police, the "Black and Tans" and the Auxiliary Division, to help the British army and Royal Irish Constabulary. These groups committed atrocities which included killing captured POWs and Irish civilians viewed as being sympathetic to the IRA. The most infamous of all their actions was the burning of half the city of Cork in 1920 and the Bloody Sunday massacre of 1920. These atrocities, together with the popularity of the republican ideal, and British repression of republican political expression, led to widespread support across Ireland for the Irish rebels. This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... For other senses of the term, see Black and tan (disambiguation). ... The Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary, generally known as the Auxiliaries or Auxies, was a paramilitary organization within the RIC during the Anglo-Irish War. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... Bloody Sunday of 1920 was a day of violence in Dublin on November 21, 1920, during the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921), which led to the deaths of more than 30 people. ...


In 1921 the British government led by David Lloyd George negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty with Collins and the other republican leaders, ending the war. David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ...


Irish Republicanism in independent Ireland

The Irish Free State

Main articles: Anglo-Irish War and Anglo-Irish Treaty

Though many across the country were unhappy with the Anglo-Irish Treaty (since, during the Anglo-Irish war, the IRA had fought for independence for all Ireland and for a republic, not a partitioned dominion under the British crown), most republicans were satisfied that the Treaty was the best that could be achieved at the time. However, a substantial minority opposed it. Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary Irish parliament, voted by 64 votes to 57 to ratify it, the majority believing that the treaty created a new base from which to move forward. Éamon de Valera, who had served as President of the Irish Republic during the war, refused to accept the decision of the Dáil and led the opponents of the treaty out of the House. The IRA itself split between pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty elements, with the former forming the nucleus of the new National Army. An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ...


Michael Collins became Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. Shortly afterwards, some dissidents, apparently without the authorisation of the anti-Treaty IRA Army Executive, occupied the Four Courts in Dublin and kidnapped a pro-Treaty general. The government, responding to this provocation and to intensified British pressure following the assassination by an IRA unit in London of Sir Henry Wilson, ordered the regular army to take the Four Courts, thereby beginning the Irish Civil War. The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna in Irish) in Dublin is the Republic of Irelands main courts building. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, Bt. ... Combatants Irish Republican Army Irish Free State Army Commanders Rory OConnor Oscar Traynor Michael Collins Strength 200 in Four Courts c. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ...


It is believed that Collins continued to fund and supply the IRA in Northern Ireland throughout the civil war but, after his death, W.T. Cosgrave (the new President of the Executive Council) discontinued this support. Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ...


By May 1923, the war (which had claimed more lives than the War of Independence) had ended in the defeat of the Irregulars. However, the harsh measures adopted by both sides, including assassinations of politicians by the Republicans and executions and atrocities by the Free State side, left a bitter legacy in Irish politics for decades to come.


De Valera, who had strongly supported the Republican side in the Civil War, reconsidered his views while in jail, and came to accept the ideas of political activity under the terms of the Free State constitution. However, he and his supporters failed to convince a majority of the anti-treaty Sinn Féin of these views and the movement split again. In 1926, he formed a new party called Fianna Fáil (Soldiers of Destiny). In 1932 he was elected President of the Executive Council of the Free State and began a slow process of turning the country from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic, thus fulfilling Collins' prediction of "the freedom to achieve freedom". Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a...


By then, the IRA was engaged in confrontations with the Blueshirts, a quasi-fascist group led by a former War of Independence and pro-Treaty leader, General Eoin O'Duffy. O'Duffy looked to Fascist Italy as an example for Ireland to follow. Several hundred supporters of O'Duffy briefly went to Spain to volunteer on the Nationalist side in the Spanish Civil War, and a smaller number of IRA members, communists and others participated on the Republican side. Although by the start of WW2 some Republicans had formed ties with Nazi Germany some would argue that this was more for strategic (anti-British) rather than ideological reasons. The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


In 1937 the Constitution of Ireland was written by the De Valera government; the Constitution claimed jurisdiction over the whole of Ireland and, with an elected Irish President, diminished the role of the King as Ireland's head of state to the purely ceremonial. Although de Valera claimed Ireland was a republic in every way except in name, legally the country was still a British "dominion" like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, or South Africa. Furthermore, the claim to the whole of the island did not reflect practical reality and probably further entrenched Unionist opposition. Despite the successive splits of 1922 and 1926, the remainder of the IRA rejected all compromise with political realities and continued to consider themselves to be original and sole Republican Movement. The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great...


Republic of Ireland

Main article: History of the Republic of Ireland

Ireland finally became a republic in 1949 when the Republic of Ireland Act came into effect. This finally severed constitutional connection with Britain or The Commonwealth. In 1955 the Republic joined the United Nations and in 1973 joined the European Economic Community (now the European Union) in a move designed to bring Ireland closer to British politics and other European nations. The state known today as the Republic of Ireland came into being when twenty-six of the counties of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom (UK) in 1922. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949 and which declared that the official description of Ireland was to be the Republic of Ireland. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Nowadays the Republic of Ireland and Britain are close partners in trade and commerce. Today all the dominant political parties in Britain, and the Republic of Ireland support Democracy and the state's constitution including the Republic of Ireland Act of 1948.This friendship extends to open travel between the countries as basic i.d cards are only required for crossings between the states.


See also: Irish Republicanism in Northern Ireland. In 1921, Ireland was partitioned. ...


