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Encyclopedia > Irish Confederate Wars

The Irish Confederate Wars were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. The Wars were the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms - a series of civil wars in Kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland (all ruled by Charles I of England) that also included the English Civil War and Scottish Civil War. The conflict in Ireland essentially pitted the native Irish Roman Catholics against the Protestant British settlers and their supporters in England and Scotland. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms include an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 which included the Bishops Wars of 1639 and 1640, the Scottish Civil War of 1644-5; the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Confederate Ireland, 1642-9 and... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Map of Scotland The Scottish Civil War The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


The war in Ireland began with the rebellion of the Irish of Ulster in October 1641, during which they killed thousands of Scots and English Protestant settlers. The rebellion spread throughout the country and at Kilkenny in 1642 the association of The Confederate Catholics of Ireland was formed to organise the Irish Catholic war effort. The Confederation was essentially an independent state and was a coalition of all shades of Irish Catholic society, both Gaelic and Old English. The Irish Confederates professed to side with the English Royalists during the ensuing civil wars, but in reality fought their own war in defence of Irish Catholic interests. The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody inter communal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) is one of the four provinces of Ireland. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Scots tribe originated from Ireland, from the now-called counties Antrim and Down. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... The Plantation of Ulster took place in the Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century. ... Kilkenny (Irish: Cill Chainnigh) is the county seat of County Kilkenny, Ireland, with a population (including environs) of 20,735. ... Confederate Ireland refers to a brief period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... The Old English were a wave of early medieval Norman, French, Welsh, English, Breton and Flemish settlers who went to Ireland to claim territory and lands in the wake of the Norman invasion. ...


The Confederates ruled Ireland as a de facto sovereign state until 1649, outwardly remainingly loyal to King Charles I. It was the only such assembly to occur in Ireland until 1919 when the Irish Dáil first sat. From 1641to 1649, the Confederates fought with Scottish Covenanter and English Parliamentarian armies in Ireland. They were loosley allied with the English Royalists, but were divided over whether to send military help to them in the English Civil War. Ultimately, they never sent troops to England, but did send an expedition to help the Scottish Royalists, sparking the Scottish Civil War. The wars ended in the defeat of the Confederates. They and their Royalist allies were crushed during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland by the New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell in 1649-53. The wars caused massive loss of life in Ireland, comparable in the country's history only with the Great Famine of the 1840s and also saw the mass confiscation of land owned by Irish Catholics. // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Charles I King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Map of Scotland The Scottish Civil War The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. ... Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of the English Parliament in 1649. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... Great Famine can refer to multiple historical events that refer to themselves as the Great Famine. Great Famine of 1315-1317 - Northern European famine of the 14th century. ...


Military history


For the political context of this conflict, see Confederate Ireland. This article is concerned with the military history of Ireland from 1641-53. Confederate Ireland refers to a brief period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. ...

Contents


The Plot - October 1641

See also Irish Rebellion of 1641 The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody inter communal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ...

Dublin Castle, the centre of British rule in Ireland. It was supposed to be taken in the first hours of the rebellion, but the plot was discovered and the attack called off.
Dublin Castle, the centre of British rule in Ireland. It was supposed to be taken in the first hours of the rebellion, but the plot was discovered and the attack called off.

The Irish Rebellion of 1641 was intended to be a swift and mainly bloodless seizure of power in Ireland by a small group of conspirators led by Phelim O’Neill. Small bands of the plotter’s kin and dependants were mobilised in Dublin, Wicklow and Ulster, to take strategic buildings like Dublin Castle. Since there were only a small number of English soldiers stationed in Ireland, this had a reasonable chance of succeeding. Had it done so, the remaining English garrisons could well have surrendered, leaving Irish Catholics in a position of strength to negotiate their demands for civil reform, religious toleration and Irish self-government. However, the plot was betrayed at the last minute and as a result, the rebellion degenerated into anarchic violence. Following the outbreak of hostilities, the festering hatred of the native Irish Catholic population for the British Protestant settlers exploded into violence. dublin castle tower File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... dublin castle tower File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sir Felim ONeill of Kinard (died 1652) was an Irish nobleman who led the Irish Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster which began on October 22, 1641. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... Wicklow (Cill Mhantáin in Irish) is the county town of County Wicklow in the Republic of Ireland. ... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) is one of the four provinces of Ireland. ... Dublin Castle in Dublin, Ireland was the seat of British rule in Ireland until 1922. ...


