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Encyclopedia > Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
(Óglaigh na hÉireann)
Participant in Irish War of Independence

The Seán Hogan Flying column during the War of Independence.
Active 19181923
Leaders IRA Army Council
Headquarters Dublin
Strength ~100,000 enrolled by 1918, ~15,000 effectives (maximum strength including front-line and support personnel) of whom ~3,000 served as fighters at any one time
Opponents British Empire


The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann), sometimes known later as the Old IRA, was a military organisation descended from the Irish Volunteers which was recognised in 1919 by Dáil Éireann as the legitimate army (from the perspective of Irish republicans) of the unilaterally declared Irish Republic, the Irish state proclaimed in the Easter Rising in 1916 and reaffirmed by the Dáil in January 1919. In Irish, it was referred to as Óglaigh na hÉireann. Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... Image File history File links Flying Column, West Cork Brigade, during the War of Independence. ... Seán Hogans IRA Flying Column during the Irish War of Independence. ... A Flying column, in military organization pre-dating World War I, is an independent corps of troops usually composed of all arms, to which a particular task is assigned. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IRA Army Council is the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA, a paramilitary group dedicated to bringing about the end of the Union between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... The IRA (Irish Republican Army) is a name used to describe several paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries. ... Irish Volunteers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The only true Óglaigh na hÉireann is the Irish Republican Army, which is under the direction of the Continuity Army Council. ...


Though a series of organisations later claimed to be a continuation of the IRA from the 1920s to today, many Irish people disagree with these claims. After the signature of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921, members of the IRA who supported the Treaty formed the nucleus of the National Army founded by IRA leader Michael Collins in 1922. While the anti-Treaty IRA continued to exist after its defeat in the Irish Civil War, by the late 1930s it had lost most of the legitimacy with which most supporters of the Republican side initially regarded it. A small minority of Irish people accepts later claimants to the name as the political heirs of the original Irish Republican Army, though none had their claims accepted by Dáil Éireann. Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... The Irish Defence Forces encompass the army, navy, air force and reserve forces of the Republic of Ireland. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ...


To distinguish between the army of the Irish Republic, and later claimants to the name, the original army recognised by the Dáil is sometimes called the Old IRA.

Contents

Origins

Physical force Irish republicanism as an ideology had a long history, from the United Irishmen of the 1798 and 1803 rebellions, to the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 and the Irish Republican Brotherhood rebellion of 1867. In addition, the methods of the IRA were to some extent inspired by the traditions of militant agrarian Irish secret societies like the Defenders, the Ribbonmen and the supporters of the Irish Land League. Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... The Society of the United Irishmen was a political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought independence from Great Britain. ... (Redirected from 1798 rebellion) The Irish Rebellion of 1798 or 1798 rebellion as it is known locally, was an uprising in 1798, lasting several months, against the British establishment in Ireland. ... Robert Emmet Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 – 20 September 1803) was an Irish nationalist rebel leader. ... The Young Irelander Rebellion or Famine Rebellion of 1848 was a failed uprising of the Young Ireland political movement, which took place on July 29, 1848 in the village of Ballingarry in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... Bold textItalic textLink title{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2, cell 1 | row 2, cell 2 | row 2, cell 3 |} Block quote Note: This was originially a subsection of Fenian Brotherhood. ... The Defenders were a militant agrarian secret society in 18th century Ireland, who were involved in the 1798 rebellion. ... Ribbonism, whose adherents were usually called Ribbonmen refers to the secret associations among 19th century lower class rural Irish Catholics, organised in opposition to Orangeism. ... The Irish painter Henry Jones Thaddeus enlisted the conscience of the propertied classes with the sentimental realism of La retour du bracconier (The Wounded Poacher), exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1881, at the height of the Irish Land War The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of...


The acronym IRA was first used by the IRB organization in America (also known as the Fenian Brotherhood). This "Irish Republican Army" of the 1860s comprised the American Fenians' paramilitary forces, organized into a number of regiments. Fenian soldiers wearing IRA insignia fought at the Battle of Ridgeway on 2 June 1866. However the term Irish Republican Army in its modern sense was first used in the second decade of the 20th century for the rebel forces of the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizens Army during the Easter Rising. It was subsequently, and most commonly, used for those Volunteers who fought a guerrilla campaign in 1919–1921 in support of the Irish Republic declared in 1919. The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish nationalist organization based in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. ... Battle of Ridgeway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Irish Volunteers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Irish Citizen Army, or ICA, is a small band of trained members for the defense of worker’s rights. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ...


Background—Home Rule and the Volunteers

The political violence that broke out in Ireland between 1916 and 1923 had its origins in Irish nationalist demands for Home Rule within the UK and British Empire and unionist resistance to these demands. By 1914, this issue was at an impasse, with the British government prepared to concede Home Rule or self government to Ireland. This led to the formation of unionist and nationalist armed militias, respectively, the Ulster Volunteer Force and the Irish Volunteers. Image File history File linksMetadata James_Connolly_Socialist. ... Image File history File linksMetadata James_Connolly_Socialist. ... James Connolly (Irish: ; June 5, 1868 – May 12, 1916) was an Irish socialist leader. ... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland. ... Irish Volunteers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The Government of Ireland Act 1914, more generally known as the Third Home Rule Act, was an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament in May 1914 which sought to give Ireland regional self-government within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Although it received Royal Assent in September 1914, its implementation was postponed until after the First World War, amid fears that opposition to home rule by Irish Unionists and illegal gun-running by the Ulster Volunteer Force and the Irish Volunteers would lead to civil war. To look at the Home Rule Bill 1912-1914 we must first look back to 1909. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the 1801 Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created... In March 1914 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith introduced his Home Rule Bill for Ireland into the House of Commons. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland. ...


