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Encyclopedia > Irish Rebellion of 1641

The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. The rising was sparked off by Catholic fears of an impending invasion of Ireland by anti-Catholic forces of the English Long Parliament and the Scottish Covenanters. In turn, the rebels' association with the King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles I, helped to trigger the start of the English Civil War.poo The Irish rebellion broke out in October 1641 and was followed by several months of violent chaos in Ireland before the Irish Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the "Catholic Confederation" in the summer of 1642. The Confederation was a de facto government of Ireland, loosely aligned with the Royalist side in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The subsequent war continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists and re-conquered the country. A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government against the volonté générale formed by the majority of the citizenry, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between English Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... The Irish Confederate Wars were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Cavaliers were gentlemen supporters of the Royalist cause during the English Civil Wars (1642–1651) For other meanings for see cavalier. ... Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of the English Parliament in 1649. ...

Contents


Causes

The roots of the 1641 rebellion lie in the failure of the English State in Ireland to assimilate the native Irish elite in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest of the country. The pre-Elizabethan Irish population is usually divided into the "Old (or Gaelic) Irish", and the Old English (Ireland), or descendants of medieval Anglo-Norman settlers. These groups were historically antagonistic, with English settled areas such as the Pale around Dublin, south Wexford, and other walled towns being fortified against the rural Gaelic clans. However, by the seventeenth century, the cultural divide between these groups, especially at elite social levels, was declining. For example most Old English lords not only spoke the Gaelic language, but extensively patronised Irish poetry and music, Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis (more Irish than the Irish). Intermarriage was also common. Moreover, in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest, the native population became defined by their shared religion, Roman Catholicism, in distinction to the new Protestant British settlers and the officially Protestant British government of Ireland. During the decades in between the end of the Elizabethan wars of conquest in 1603 and the outbreak of rebellion in 1641, Irish Catholics felt themselves to be increasingly threatened by and discriminated against by the English government of Ireland. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic (Goidelic), an Insular Celtic language. ... The Old English were a wave of early medieval Norman, French, Welsh, English, Breton and Flemish settlers who went to Ireland to claim territory and lands in the wake of the Norman invasion. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Pale or the English Pale comprised a region in a radius of 20 miles around Dublin which the English in Ireland gradually fortified against incursion from Gaels. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland (and the island of Ireland), located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. ... Wexford (Irish: Loch Garman) is the county town of County Wexford in the Republic of Ireland. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Irish (Gaeilge), a Goidelic language spoken in the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada, is constitutionally recognized as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland. ... A 1907 engraving of William Butler Yeats, one of Irelands best-known poets. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Plantations

The 16th and early 17th century English conquest of Ireland was marked by large scale " Plantations", notably in Ulster and Munster. These were mass dispossessions of Irish landowners, usually as punishment for rebellion and the granting of their land to colonists from England and Scotland. The terms of the Plantation, particularly in Ulster, were very harsh on the native population, who were forbidden from owning or renting land in planted areas and also from working there on land owned by settlers. One result of this was the destruction of formerly powerful Irish clans such as the O'Neills and the O'Donnells culminating in an event known as the Flight of the Earls in 1607. Many of the exiles (notably Owen Roe O'Neill) found service as mercenaries in the Catholic armies of Spain and France. They formed an émigré Irish community, militantly hostile to the British Protestant state of Ireland. Another result was the build up of local grudges between natives and settlers at all levels of society that would explode into violence in 1641. Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were the seizure of land owned by the native Irish and granting of it to colonists (planters) from Britain. ... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four provinces of Ireland. ... Munster (Irish: An Mhumhain, IPA: ) is the southernmost province of Ireland, comprising the counties of Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary and Waterford. ... ONeill (also spelled ONeil) is a common surname of Irish origin. ... ODonnell Coat of Arms another ODonnell Coat of Arms HeatherODonnell is my best friend. ... In September 1607, Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory ODonnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell set sail from Rathmullan, a village on the shore of Lough Swilly in County Donegal, with ninety of their followers. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, anglicised as Owen Roe ONeill (c. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... This redirect page has been listed on Wikipedia:Redirects for deletion. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ...