The Rebellion - 1641-42

From 1641 to early 1642, the fighting in Ireland was characterised by small bands, raised by local lords or among local people, attacking civilians of opposing ethnic and religious groups. At first, Irish Catholic bands, particularly from Ulster, took the opportunity given them by the collapse of law and order to settle scores with Protestant settlers who had occupied Irish land in the plantations of Ireland. Initially, the Irish Catholic gentry raised militia forces to try and contain the violence, but afterwards, when it was clear that the government in Dublin intended to punish all Catholics for the rebellion, participated in the attacks on Protestants and fought English troops sent to put down the rebellion. In areas where British settlers were concentrated, around Cork, Dublin, Carrickfergus and Derry, they raised their own militia in self-defence and managed to hold off the rebel forces. All sides displayed extreme cruelty in this phase of the war. Around 4000 Protestants were massacred and a further 12,000 may have died of privation after being driven from their homes. In one notorious incident, the Protestant inhabitants of Portadown were taken captive and then massacred on the bridge in the town. The settlers responded in kind, as did the Government in Dublin, with attacks on the Irish civilian population. In addition, the English Parliament passed an Ordinance of No Quarter against the Irish rebels, meaning that prisoners were to be killed when taken. The rebels from Ulster defeated a government force at Julianstown, but failed to take nearby Drogheda and were scattered when they advanced on Dublin. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were the seizure of land owned by the native Irish and granting of it to colonists (planters) from Britain. ... Cork (Corcaigh in Irish) is the second city of the Republic of Ireland. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... Carrickfergus (Carraig Fhearghais, meaning Rock of Fergus, in Irish) is a town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish, Doire or Doire Cholm Chille), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... Portadown (Port an Dúnáin in Irish) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... The Battle of Julianstown was fought during the Irish Rebellion of 1641, at Julianstown near Drogheda in eastern Ireland, in November 1641. ... Drogheda (Droichead Átha in Irish, meaning Fordbridge) is an industrial and port town in County Louth on the east coast of Ireland, 56 km north of Dublin. ...


The Confederate’s war - 1642-48

See also Confederate Ireland Confederate Ireland refers to a brief period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. ...

Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met.
Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met.

King Charles I sent a large army to Ireland in 1642 to put down the rebellion, as did the Scottish Covenanters. These armies quickly drove the Irish out Ulster and from around Dublin. In self-defence, Irish Catholics formed their own government, the Catholic Confederation and raised their own armies. Almost all Irish Catholics joined the Confederation, with the odd exception like the Earl of Clanricarde, who stayed neutral. They had available to them only the militias and lord’s private levies, commanded by aristocratic amateurs like Lord Mountgarret. These were defeated in a series of encounters with British troops at Liscarroll, Kilrush and New Ross. Photo of Kilkenny castle taken by Michael Rogers 2002. ... Photo of Kilkenny castle taken by Michael Rogers 2002. ... The name Charles I is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland Charles I of France (also known as Charles the Bald) Charles I of Spain (also known as Charles V of the German Empire) Charles I of Romania Charles I... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Clanricarde was both a territory and a title - The Clanricarde used to describe the Burkes of what is now Co. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... The battle of Liscarroll was fought in county Cork in July 1642, at the start of the Irish Confederate Wars. ... The Battle of Kilrush was a minor engagement at the start of the Irish Confederate Wars. ... The battle of New Ross was a minor engagement fought in 1643, at the start of the Irish Confederate Wars. ...