The standoff was temporarily averted by the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. The Irish Volunteers split. The National Volunteers, with over 100,000 members led by Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond were prepared to accept British promises to deliver Home Rule and about 20,000 of them served in the war in the British Army. However about 12,000 Volunteers, led by Eoin MacNeill and dominated by the secret Irish Republican Brotherhood, refused to join the British war effort and kept the name Irish Volunteers. Whereas MacNeill intended to use force only to resist the imposition of conscription on Ireland, the IRB men intended to launch an armed rebellion in pursuit of Irish independence. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The National Volunteers is the name taken by the group of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the group split in the wake of the question of the Volunteers role in World War I. While Redmond took no role in the creation of... The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... John Redmond, MP John Edward Redmond (September 1, 1856 – March 6, 1918) was the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Eoin MacNeill (May 15, 1867 - October 15, 1945) was an Irish scholar, nationalist and revolutionary. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ...


A smaller organisation, the Irish Citizen Army—originally a worker's defence association under socialist James Connolly—independently planned their own rebellion. To avoid confusion, the IRB co-opted Connolly onto their supreme council in 1915. McNeill, however was never told of the planned insurrection. The Irish Citizen Army`s Starry Plough banner. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... James Connolly (Irish: ; June 5, 1868 – May 12, 1916) was an Irish socialist leader. ...


Easter Rising

Main article: Easter Rising
The Proclamation of the Republicread by Pádraig Pearse outside the GPO in 1916.
The Proclamation of the Republic
read by Pádraig Pearse outside the GPO in 1916.
Pádraig Pearse
head of the 'Provisional Government' proclaimed in the Easter Rising

Weapons were supplied by Germany under the auspices of a leading human rights campaigner, Sir Roger Casement—including over 20,000 rifles and 10 machine guns. However, the plot was discovered on 21 April 1916 and the weapons were lost when the ship carrying them, the Aud, was scuttled to prevent the arms from falling into the hands of the British. Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The Easter Proclamation of 1916. ... The Easter Proclamation of 1916. ... The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... Patrick Pearse Patrick Henry Pearse (known as Pádraig Pearse or by his Irish name Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais) (November 10, 1879 – May 3, 1916) was a teacher, poet, writer and political activist who led the Irish Easter Rising in 1916. ... Photo of Patrick Pearse claim fair use b/c of unreproducable historical nature of the photo This work is copyrighted. ... Photo of Patrick Pearse claim fair use b/c of unreproducable historical nature of the photo This work is copyrighted. ... Patrick Pearse Patrick Henry Pearse (known as Pádraig Pearse or by his Irish name Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais) (November 10, 1879 – May 3, 1916) was a teacher, poet, writer and political activist who led the Irish Easter Rising in 1916. ... Roger David Casement (Irish: ;[1] 1 September 1864 – 3 August 1916), known as Sir Roger Casement, CMG between 1905 and July 1916, was an Irish patriot, poet, revolutionary and nationalist by inclination. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Au. ...


The Rising broke out on 24 April 1916. However, Eoin MacNeill, the Volunteer leader found out about the plot at the last minute and issued countermanding orders to Volunteer units around the country. As a result, less than 2,000 Volunteers out of 12,000 turned out. The IRB plan was to seize a compact area of central Dublin and launch simultaneous Risings around the country. In the event, the rising consisted of a week's street fighting in the Irish capital after which the rebels surrendered. The British used overwhelming force, including over 16,000 troops, artillery, and a naval gunboat, to put down the rebellion. Over half the 500 or so killed were civilians caught in the crossfire. is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Eoin MacNeill (May 15, 1867 - October 15, 1945) was an Irish scholar, nationalist and revolutionary. ...


The leaders seized the General Post Office (GPO), raising a green flag bearing the legend "Irish Republic", and proclaiming independence for Ireland. While the Rising later became a celebrated episode for Irish nationalists, it was very unpopular at the time. The rebel Volunteers were a minority faction among Irish nationalists and up to 200,000 Irishmen were serving on the British side in the First World War. Moreover, the public largely blamed the rebels for the death and destruction caused in the fighting. There were calls for the execution of the "ringleaders" in the major Irish nationalist daily newspaper, the Irish Independent, and local authorities also sought the ringleaders. After the Rising, Dubliners spat, threw stones at them, and emptied chamber pots down on the rebels as they were marched towards the transport ships that would take them to the Welsh internment camps. General Post Office in 2006. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Irish Independent is Irelands best-selling daily newspaper. ... Stacked chamber pots A chamber pot (also a john, a chamberpot, a jordan, a po (from French pot de chambre) or simply a potty) consists of a bowl-shaped container with a handle kept in the bedroom under a bed or in the cabinet of a nightstand and used as... This article is about the country. ...


However, public opinion dramatically shifted to the rebels' side in the next two years. Initially, this was caused by the revulsion over the summary executions of 16 senior leaders—some of whom, such as James Connolly, were too ill to stand—and of other people thought complicit in the rebellion. As one observer described, "the drawn-out process of executing the leaders of the rising, it was like watching blood seep from behind a closed door." Opinion shifted even more in favour of the Republicans in 1917–18 with the Conscription Crisis, an attempt by Britain to impose conscription on Ireland to bolster its flagging war effort. By 1917, this was extremely unpopular in Ireland due to heavy casualties on the Western Front. For the Olympic athlete, see James Connolly (athlete) James Connolly James Connolly (June 5, 1868 - May 12, 1916) was an Irish nationalist and socialist leader. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1918 (Ireland) stemmed from a move by the Government of the United Kingdom to impose conscription in Ireland, and contributed to pivotal events in early 20th century politics in Ireland, galvanising popular support for parties favouring devolution from the United Kingdom. ...


A small nationalist Irish party, Sinn Féin, was widely, but wrongly, credited with orchestrating the Easter Rising although its leader Arthur Griffith in fact advocated Irish self government under a dual monarchy. The Republican survivors of the Rising, under Éamon de Valera, infiltrated and took over Sinn Féin in 1917 and committed the party to founding an Irish Republic. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... King George V, the first monarch to reign in the Irish Free State. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ...