Republican political parties in Ireland

Parties in favour of the Good Friday Agreement

  • Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Rough translation: Soldiers of Destiny). A populist party, it is Ireland's largest and most successful political organisation and is currently the main partner in the Republic's coalition government. Its origins are in the 1926 split of the anti-treaty fraction of the original Sinn Féin. Anti-Treaty activists who decided to end abstention from Dáil Éireann left Sinn Féin to form a constitutional republican party, Fianna Fáil, led by anti-Treaty leader Eamon de Valera. Until recently membership was not open to residents of Northern Ireland. Its new northern members regularly meet informally as the Northern Fianna Fáil Forum. Some within the party advocate formally organising on a thirty two county basis either in its own right or by merging with a party in Northern Ireland, preferably the Social Democratic and Labour Party.
  • Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party (Rough translation: family of the Irish), a nationalist organisation with roots in the pro-treaty tradition in Irish politics, also supported the Good Friday Agreement as did all parties in the Dáil at the time.
  • Sinn Féin is now Northern Ireland's biggest republican party and throughout the Northern Ireland troubles was closely allied with the Provisional IRA, publicly arguing for the validity of its violent campaign. Its policy platform combines staunch nationalism with socialist views on economic issues. It is led by Gerry Adams, and organises in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Previously known as Provisional Sinn Féin, the current organisation has its origins in the 1970 split between that group and Official Sinn Féin. In 1986 it reversed its original policy of not taking seats in Dáil Éireann. By the late 1990s it had replaced the SDLP as Northern Ireland's largest nationalist party. It currently holds a small number of seats in the British parliament, a modest number in the Dáil, and a large number in Northern Ireland's provincial assembly. Sinn Féin members elected to the British parliament refuse to take their seats in Westminster and are elected on an abstentionist basis, as they refuse to accept the right of that body to rule in any part of Ireland.
  • Workers' Party of Ireland - After the IRA split in 1970 between the Provisional IRA and the Official IRA, Sinn Féin split as well between those who supported the leadership's Marxist line and more traditional republicans who supported Seán Mac Stiofáin and the Provisional IRA. In 1972 after a two-year armed campaign, the Official IRA called a ceasefire. Official Sinn Féin , in 1977, changed its name to Sinn Féin - The Workers' Party and in 1982 to simply The Workers Party. The Workers Party engaged in a Marxist-Leninist platform stressing "class politics", hoping to attract working-class Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland away from sectarian politics. However their efforts yielded little electoral success in Northern Ireland, where the party has performed very poorly at the polls.

The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, usually referred to as Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ; approximate English translation: Family/Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland with a membership of over 34,000, and is the largest opposition party in... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... Provisional Sinn Féin is an Irish republican political party which evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in the late 1960s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Workers Party of Ireland. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... Seán Mac Stiofáin (17 February 1928- 18 May 2001) was an Irish republican and first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. // Childhood Although he used the Gaelicised version of his name in later life, Mac Stiofáin was born an only child as John Edward Drayton Stephenson...

Parties opposed to the Good Friday Agreement

  • Republican Sinn Féin Does not take part in parliamentary elections in either the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland because it views both as illegitimate. It is linked to the Continuity IRA, whose goals are the overthrow of British rule in Northern Ireland and the unification of the island to form an independent country. They are led by former Sinn Féin leader Ruairí Ó Brádaigh who led radicals in a break with Sinn Féin in 1986 to create the party.

Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a political party[2] operating in Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) is an Irish republican paramilitary group that split from the Provisional IRA in 1986 in a dispute over the attendance of the elected representatives of Sinn Féin (the political party affiliated to the Provisional IRA) at Dáil Éireann (the lower house of... Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (born 1932) is an Irish republican. ... Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) describes itself as a republican socialist party and claims to be both Marxist-Leninist and republican. ... Seamus Costello (1939 - 1977) was a leader in Sinn Féin and the Official Irish Republican Army. ... For the Olympic athlete, see James Connolly (athlete) James Connolly James Connolly (June 5, 1868 - May 12, 1916) was an Irish nationalist and socialist leader. ... The Irish Socialist Republican Party was an Irish political party founded in 1896 by James Connolly. ... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... For the Olympic athlete, see James Connolly (athlete) James Connolly James Connolly (June 5, 1868 - May 12, 1916) was an Irish nationalist and socialist leader. ... Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street, Dublin (Oisín Kelly 1977) James (Big Jim) Larkin (Irish: Séamas Ó Lorcáin)(1874-1947), an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, was born in Liverpool, England on 28 January 1874, of Irish parents. ...

Footnotes

The New Ireland Forum was established in Ireland in 1983 by then Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald to discuss ways of bringing peace and stability to the whole of Ireland, and the structures and processes through which this might be achieved. ...

See also

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

External Links

Sinn Fein Republican Sinn Fein Irish Republican Socialist Movement IrishRepublican.net


  Results from FactBites:
 
Physical force Irish republicanism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (864 words)
Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present.
The tensions between the democratic features of the new Irish Republic proclaimed by the First Dáil, the Army of the Republic (The Irish Republican Army), and the secretive Irish Republican Brotherhood, reached a head in 1921 with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty which created an independent Irish dominion known as the Irish Free State.
The Irish Republican Army (1922-1969) and its political wing, Sinn Féin went through periodic splits, most dramatically in 1969 when two IRAs emerged, the Official IRA and the Provisional IRA, along with two Sinn Féins; Sinn Féin - Gardiner Place or Official Sinn Féin and Sinn Féin - Kevin St or Provisional Sinn Féin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m