However, they were saved from defeat by the outbreak of the English Civil War. Most of the English troops in Ireland were recalled to fight on the Royalist side in the civil war. The Irish Confederates mopped up the remaining garrisons within their territory, leaving only Ulster, Dublin and Cork in British hands. The remaining British forces were disunited. The garrison of Cork, commanded by Inchiquinn, sided with the Parliament, as did the British settler army around Derry, whereas the troops on Ireland’s east coast, commanded by Earl of Ormonde, sided with the King. The Scottish Covenanter army pursued the agenda of the Edinburgh based Scottish government, allied with the Parliament up to 1647. The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (October 19, 1610 - 1688) was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Edinburghs location in Scotland Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ... // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ...


Stalemate


This gave the Confederates breathing space to create regular, full time armies. They supplied these by creating an extensive system of taxation throughout the country, centred on their capital at Kilkenny. They also received modest subsidies of arms and money from France, Spain and the Papacy. The Confederate armies were commanded mainly by professional Irish soldiers such as Thomas Preston and Owen Roe O'Neill, who had served in the Spanish army in the Thirty Years War. In total, the Confederates managed to put around 60,000 men into the field in different armies in the course of the war. Arguably, the Confederates squandered the military opportunity presented to them by the English Civil War to re-conquer all of Ireland. They signed a truce with the Royalists in 1643 and spent the next three years in abortive negotiations with them. It was not until 1646 that they launched a determined offensive on the Protestant enclaves in Ireland. Between 1642 and 1646, the war in Ireland was dominated by raids and skirmishes. All sides tried to starve their enemies by burning the crops and supplies in their territory. This fighting caused great loss of life, particularly among the civilian population, but saw no significant battles. The Confederates failed to capture any significant territory, with the exception of Thomas Preston’s successful siege of Duncannon in 1645. Kilkenny (Irish: Cill Chainnigh) is the county seat of County Kilkenny, Ireland, with a population (including environs) of 20,735. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara (1585 - 1655) was a descendant of Sir Robert de Preston, who in 1363 purchased the lands of Gormanston, Co. ... Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, anglicised as Owen Roe ONeill (c. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events Ongoing events English Civil War (1642-1649) Births April 15 - King Christian V of Denmark (d. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... // Events Ongoing events English Civil War (1642-1649) Births April 15 - King Christian V of Denmark (d. ... See also the town of Battle, East Sussex, England Generally, a battle is an instance of combat between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill. ...


Refugees


The opening years of the war saw widesread displacment of civilians - both sides practising what would now be called ethnic cleansing. In the initial phase of the rebellion in 1641, the vulnerable Protestant settler population fled to walled towns such as Dublin, Cork and Derry for protection. Others fled to England. When Ulster was occupied by Scottish Covenanter troops in 1642, they retaliated for the attacks on settlers by attacks on the Irish Catholic civilian population. As a result, it has been estimated that up to 30,000 people fled Ulster in 1642, to live in Confederate held territory. Many of them became camp followers of Owen Roe O'Neill's Ulster Army, living in clan-based groupings called "creaghts" and driving their herds of cattle around with the army. Outside of Ulster, the treatment of civilians was less harsh, although the "no-mans-land" in between Confederate and British held territory in Leinster and Munster was repeatedly raided and burned, with the result that it too became de-populated. Ethnic cleansing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... Cork (Corcaigh in Irish) is the second city of the Republic of Ireland. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish, Doire or Doire Cholm Chille), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, anglicised as Owen Roe ONeill (c. ...