The religious question

Most of the Irish upper classes, however, were not ideologically opposed to the sovereignty of the King of England over Ireland, but wanted to be full subjects of the triple monarchy and maintain their pre-eminent position in Irish society. This was prevented by two factors, firstly their religious dissidence and secondly the threat posed to them by the extension of the Plantations. Protestantism was the official religion of the Three Kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. Non-attendance at Church services was punishable by fines and open practise of another religion by arrest. Catholics could not hold offices of state, or serve in the military. The Irish privy council was dominated by English Protestants. The elections of the Irish Parliament were arranged so as to give Protestants a majority in it by the first decade of the 17th century. Moreover, the Irish Parliament was subordinate to the English Parliament by a 15th century ordinance known as Poynings Law. The Protestant (and therefore settler) dominated Government of Ireland tried to confiscate more land from the native landowners by questioning their medieval land titles and as punishment for non-attendance at Protestant services. In response, Irish Catholics appealed directly to the King, first James I and then Charles I, for full rights as subjects and toleration of their religion. On several occasions, the Monarchs appeared to have reached an agreement with them, granting their demands in return for raising taxes. However, Irish Catholics were disappointed when, on paying the increased levies, the King postponed the implementation of their demands. What was more, by the late 1630s, Thomas Wentworth, Charles’ representative in Ireland was proposing further widespread confiscations of native land in order to break the power of the Irish Catholic upper classes. It is likely that this would eventually have provoked armed resistance from Irish Catholics in any case, but the actual rebellion was pre-empted by the destabilisation of English politics. Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing the splitting away from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe—a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Poynings Law refers to the time when Sir Edward Poyning was sent as viceroy to Ireland by Henry VII of England. ... James VI of Scotland and James I of England and Ireland (Charles James) (June 19, 1566–March 27, 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (April 13, 1593 - May 12, 1641) was an English statesman, a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. ...


Conspiracy

In 1640, Scotland rose in revolt against Charles I’s religious policies, believing them to be too close to Catholicism. The King’s attempts to put down the rebellion militarily failed when the English Long Parliament, which had similar religious concerns to the Scots, refused to vote for new taxes to pay for raising an army. Charles therefore negotiated with Irish Catholics to recruit an Irish army to put down the rebellion in Scotland, in return for the concession of long-standing Irish Catholics' demands. To the Scots and the English Parliament, this appeared to confirm that Charles was a tyrant, who wanted to impose Catholicism on his Kingdoms and to govern without reference to his Parliament. During the early part of 1641, the Scots and Parliamentarians publicly proposed invading Ireland and subduing Catholicism there once and for all. Frightened by this, a small group of Irish Catholic conspirators conceived a plan to take Dublin and other important towns around the country in the name of the King, both to forestall an invasion and to force him to concede the Catholics' demands. Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland (and the island of Ireland), located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. ...


Economic Factors

Economics also contributed to Ireland's slide into rebellion. The Irish economy had hit a recession and the harvest of 1641 was poor. The conspirators like Phelim O'Neill and Rory O'Moore were heavily in debt and risked losing their lands to creditors. What was more, the Irish peasantry were hard hit by the bad harvest and were faced with rising rents. This aggravated their long-standing resentment against the British settlers and contributed to the widespread lootings and killings that followed the rebellion. Colonel Rory (Roger) OMoore (b. ...


The Rebellion

The conspirators were a small group of Irish landowners, mainly Gaelic Irish and from the heavily planted province of Ulster. Hugh MacMahon and Conor Maguire were to seize Dublin Castle, while Phelim O’Neill and Rory O’Moore were to take Derry and other northern towns. The plan, to be executed on the 23rd of October 1641, was to use surprise rather than military force to take their objectives and to then issue their demands, in expectation of support from the rest of the country. However, the plan for a fairly bloodless seizure of power was foiled when the authorities in Dublin heard of the plot from an informer (a Protestant convert named Owen O’Connolly) and arrested Maguire and MacMahon. O’Neill meanwhile successfully took several forts in the north of the country, claiming to be acting in the King’s name. Fairly quickly, the violence spiralled out of the control of men who had instigated it. The English authorities in Dublin over-reacted to the rebellion, believing it to be a general uprising of Irish Catholics aimed at massacring the British and Protestant population. Their response was to send commanders such as Sir Charles Coote and William St Leger (themselves Protestant settlers) to subdue the general population, which they did by assaults on the civilian inhabitants. Meanwhile, in Ulster, the breakdown of state authority prompted widespread assaults by the native Irish population on English and Scottish settlers. Phelim O’Neill and the other insurgent leaders initially tried to stop the attacking of Protestants, but were unable to control the local peasantry - motivated by sectarian and ethnic hatred and by resentment of decades of social and economic subordination to the settlers. Communal violence of this kind spread within months to the rest of the country. Many Irish Catholic lords who had lost lands or feared dispossession joined the rebellion and participated in the assault on the settler population. Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four provinces of Ireland. ... [[the building to the right. ... Sir Felim ONeill of Kinard (died 1652), better known as Phelim ONeill was an Irish nobleman who led the Irish Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster which began on October 22, 1641. ... Colonel Rory (Roger) OMoore (b. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish, Doire or Doire Cholm Chille), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland (and the island of Ireland), located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. ... Sir William St Leger (died 1642) was a grandson of Anthony St Leger. ... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four provinces of Ireland. ... Sir Felim ONeill of Kinard (died 1652), better known as Phelim ONeill was an Irish nobleman who led the Irish Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster which began on October 22, 1641. ... Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