Cathal Brugha, TD
Príomh Aire (January–April 1919)
Long-term Minister for Defence and rival to Michael Collins.

From 1916 to 1918, the two dominant nationalist movements, Sinn Féin and the Irish Parliamentary Party, fought a tough series of battles in by-elections. Neither won a decisive victory; however, the Conscription Crisis tipped the balance in favor of Sinn Féin. The party went on to win a clear majority of seats in the 1918 general election: of the 73 seats in which Sinn Féin were elected, 25 were uncontested. The Sinn Féin MPs withdrew from the British Parliament and declared an Irish Republic, with themselves as the legitimate government. They met in their own parliament, which they called the Dáil. Image File history File links Cathal Brugha (image before 1922) from postcard issued when he was killed. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ... The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ...


In this new position of strength, the Irish Volunteers, who had been swollen to over 100,000 men in the conscription crisis, were re-organised as the army of this Republic. Hence they began to refer to themselves as the Irish Republican Army.


The emergence of the IRA after the Easter Rising

The first steps towards reorganizing the defeated Irish Volunteers were taken on 27 October 1917 when a convention took place in Dublin. This convention, that subsequently became known as an IRA convention, was called to coincide with the Sinn Féin party conference. is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Nearly 250 people attended the convention; internment prevented many more from attending. In fact, the Royal Irish Constabulary estimated that 162 companies of volunteers were active in the country, although other sources suggest a higher figure of 390. This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ...


The proceedings were presided over by Éamon de Valera, who had been elected President of Sinn Féin the previous day. Also on the platform were Cathal Brugha and many others who were prominent in the reorganising of the Volunteers in the previous few months, many of them ex-prisoners. Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ...


De Valera was elected president. A national executive was also elected, composed of provincial representatives (including Dublin). In addition, a number of directors were elected to head the various IRA departments. Those elected were: Michael Collins (Director for Organisation); Diarmuid Lynch (Director for Communications); Michael Staines (Director for Supply); Rory O'Connor (Director of Engineering). Seán McGarry was voted General Secretary, while Cathal Brugha was made Chairman of the Resident Executive, which in effect made him Chief of Staff. Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Michael Staines (1885-1955) was an Irish republican and politician. ... Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (d. ...


The other elected members were: M. W. O'Reilly (Dublin); Austin Stack (Kerry); Con Collins (Limerick); Seán MacEntee (Belfast); Joe O'Doherty (Donegal); Paul Galligan (Cavan); Eoin O'Duffy (Monaghan); Seamus Doyle (Wexford); Peadar Bracken (Offaly); Larry Lardner (Galway); Dick Walsh (Mayo) and another member from Connacht. There were six co-options to make-up the full number when the directors were named from within their ranks. The six were all Dublin men: Eamonn Duggan; Gearóid O'Sullivan; Fintan Murphy; Diarmuid O'Hegarty; Dick McKee and Paddy Ryan. Austin Stack (December 7, 1879 - April 27, 1929) was an Irish revolutionary. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... (Cornelius) Con Collins was an Irish Sinn Féin politician. ... This article is about the capital of County Limerick in Ireland. ... Seán MacEntee (1889 – 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference G924789 Statistics Province: Ulster County: Population ( ) 2,339 (2006) Website: www. ... Look up Cavan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... For other uses, see Monaghan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Irish town. ... County Offaly (Irish: Uíbh Fhailí) is a county in Leinster, Ireland, bordered by seven other counties: Galway, Roscommon, Westmeath, Meath, Kildare, Laois, and Tipperary. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... Dick Drug Walsh (1878 - 1958) was a famous Irish sportsperson who played hurling for Mooncoin and Kilkenny in the 1900s. ... Places called Mayo include:hi County Mayo, a county in Ireland Mayo, a settlement in County Mayo, Ireland Mayo, a place in the U.S. state of Florida Mayo, a town in Trinidad and Tobago The Division of Mayo, an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia Mayo, a town in... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... Eamonn Duggan (1874- June 6, 1936) was an Irish lawyer, nationalist and politician. ... Gearóid OSullivan (1891–5 August 1994) was an Irish teacher, army officer, barrister and Sinn Féin and Fine Gael politician. ... Diarmuid OHegarty was an Irish revolutionary and civil servant. ... Richard “Dick” McKee (Irish name Risteárd Mhic Aodha; 4 April 1893 - 21 November 1920) was a prominent member of the Irish Republican Army. ...


Of the 26 elected, six were also members of the Sinn Féin National Executive, with Éamon de Valera president of both. Eleven of the 26 were elected Teachta Dála in the 1918 general election and 13 in the May 1921 election. A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1918 held on 14th December 1918, after the Representation of the People Act 1918. ...


Dáil Éireann and the IRA

Main article: First Dáil

Sinn Féin MPs elected in 1918 fulfilled their election promise not to take their seats in Westminster but instead set up an independent "Assembly of Ireland", or Dáil Éireann, in the Irish language. On January 21, 1919, this new, unofficial parliament assembled in the Mansion House in Dublin. As its first acts, the Dáil elected a prime minister (Priomh Aire), Cathal Brugha, and inaugurated a ministry called the Aireacht. In theory, the IRA was responsible to the Dáil and was the army of the Irish Republic. In practice, the Dáil had great difficulty controlling the actions of the Volunteers. The First Dáil (Irish: ) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921. ... The First Dáil (Irish: ) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mansion House on Dawson Street, Dublin, is the official residence of the Lord Mayor of Dublin and has been since 1715. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ... The ireacht was the name of the cabinet or ministry in the D il Constitution passed by the First D il of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ...

Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera

The new leadership of the Irish Republic worried that the IRA would not accept its authority, given that the Volunteers, under their own constitution, was bound to obey their own executive and no other body.[1] The fear was increased when, on the very day the new national parliament was meeting, 21 January 1919, the South Tipperary IRA volunteer unit, acting on their own initiative, seized a quantity of gelignite, and two Royal Irish Constabulary constables (James McDonnell and Patrick O'Connell) were killed in the process by Seán Tracy and Dan Breen. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gelignite, also known as Blasting gelatin, is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in nitroglycerine and mixed with wood pulp and sodium or potassium nitrate. ... Sean Tracy was one of the leaders of the Tipperary Brigade of the IRA. He organized ambushes, recruited new troops, and fought the British. ... Dan Breen Daniel Breen (August 11, 1894–December 27, 1969) was an Irish republican fighter and a Fianna Fáil politician. ...


Technically, the men involved were considered to be in a serious breach of IRA discipline and were liable to be court-martialed, but it was considered more politically expedient to hold them up as examples of a rejuvenated militarism. The conflict soon escalated into guerrilla warfare by what were then known as the Flying Columns in remote areas. Attacks on remote Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) barracks continued throughout 1919 and 1920, forcing the police to consolidate defensively in the larger towns, effectively placing large areas of the countryside in the hands of the Republicans. “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... A Flying Column was the name given to mobile armed units of the Irish Republican Army during the War of Independence 1919-1921. ...

Richard Mulcahy.Mulcahy and Cathal Brugha helped redefine the relationship between the Aireacht and the IRA.
Richard Mulcahy.
Mulcahy and Cathal Brugha helped redefine the relationship between the Aireacht and the IRA.

Moves to make the IRA the army of the Dáil and not its rival had begun before the January attack, and were stepped up. On 31 January the IRA organ, An t-Óglách published a list of principles agreed between two representatives of the Áireacht, acting Príomh Aire Cathal Brugha and Richard Mulcahy and the Executive. It made first mention of the organisation treating "the armed forces of the enemy—whether soldiers or policemen—exactly as a national army would treat the members of an invading army".[2] Image File history File links General Richard Mulcahy, TD in 1923. ... Image File history File links General Richard Mulcahy, TD in 1923. ... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ...


An article in An tÓglách stated that


"The Irish Government claims the same power and authority as any other lawfully constituted Government; it sanctions the employment by the Irish Volunteers of the most drastic measures against the enemies of Ireland . . . England must be given the choice of evacuating the country or holding it by foreign garrison, with a perpetual state of war in existence."[citation needed]


In the statement the new relationship between the Aireacht and the IRA was defined clearly.

  • The Government was defined as possessing the same power and authority as a normal government.
  • It, and not the IRA, sanctions the IRA campaign;
  • It explicitly spoke of a state of war.

As part of the ongoing strategy to take control of the IRA, Brugha proposed to Dáil Éireann on 20 August 1919 that the Volunteers were to be asked, at this next convention, to swear allegiance to the Dáil. He further proposed that members of the Dáil themselves should swear the same oath. On 25 August Collins wrote to the Príomh Aire, Éamon de Valera, to inform him "the Volunteer affair is now fixed".[3] This article is about the current Irish body. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Though this was "fixed" at one level, another year passed before the Volunteers took an oath of allegiance to the Irish Republic and its government, "throughout August 1920".[4]


A power struggle continued between Brugha and Collins, both cabinet ministers, over who had the greater influence. Brugha was nominally the superior as Minister for Defence, but Collins's powerbase came from his position as Director of Organisation of the IRA and as his key powerbase as a member of the Supreme Council of the IRB. De Valera too resented Collins's clear power and influence, which he saw as coming from the secretive IRB than from his position as a Teachta Dála (TD) and minister in the Aireacht. Brugha and de Valera both urged the IRA to undertake larger, more conventional military actions for the propaganda effect, but were ignored by Collins and Mulcahy. Brugha at one stage proposed the assassination of the entire British cabinet. This was also discounted due to its presumed negative effect on British public opinion. Moreover, many members of the Dáil, notably Arthur Griffith did not approve of IRA violence and would have preferred a campaign of passive resistance to British rule. The Dáil belatedly accepted responsibility for IRA actions in April 1921, just three months before the end of the Irish War of Independence. A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...


In practice, the IRA was commanded by Collins, with Richard Mulcahy as second in command. These men were able to issue orders and directives to IRA guerrilla units around the country and at times to send arms and organisers to specific areas. However, because of the localised and irregular character of the war, they were only able to exert limited control over local IRA commanders such as Tom Barry, Liam Lynch in Cork and Seán Mac Eoin in Longford. Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ... Tom Barry is also the name of an Academy Award-nominated screenwriter. ... For other people named Liam Lynch see Liam Lynch Liam Lynch (9 November 1893 - 10 April 1923) was an IRA officer in the Irish War of Independence and the commanding general of the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army during the Irish Civil War. ... General Seán Mac Eoin (1893 – July 7, 1973) was an Irish Fine Gael politician and soldier. ...


The War of Independence

Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...

IRA campaign and organisation

See also: Chronology of the Irish War of Independence This page aims to give a chronology of actions in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ...


The IRA fought a guerrilla war against the Crown forces in Ireland from 1919 to July 1921. The most intense period of the war was from November 1920 to July 1921. The IRA campaign can broadly be split into three phases. The first, in 1919, involved the re-organisation of the Irish Volunteers as a guerrilla army. Organisers such as Ernie O'Malley were sent around the country to set up viable guerrilla units. On paper, there were 100,000 or so Volunteers enrolled after the conscription crisis of 1918. However, only about 15,000 of these participated in the guerrilla war. In 1919, Collins, the IRA's Director of Intelligence, organised the "Squad"—an assassination unit based in Dublin which killed police involved in intelligence work; the Irish playwright Brendan Behan's father Stephen Behan was a member of this squad. Typical of Collin's sardonic sense of humour, the squad was often referred to as his "Twelve Apostles". In addition, there were some arms raids on Royal Irish Constabulary barracks for arms. By the end of 1919, four Dublin Metropolitan Police and 11 RIC men had been killed. The RIC abandoned most of their smaller rural barracks in late 1919. Around 400 of these were burned in a co-ordinated IRA operation around the country in April 1920. Irish Volunteers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ernie OMalley (1897-1957) was born in Castlebar, County Mayo, Ireland. ... Brendan Francis Behan (Irish: Breandán Ó Beacháin) (February 9, 1923 - March 20, 1964) was an Irish poet, short story writer, novelist and playwright who wrote in both Irish and English. ... The Squad also known as the Twelve Apostles, were an Irish Republican Army unit founded by Michael Collins to counter the British intelligence efforts during the Irish War of Independence, principally by means of assassination. ... The Dublin Metropolitan Police was formed in 1836, after twenty years of attempts to create an effective policing force in Ireland Rural policing in Ireland began when Chief Secretary for Ireland, Robert Peel created the Peace Preservation Force in 1816. ...