Victory and Defeat for the Confederates

Bunratty Castle,besieged and taken by the Irish Confederates from an English Parliamentarian force in 1646. One of a string of Confederate victories in that year
Bunratty Castle,besieged and taken by the Irish Confederates from an English Parliamentarian force in 1646. One of a string of Confederate victories in that year

However, all this changed in 1646, with the end of the first English Civil War. The Confederates abandoned negotiations with the defeated Royalists and tried to re-take all of Ireland before the English Parliament could launch an invasion of the country. They were bolstered by the arrival in Ireland of the Papal Nuncio, Rinuccini, who brought with him large amounts of money and arms. They managed to capture a Parliamentarian stronghold at Bunratty castle in Clare and to smash the Scottish Covenanter army at the battle of Benburb and also take Sligo town. Late in the year, the Ulster and Leinster Confederate armies under Owen Roe O'Neill and Thomas Preston (a total of 18,000 men) laid siege to Dublin, trying to take the city off Ormonde’s Royalist garrison. However Ormonde had devastated the land around the capital and the Confederates, unable to supply their troops, had to lift the siege. In hindsight, this was the high tide for the Irish Confederates. Ormonde, who said that he, "preferred English rebels to Irish ones", left Dublin and handed it over to a Parliamentarian army under Michael Jones. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 187 KB)Bunratty Castle in County Clare, Ireland. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 187 KB)Bunratty Castle in County Clare, Ireland. ... // Events Ongoing events English Civil War (1642-1649) Births April 15 - King Christian V of Denmark (d. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... Giovanni Battista Rinuccini (1592-1653) was a Roman Catholic Archbishop in the mid seventeenth century. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Bunratty Castle is a Norman castle in County Clare, Ireland. ... Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland, 2004. ... The Battle of Benburb took place in 1646 in the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Sligo (Sligeach in Irish) is the county town of County Sligo in the Republic of Ireland. ... Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, anglicised as Owen Roe ONeill (c. ... Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara (1585 - 1655) was a descendant of Sir Robert de Preston, who in 1363 purchased the lands of Gormanston, Co. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Colonel Michael Jones ( –1649) Fought for King Charles I during the Irish Confederate War but joined the English Parliamentary side when the English Civil War started. ...


In 1647, The Parliamentarian forces inflicted a shattering series of defeats on the Confederates, ultimately forcing them to join a Royalist coalition to try and hold off a Parliamentarian invasion. Firstly, in August 1647, Thomas Preston’s Leinster army was annihilated at the battle of Dungans Hill by Jones’ Parliamentarian army when it tried to march on Dublin. This was the best trained and best equipped Confederate army and the loss of its manpower and equipment was a body blow to the Confederation. Secondly, the Parliamentarians in Cork devastated the Confederate’s territory in Munster, provoking famine among the civilian population. When the Irish Munster army brought them to battle at Knocknanauss, they too were crushed. Sligo also changed hands again -captured by the Ulster British settler's army. It is noticeable that the battles in this phase of the war were exceptionally bloody, with the losers having up to half of their men killed. This string of defeats forced the Confederates to come to a deal with the Royalists, and to put their troops under their command. Amid factional fighting within their ranks over this deal, the Confederates dissolved their association in 1648 and accepted Ormonde as the commander in chief of the Royalist coalition in Ireland. Inchiquinn, the Parliamentarian commander in Cork also defected to the Royalists. // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... The Battle of Dungans Hill took place in Meath, in eastern Ireland in August 1647. ... Cork (Corcaigh in Irish) is the second city of the Republic of Ireland. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Knocknanauss was fought in 1647, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, between Confederate Ireland’s Munster army and an English Parliamentarian army under Inchiquinn. ... Sligo (Sligeach in Irish) is the county town of County Sligo in the Republic of Ireland. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (October 19, 1610 - 1688) was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier. ...


The Cromwellian War 1649-1653

See also Cromwellian conquest of Ireland Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of the English Parliament in 1649. ...