Massacres

The number of Protestants killed in the early months of the uprising is controversial, early Parliamentarian pamphlets claimed that over 100,000 settlers had lost their lives. In fact, recent research has shown that the number is far more modest, in the region of 4000 or so killed, though many thousands were expelled from their homes. It is estimated that up to 12,000 Protestants may have lost their lives in total, the majority dying of cold or disease after being expelled from their homes in the depths of winter. The general pattern around the country was that the violence of the attacks intensified the longer the rebellion went on. At first, there were beatings and robbing of local Protestants, then house burnings and expulsions and finally widespread killings, most of them concentrated in Ulster. In one notorious incident, the Protestant inhabitants of Portadown were taken captive and then massacred on the bridge in the town. The bitterness created by the massacres of 1641 proved extremely long lasting. Ulster Protestants commemorated the anniversary of the rebellion on every October 23 for over two hundred years after the event. Images of the massacres of 1641 are still represented on the banners of the Orange Order. Even today, the killings are thought of by some as an example of attempted genocide. In fact, if the figure of 12,000 deaths is accurate, this would represent less than 10% of the British settler population in Ireland, though in Ulster the ratio of deaths to the settler population would have been somewhat higher. The phrase Parliamentarian can have different meanings based on its context: Most generally something parliamentarian is especially associated with a parliament or parliamentary system The proper noun Parliamentarian is a Member of Parliament, especially one who is particularly adept in the chamber, or an officer of a legislature charged with... Portadown (Port an Dúnáin in Irish, meaning port of the fortress) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Northern Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing...


Modern historians have stressed that the massacres of 1641 had an overwhelming psychological impact on the Protestant settler community. Whereas before the Rebellion, inter-communal relationships had been improving, after it, many Protestants in Ireland took the attitude that the native Irish Catholic community could never be trusted again. This attitude led many settlers to take merciless reprisals on Catholics when they got the chance, particularly in 1642-43 when a Scottish Covenanter army landed in Ulster and during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. In the long term, the cycle of massacres initiated in 1641 polarised Irish politics along sectarian lines. The effects of this can still be seen, particularly in Northern Ireland today. The Covenanters are a radical Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. ... Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of the English Parliament in 1649. ... Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked...


Civil war and Confederation

see also Irish Confederate Wars The Irish Confederate Wars were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. ...


At first, many of the Irish Catholic upper classes were reluctant to join the rebellion, especially the "Old English" community. However, within six months almost all of them had joined the rebellion. There were three main reasons for this. First, local lords and landowners raised armed units of their dependants to control the violence that was engulfing the country, fearing that after the settlers were gone, the Irish peasantry would turn on them as well. Secondly, the English Parliament and the Government of Ireland made it clear that it held all Irish Catholics responsible for the rebellion and murders of Protestants and would punish them accordingly. Thirdly, it looked initially as if the rebels would be successful after they defeated a government force at Julianstown. Charles I was initially hostile to the rebels and sent over a large army to subdue them. The Scots also sent an army to Ulster to defend their compatriots there. However, the quick defeat of the rebels in Ireland was prevented by the outbreak of Civil War in England. Among other issues, the English Parliament did not trust Charles with command of the army raised to send to Ireland, fearing that it would afterwards be used against them. The Old English were a wave of early medieval Norman, French, Welsh, English, Breton and Flemish settlers who went to Ireland to claim territory and lands in the wake of the Norman invasion. ... This is a list of Parliaments of England from the reign of Henry VII to 1707. ... The Battle of Julianstown was fought during the Irish Rebellion of 1641, at Julianstown near Drogheda in eastern Ireland, in November 1641. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between English Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ...


This gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the Catholic Confederation, which would run the Irish Catholic war effort. This was instigated by the Catholic clergy and by landed magnates such as Viscount Gormanstown and Lord Mountgarret. By the Summer of 1642, the rebellion proper was over and was superseded by a conventional war between the Irish Catholics, who controlled two thirds of the country, and the British controlled enclaves in Ulster, Dublin and around Cork in Munster. The following period is known as Confederate Ireland The Confederation sided with the Royalists in return for the promise of self-government and full rights for Catholics after the war. They were finally defeated by the forces of the English Parliament in 1649-52 and land ownership in Ireland passed almost exclusively to Protestants. Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ... Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ... Cavaliers were gentlemen supporters of the Royalist cause during the English Civil Wars (1642–1651) For other meanings for see cavalier. ...


Sources

  • O'Siochru, Micheal, Confederate Ireland 1642-49, Four Courts Press Dublin 1999.
  • Lenihan, Padraig, Confederate Catholics at War 1641-49, Cork University Press, Cork 2001.
  • Ohlmeyer, Jane and Kenyon, John (ed.s), The Civil Wars, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1998.
  • Canny, Nicholas, Making Ireland British 1580-1650, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001.

External links

  • 1641 rebellion BBC HIstory Page
  • http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/irish-uprising-1641.htm Article from site on the Civil Wars

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Irish Uprising 1641 (555 words)
The Irish Uprising of 1641 was a long-term result of the "Plantation" policy of Tudor and Stuart monarchs under which Ireland was colonised by Protestant settlers from England and Scotland.
The rebellion erupted in Ulster on 22 October 1641.
At Westminster, John Pym used the situation to political advantage, implicating the King's ministers in the "conspiracy" and suggesting that the King himself was not to be trusted with control of the army that would be required to quell the rebellion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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