The second phase of the IRA campaign, roughly from January to July 1920, involved attacks on the fortified police barracks located in the towns. Between January and June 1920, 16 of these were destroyed and 29 badly damaged. Several events of late 1920 greatly escalated the conflict. Firstly, the British declared martial law in parts of the country—allowing for internment and executions of IRA men. Secondly they deployed paramilitary forces the Black and Tans and Auxiliary Division and more British Army personnel into the country. Thus, the third phase of the war (roughly August 1920–July 1921) involved the IRA taking on a greatly expanded British force, moving away from attacking well defended barracks and instead using ambush tactics. To this end the IRA was re-organised into "flying columns"—permanent guerrilla units, usually about 20 strong, though sometimes larger. In rural areas, the flying columns usually had bases in remote mountainous areas. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... For other senses of the term, see Black and tan (disambiguation). ... The Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary, generally known as the Auxiliaries or Auxies, was a paramilitary organization within the RIC during the Anglo-Irish War. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ...


While most areas of the country saw some violence in 1919–1921, the brunt of the war was fought in Dublin and the southern province of Munster. In Munster, the IRA carried out a significant number of successful actions against British troops, for instance the ambushing and killing of 17 of 18 Auxiliaries by Tom Barry's column at Kilmicheal in West Cork in November 1920, or Liam Lynch's men killing 13 British soldiers near Millstreet early in the next year. At the Crossbarry Ambush in March 1921, 100 or so of Barry's men fought a sizeable engagement with a British column of 1,200, escaping from the British encircling manoeuvre. In Dublin, the "Squad" and elements of the IRA Dublin Brigade were amalgamated into the "Active Service Unit", under Oscar Traynor, which tried to carry out at least three attacks on British troops a day. Usually, these consisted of shooting or grenade attacks on British patrols. Outside Dublin and Munster, there were only isolated areas of intense activity. For instance, the County Longford IRA under Seán Mac Eoin carried out a number of well planned ambushes and successfully defended the village of Ballinalee against Black and Tan reprisals in a three-hour gun battle. In Mayo, large scale guerrilla action did not break out until spring 1921, when two British forces were ambushed at Carrowkennedy and Tourmakeady. Elsewhere, fighting was more sporadic and less intense. Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Tom Barry is also the name of an Academy Award-nominated screenwriter. ... Combatants Irish Republican Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Tom Barry Francis Crake† Strength 36 IRA volunteers of the West Cork Flying column 18 officers of the RIC Auxiliary Division Casualties 3 dead 17 dead 1 wounded The Kilmichael Ambush on November 28, 1920 was a turning point in the Irish... For other people named Liam Lynch see Liam Lynch Liam Lynch (9 November 1893 - 10 April 1923) was an IRA officer in the Irish War of Independence and the commanding general of the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army during the Irish Civil War. ... Millstreet (Sráid an Mhuilinn in Irish) is a town in west County Cork, Ireland with a population of approximately 1,500. ... Crossbarry Memorial, Crossbarry, County Cork. ... Oscar Traynor (March 21, 1886-December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Longford Code: LD Area: 1,091 km² Population (2006) 34,361 Website: www. ... General Seán Mac Eoin (1893 – July 7, 1973) was an Irish Fine Gael politician and soldier. ... Ballinalee, formerly St Johnstown (Irish: Béal Átha na Lao), is a village in northern County Longford, in the province of Leinster, Ireland. ... Places called Mayo include:hi County Mayo, a county in Ireland Mayo, a settlement in County Mayo, Ireland Mayo, a place in the U.S. state of Florida Mayo, a town in Trinidad and Tobago The Division of Mayo, an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia Mayo, a town in... The Carrowkennedy Ambush was an incident in Irelands War of Independence. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ...


In Belfast, the war had a character all of its own. The area had a Protestant and Unionist majority and IRA actions were responded to with ferocious reprisals against the Catholic population, including killings and the burning of many homes. The IRA in Belfast and the north generally, was therefore mostly involved in protecting the Catholic community from loyalists and state forces. The violence in Belfast alone, which continued long after the truce in the rest of the country, killed around 450 people, mostly civilians. This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... For the township in Canada, see Loyalist, Ontario In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. ...


In April 1921, the IRA was again reorganised, in line with the Dáil's endorsement of its actions, along the lines of a regular army. Divisions were created based on region, with commanders being given responsibility, in theory, for large geographical areas. In practice, this had little effect on the localised nature of the guerrilla warfare. Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ...


In May 1921, the IRA in Dublin attacked and burned the The Custom House. The action was a severe blow to the IRA, who had five killed and eighty captured. The south facade of the Custom House by night The Custom House is a [neoclassical] 18th century building in Dublin, Ireland which houses the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government. ...


By the end of the war, in July 1921, the IRA was very hard pressed by the deployment of more British troops into the most active areas and a chronic shortage of arms and ammunition. It has been estimated that the IRA had only about 3,000 rifles (mostly captured from the British) during the war, with a larger number of shotguns and pistols. An ambitious plan to buy arms from Italy in 1921 collapsed when the money did not reach the arms dealers. Towards the end of the war, some Thompson submachine guns were imported from the United States; however 450 of these were intercepted by the American authorities and the remainder only reached Ireland shortly before the Truce. For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... For the Clash song, see Tommy Gun (song). ...