Oliver Cromwell, who landed in Ireland in 1649 to re-conquer the country on behalf of the English Parliament. He left in 1650, having taken eastern and southern Ireland - passing his command to Henry Ireton
Oliver Cromwell, who landed in Ireland in 1649 to re-conquer the country on behalf of the English Parliament. He left in 1650, having taken eastern and southern Ireland - passing his command to Henry Ireton

The Confederate/Royalist coalition wasted valuable months fighting with Owen Roe O'Neill and other former Confederates who refused to accept the dissolution of the Confederation. Belatedly, in August 1649, Ormonde tried to capture Dublin, but was routed by Jones at the battle of Rathmines. Oliver Cromwell landed shortly afterwards with the New Model Army. Cromwell was able to succeed in three years in conquering the entire island of Ireland, because his troops were supplied, well equipped (especially with artillery) and well trained. Moreover, he had a huge supply of men, money and logistics to fund the campaign. From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, anglicised as Owen Roe ONeill (c. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... The battle of Rathmines was fought in around the modern Dublin suburb of Rathmines in August 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ...


The Cromwellian Conquest


His first action was to secure the east coast of Ireland for supplies of men and logistics form England. To this end, he took Drogheda (See also siege of Drogheda) and Wexford, perpetrating massacres of the defenders of both towns. He also sent a force to the north to link up with the British settler army there. Those settlers who supported the Scots and Royalists were defeated by the Parliamentarians at the battle of Lisnagarvey. Drogheda, a town in eastern Ireland, was besieged twice in the 1640s, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ...


Ormonde signally failed to mount a military defence of southern Ireland. He based his defences on walled towns, which Cromwell systematically took one after the other with his ample supply of siege artillery. However, the Irish and Royalist field armies did not hold any strategic line of defence and instead were demoralised by a constant stream of defeats and withdrawals. Only at the siege of Clonmel did Cromwell suffer significant casualties (although disease also took a very heavy toll on his men). However, his losses were made good by the defection of the Royalist garrison of Cork, who had been Parliamentarians up to 1648, back to the Parliament side. Cromwell returned to England in 1650, passing his command to Henry Ireton. The Siege of Clonmel took place during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland when the town of Clonmel in southern Ireland was besieged by Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), English was a general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ...


In the north, the Parliamentarian/settler army met the Irish Ulster army at the battle of Scarrifholis and destroyed it. Ormonde was discredited and fled for France, to be replaced by Clanricarde. By 1651, the remaining Royalist/Irish forces were hemmed into an area west of the River Shannon, holding only the fortified cities of Limerick and Galway and an enclave in County Kerry, under Viscount Muskerry. Ireton besieged Limerick while the northern Parliamentarian army under Charles Coote besieged Galway. Muskerry made an attempt to relieve Limerick, marching north from Kerry, but was routed by Roger Boyle at the battle of Knocknaclashy. Limerick and Galway were too well defended to be taken by storm, but were blockaded until hunger and disease forced them to surrender, Limerick in 1651, Galway in 1652. Waterford and Duncannon also surrendered in 1651. The battle of Scarrifholis was fought in Donegal in north-western Ireland, on the 21st of June 1650, during the Irish Confederate Wars – part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Clanricarde was both a territory and a title - The Clanricarde used to describe the Burkes of what is now Co. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The River Shannon, Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connaught) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ... Limerick (Irish: Luimneach) is a city and the county seat of County Limerick in the province of Munster, in the midwest of the Republic of Ireland. ... Galway (official Irish name: Gaillimh) is a city in the province of Connacht in Ireland and capital of County Galway. ... County Kerry (Irish: Ciarraí) is a county in the southwest of Ireland, in the Munster province of the Republic of Ireland, informally referred to as The Kingdom. ... Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (April 25, 1621 - October 26, 1679), British soldier, statesman and dramatist, 3rd surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, was created baron of Broghill on February 28, 1627. ... The battle of Knocknaclashy, took place in county Cork in southern Ireland in 1651. ... Waterford (Irish: Port Lairge) is, historically, the capital of County Waterford in Ireland, though today the city is administered separately from the county, the latter having its seat in Dungarvan. ... Duncannon Fort and village Duncannon (Dún Canann in Irish, meaning the Fort of Conán, possibly Conán mac Morna of the Fianna) is a village in south west County Wexford, Republic of Ireland. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ...