By June 1921, Collins' assessment was that the IRA was within weeks, possibly even days, of collapse. It had few weapons or ammunition left. Moreover, almost 5,000 IRA men had been imprisoned or interned and over 500 killed. Collins and Mulcahy estimated that the number of effective guerrilla fighters was down to 2,000–3,000. However in the summer of 1921, the war was abruptly ended.


Atrocities on both sides

The Irish War of Independence was a brutal and bloody affair, with violence and acts of extreme brutality on both sides. The British sent hundreds of World War I veterans to assist the RIC. The veterans at first wore a combination of black police uniforms and tan army uniforms (because of shortages), which, according to one etymology, inspired the nickname Black and Tans. The brutality of the "Black and Tans" is now legendary, although the most excessive repression attributed to the Crown's forces was often that of the Auxiliary Division of the Constabulary. One of the strongest critics of the Black and Tans was King George V. When the Lord Mayor of Cork Terence MacSwiney lay dying on hunger strike the King personally intervened to try to get MacSwiney's release from jail. An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The Lord Mayor of Cork is the symbolic head of the local government in the city of Cork in the Republic of Ireland. ... Terence MacSwiney Terence MacSwiney was born in Cork City, County Cork Ireland. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ...

Other critics of British policy included Sir Samuel Hoare, a future British cabinet minister, who said that Image File history File links The Black and Tans File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The Black and Tans File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other senses of the term, see Black and tan (disambiguation). ... Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood GCSI , GBE , CMG , PC (24 February 1880 – 7 May 1959), more commonly known as Sir Samuel Hoare, was a British Conservative politician who served in various capacities in the Conservative and National governments of the 1920s and 1930s. ...

If what is now going on in the Austrian Empire, all England would be ringing with denunciation of the tyranny of the Hapsburgs and of denying people the right to rule themselves.[citation needed]

Typical British reprisals included the burning of houses and businesses, the owners of whom occasionally had no connection to the IRA. In addition, after August 1920, the British began executing IRA prisoners. The IRA responded by killing British prisoners. Spies and suspected spies were shot by the IRA and publicly dumped on roadsides. It has also been alleged that many IRA men took the opportunity to murder people against whom they had local grudges—particularly if they were Protestant loyalists. The worst examples of this occurred after the truce with the British. In the Dunmanway Massacre of April 1922, the IRA in Cork killed ten Protestant informers. In June 1922, Frank Aiken's IRA unit in Armagh killed seven Protestant civilians in Altnaveigh in revenge attacks. Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Protestant Massacre refers to the killings of thirteen Protestant civilians, allegedly by maverick elements of the Irish Republican Army, in West Cork] between 26 April/28 April 1922, apparently triggered by the killing of a member/volunteer of the IRA, Michael ONeill, Acting Officer Commanding of the Bandon... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983) was a senior Irish politician. ...


Perhaps the worst — certainly the most high profile — atrocity of the war took place in Dublin in November 1920, and is still known as Bloody Sunday. In the early hours of the morning, Collins' "Squad" assassinated 14 British agents, some in front of their wives and families. In reprisal, that afternoon, British forces opened fire on a football crowd at Croke Park, killing 14 civilians. Towards the end of the day, two prominent Republicans and a friend of theirs were arrested and killed by Crown Forces. Bloody Sunday of 1920 was a day of violence in Dublin on November 21, 1920, during the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921), which led to the deaths of more than 30 people. ... Croke Park (Irish: Páirc an Chrócaigh) in Dublin, Ireland is the largest sports stadium in Ireland and the principal stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), Irelands biggest sporting organisation. ...


The IRA was also involved in the destruction of many stately homes in Munster. These belonged to prominent Loyalists[5] who were aiding the Crown forces, and were burnt to discourage the British policy of destroying the homes of Republicans, suspected and actual. Many historic buildings in Ireland were destroyed during the war, most famously the Custom House in Dublin, which was disastrously attacked on de Valera's insistence, to the horror of the more militarily experienced Collins. As he feared, the destruction proved a pyrrhic victory for the Republic, with so many IRA men killed or captured that the IRA in Dublin suffered a severe blow. Statistics Area: 24,607. ... The south facade of the Custom House by night The Custom House is a [neoclassical] 18th century building in Dublin, Ireland which houses the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government. ...


This was also a period of social upheaval in Ireland, with frequent strikes as well as other manifestations of class conflict. In this regard, the IRA acted to a large degree as an agent of social control and stability, driven by the need to preserve cross-class unity in the national struggle,[6] and on occasion being used to break strikes.[7]


Assessment

Assessments of the effectiveness of the IRA's campaign vary. The IRA did not in any sense defeat the British military in Ireland. Nor were they ever in a position to engage them in conventional warfare. Richard Mulcahy bemoaned the fact that they had not been able to drive the British, "out of anything bigger than a fairly good size police barracks". On the other hand, the guerrilla warfare of 1919–21 had made Ireland ungovernable except by military means. The political, military and financial costs of remaining in Ireland were higher than the British government were prepared to pay and this in a sense forced them into negotiations with the Irish political leaders. According to historian Michael Hopkinson, the guerrilla warfare, "was often courageous and effective" [8]. Another historian, David Fitzpatrick notes that, "The guerrilla fighters...were vastly outnumbered by the forces of the Crown...the success of the Irish Volunteers in surviving so long is therefore noteworthy" [9]. Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ...


Truce and Treaty

Main article: Anglo-Irish Treaty

David Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, at the time, found himself under increasing pressure (both internationally and from within the British Isles) to try to salvage something from the situation. This was a complete reversal on his earlier position. He had consistently referred to the IRA as a "murder gang" up until then. An unexpected olive branch came from King George V, who, in a speech in Belfast called for reconciliation on all sides, changed the mood and enabled the British and Irish Republican governments to agree to a truce. The Truce was agreed on 11 July 1921. On 8 July, de Valera met General Macready, the British commander in chief in Ireland and agreed terms. The IRA was to retain its arms and the British Army was to remain in barracks for the duration of peace negotiations. Many IRA officers interpreted the truce only as a temporary break in fighting. They continued to recruit and train volunteers, with the result that the IRA had increased its number to over 72,000 men by early 1922. Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The signed last page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty

Negotiations on an Anglo-Irish Treaty took place in late 1921 in London. The Irish delegation was led by Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins. Download high resolution version (433x684, 11 KB)Signature page from the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 From the National Archives of Ireland at [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Anglo-Irish Treaty Categories: UK Government images ... Download high resolution version (433x684, 11 KB)Signature page from the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 From the National Archives of Ireland at [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Anglo-Irish Treaty Categories: UK Government images ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander...


The most contentious areas of the Treaty for the IRA were abolition of the Irish Republic declared in 1919, the status of the Irish Free State as a dominion in the British Commonwealth and the British retention of the so called Treaty Ports on Ireland's south coast. These issues were the cause of a split in the IRA and ultimately, the Irish Civil War. This article is about the prior state. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... After the Irish Free State won independence in 1922, three deep water Treaty Ports, at Berehaven, Queenstown (renamed Cobh) and Lough Swilly, were retained by the United Kingdom as sovereign bases. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ...


Under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, Ireland was partitioned, creating Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. Under the terms of the Anglo-Irish agreement of 6 December 1921, which ended the war (1919–1921), Northern Ireland was given the option of withdrawing from the new state, the Irish Free State, and remaining part of the United Kingdom. The Northern Ireland parliament chose to do so. An Irish Boundary Commission was then set up to review the border. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Irish Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921. ...


Irish leaders expected that it would so reduce Northern Ireland's size, by transferring nationalist areas to the Irish Free State, as to make it economically unviable. Partition was not the key breaking point between pro- and anti-Treaty campaigners; both sides expected the Boundary Commission to emasculate Northern Ireland. Moreover, Michael Collins was planning a clandestine guerrilla campaign against the Northern state using the IRA. In early 1922, he sent IRA units to the border areas and sent arms to northern units. For this reason, the future of Northern Ireland was not the cause of the Irish Civil War. It was only afterwards, when partition was confirmed that a united Ireland became the preserve of anti-Treaty Republicans. The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The IRA and the Treaty

Main article: IRA and the Anglo-Irish Treaty

The IRA leadership was deeply divided over the decision by the Dáil to ratify the Treaty. Despite the fact that Michael Collins—the de facto leader of the IRA—had negotiated the Treaty, many IRA officers were against it. Of the General Headquarters (GHQ) staff, nine members were in favour of the Treaty while four opposed it. Many of the IRA rank-and-file were against the Treaty and in January–June 1922, their discontent developed into open defiance of the elected civilian Provisional government of Ireland. Anti-treaty historian Dorothy Macardle has claimed that 70 to 80 per cent of the IRA was against the Treaty. Although she cannot be regarded as a particularly neutral source, Richard Mulcahy estimated at the outbreak of the civil war that the anti-treaty IRA members outnumbered the pro-treaty ones by over 2–1. The Irish Republican Army was a guerrilla army that fought the Irish War of Independence against Britain from 1919–1921. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Rank-and-file refers to the ordinary members of an organisation, excluding the officers or managers. ... Dorothy Macardle (1899 — 1958) was an Irish author and historian. ... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ...


The anti-Treaty side argued that the IRA's allegiance was to the Dáil of the Irish Republic and the decision of the Dáil to accept the Treaty meant that the IRA no longer owed that body its allegiance. They called for the IRA to withdraw from the authority of the Dáil and to entrust the IRA Executive with control over the army. On 16 January, the first IRA division – the 2nd Southern Division led by Ernie O'Malley – repudiated the authority of the GHQ. A month later, on 18 February, Liam Forde, O/C of the IRA Mid-Limerick Brigade, issued a proclamation stating that: "We no longer recognise the authority of the present head of the army, and renew our allegiance to the existing Irish Republic". This was the first unit of the IRA to break with the pro-Treaty government. Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Ernie OMalley (1897-1957) was born in Castlebar, County Mayo, Ireland. ... James (Seamas)Malone often used the name of Forde because he was a spy for Collins. ...


On 22 March, Rory O'Connor held what was to become an infamous press conference and declared that the IRA would no longer obey the Dáil as it had violated its Oath to uphold the Irish Republic. He went on to say that "we repudiate the Dáil … We will set up an Executive which will issue orders to the IRA all over the country." In reply to the question on whether this meant they intended to create a military dictatorship, O’Connor said: "You can take it that way if you like." is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rory OConnor (1883 - 1922) was an Irish republican activist. ...


On 28 March, the (anti-Treaty) IRA Executive issued statement stating that Minister of Defence (Richard Mulcahy) and the Chief-of-Staff (Eoin O'Duffy) no longer exercised any control over the IRA. In addition, it ordered an end to the recruitment to the new military and police forces of the Provisional Government. Furthermore, it instructed all IRA units to reaffirm their allegiance to the Irish Republic on 2 April. is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ... General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The stage was set for civil war over the Treaty.


Civil War

Main article: Irish Civil War

The pro-treaty IRA soon became the nucleus of the new (regular) Irish National Army created by Collins and Richard Mulcahy. British pressure, and tensions between the pro- and anti-Treaty factions of the IRA, led to a bloody civil war, ending in the defeat of the anti-Treaty faction. Roughly 7,000 to 8,000 of the Free State's National Army were former IRA Volunteers. On the other side, perhaps 15,000 men fought on the anti-Treaty side. On May 24, 1923 Frank Aiken, the (anti-treaty) IRA Chief-of-Staff, who had succeeded General Liam Lynch who had been shot dead by the Free-State forces on the slopes of the Knockmealdown Mountains in April 1923, called a cease-fire. Many left political activity altogether, but a minority continued to insist that the new Irish Free State, created by the "illegitimate" Treaty, was an illegitimate state. They asserted that their "IRA Army Executive" was the real government of a still-existing Irish Republic. The IRA of the Civil War and subsequent organisations that have used the name claim lineage from that group, which is covered in full at Irish Republican Army (1922-1969). The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983) was a senior Irish politician. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ...


For information on later organisations using the name Irish Republican Army, see the table below. For a genealogy of organisations using the name IRA after 1922, see List of IRAs. The IRA (Irish Republican Army) is a name used to describe several paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dorothy MacCardle, The Irish Republic (Corgi, 1968) p.267.
  2. ^ Ibid p.269.
  3. ^ Dwyer, T. Ryle (1999). Big Fellow, Long Fellow: A Joint Biography of Collins and De Valera. St. Martin's Press, p. 782. ISBN 978-0312219192. 
  4. ^ C. Younger, Ireland's Civil War (Frederick Muller, 1968) p. 103.
  5. ^ The Church of Ireland Gazette recorded numerous instances of Unionists and Loyalists being shot, burnt or forced from their homes during the early 1920s. In County Cork between 1920 and 1923 the IRA shot over 200 civilians of whom over 70 (or 36%) were Protestants: five times the percentage of Protestants in the civilian population. This was due to the historical inclination of Protestants towards loyalty to the United Kingdom. A convention of Irish Protestant Churches in Dublin in May 1922 signed a resolution placing "on record" that "hostility to Protestants by reason of their religion has been almost, if not wholly, unknown in the twenty-six counties in which Protestants are in the minority."
  6. ^ "The Politics of Illusion: Republicanism and Socialism in Modern Ireland", Henry Patterson, Hutchinson Radius, 1989: pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-09-174139-4.
  7. ^ Communism in Modern Ireland: The Pursuit of the Workers' Republic since 1916, Mike Milotte, Dublin, 1984, pp. 56–57.
  8. ^ Hopkinson, Irish War of Independence, p.204.
  9. ^ Bartlett, Military History of Ireland, p. 406.
  1. ^ Dorothy MacCardle, The Irish Republic (Corgi, 1968) p.267.
  2. ^ Ibid p.269.
  3. ^ Dwyer, T. Ryle (1999). Big Fellow, Long Fellow: A Joint Biography of Collins and De Valera. St. Martin's Press, p. 782. ISBN 978-0312219192. 
  4. ^ C. Younger, Ireland's Civil War (Frederick Muller, 1968) p. 103.
  5. ^ The Church of Ireland Gazette recorded numerous instances of Unionists and Loyalists being shot, burnt or forced from their homes during the early 1920s. In County Cork between 1920 and 1923 the IRA shot over 200 civilians of whom over 70 (or 36%) were Protestants: five times the percentage of Protestants in the civilian population. This was due to the historical inclination of Protestants towards loyalty to the United Kingdom. A convention of Irish Protestant Churches in Dublin in May 1922 signed a resolution placing "on record" that "hostility to Protestants by reason of their religion has been almost, if not wholly, unknown in the twenty-six counties in which Protestants are in the minority."
  6. ^ "The Politics of Illusion: Republicanism and Socialism in Modern Ireland", Henry Patterson, Hutchinson Radius, 1989: pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-09-174139-4.
  7. ^ Communism in Modern Ireland: The Pursuit of the Workers' Republic since 1916, Mike Milotte, Dublin, 1984, pp. 56–57.
  8. ^ Hopkinson, Irish War of Independence, p.204.
  9. ^ Bartlett, Military History of Ireland, p. 406.

Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ... Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ...

References

  • Tim Pat Coogan, Michael Collins (Hutchinson, 1990) ISBN 0-09-174106-8
  • Tim Pat Coogan, The Troubles (Arrow, 1995, 1996) ISBN 1570980926
  • F.S.L. Lyons, Ireland Since the Famine
  • Dorothy MacCardle, The Irish Republic (Corgi, 1968) ISBN 0-552-07862-X
  • Aengus Ó Snodaigh, May 11/11hist.html IRA Convention meets, An Phoblacht/Republican News, 11 May 2000.
  • Seamus Fox, Chronology of Irish History 1919-1923.
  • Brian Dooley, Black and Green. The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland and Black America (London Press, 1988)
  • Michael Hopkinson, The Irish War of Independence,
  • Ernie O'Malley, On Another Man's Wound
  • ME Collins, Ireland 1868-1966
  • Meda Ryan, Liam Lynch, The Real Chief
  • Tom Barry, Guerrilla Days in Ireland
  • T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins

Timothy Patrick Coogan is an Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and was appointed editor of the Irish Press newspaper in 1968. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also

With Irish immigration to the United States of America in the 18th_century there arose Irish ethnic organizations. ...

External links

  • Reader's Companion to Military History—Irish Republican Army (IRA)

  Results from FactBites:
 
IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY (852 words)
The IRA, initially as an informal group of Irish insurgents, first engaged in guerrilla fighting in the war for independence (1916–21).
The IRA gave qualified approval to the resulting peace plan, which was endorsed by voters in Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic in May 1998; not until November 1999, however, did the organization agree to take part in talks on surrendering its weapons, as required by the accord.
While the IRA maintained the cease-fire, several splinter organizations, including a group calling itself the Real IRA, continued to promote the nationalist cause by violent means.
Irish Republican Army (1852 words)
All claim descent from the orginal 'Irish Republican Army', the 'army' of the Irish Republic declared by Dáil Éireann in 1919.
It is important to differentiate what is termed the 'Old IRA' or the 'Official IRA' from the Provisional IRA (PIRA), a splinter-group which formed in the late 1960s in the wake of the anti-Catholic pogroms, riots and murders (mainly in Belfast and Derry), and which led to the virtual extinction of the original group.
The Irish delegation was led by Arthur Griffith, after de Valera, newly upgraded to a full 'President of the Republic' by the Dáil on his request in August 1921, then insisted that as head of state he could not attend of King George was not leading the British delegation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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