The heavily fortified city of Galway in 1651. It was the last Irish stronghold to fall to the Parliamentarians, surrendering in 1652.
Enlarge
The heavily fortified city of Galway in 1651. It was the last Irish stronghold to fall to the Parliamentarians, surrendering in 1652.

Guerrilla War The city of Limerick in south-western Ireland was besieged several times in the 17th century, first during the Irish Confederate Wars of the 1640s and’50s again in the Williamite war in Ireland. ... Download high resolution version (947x668, 421 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (947x668, 421 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


This was the end of organised Irish resistance, but because the Cromwellian surrender terms were so harsh, many small units of Irish troops fought on as guerrillas, or "tories" as they were called at the time. Undoubtedly some of the tories were simple bandits, whereas others were politically motivated. The Cromwellians distinguished in their rewards between "private tories" and "public tories". This phase of the war may actually have been the most costly in terms of civilian loss of life. The tories, who were usually former Confederate soldiers, operated from rugged areas such as the Wicklow Mountains, attacking vulnerable groups of Parliamentarian soldiers and looting their supplies. In response,the Parliamentarians designated areas as what is now called, "free fire zones", forcibly evicting the civilian populations from areas which had been helping the tories and burning their crops. These areas could be very large, including almost all of county Wicklow. The result of this fighting was famine throughout the country, which was aggravated by an outbreak of bubonic plague. Disease of course killed indiscriminately, Ireton himself died of plague outside Limerick in 1651. The last organised Irish troops surrendered in Cavan in 1653, when the Cromwellians agreed to let them be transported to serve in the French army - the English Royalist Court was in exile in France. However, any troops captured in this phase of the war were either executed or transported to penal colonies in the West Indies (especially Barbados, where their descendants are known as Redlegs). Even after the formal surrender , Ireland was plagued with small scale violence for the remainder of the 1650s. Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... This is about the film; Bandits as a general term refers to outlaws. ... The Wicklow Mountains are a range of mountains in the south-east of Ireland. ... Wicklow (Cill Mhantáin in Irish) is a county on the east coast of Ireland, immediately south of Dublin. ... A famine is a phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Bubonic plague is an infectious disease that is believed to have caused several epidemics or pandemics throughout history. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Cavan (An Cabhán in Irish, meaning the hollow) is the main town and administrative centre of County Cavan in the Republic of Ireland. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... The French Army (Armée de Terre) is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. ...


The Cost

The death toll of the conflict was huge. William Petty, a Cromwellian who conducted the first scientific land and demographic survey of Ireland in the 1650s, concluded that at least 400,000 people and maybe as many as 620,000 had died in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. The true figure may be lower, but the lowest suggested is about 200,000. And this in a country of only around 1.5 million inhabitants. It is estimated that about two thirds of the deaths were civilian. The Irish defeat led to the mass confiscation of Catholic owned land and the British Protestant domination of Ireland for over two centuries. William Petty Sir William Petty (May 27, 1623-December 16, 1687) was a scientist and philosopher. ... A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ...


Sources

  • Padraig Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War, Cork 2001
  • Jane Ohlmeyer, John Keegan (ed’s), The Civil Wars, Oxford 1998.
  • G.A. Hayes McCoy, Irish Battles, Belfast 1990.
  • James Scott Wheeler, Cromwell in Ireland, New York 1999

Links

PEOPLE associated with the period include;


Soldiers: Owen Roe O'Neill, Thoma Preston, Alasdair MacColla, Hugh Dubh O'Neill, Henry Ireton, George Monck, Oliver Cromwell, Garrett Barry, Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, Murrough O'Brien, Earl Inchiquinn, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel. Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, anglicised as Owen Roe ONeill (c. ... Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara (1585 - 1655) was a descendant of Sir Robert de Preston, who in 1363 purchased the lands of Gormanston, Co. ... Alasdair MacColla (circa 1620 to 1647) was Scottish-Irish soldier. ... Hugh Dubh ONeill (Black Hugh) was an Irish soldier of the seventeenth century. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), English was a general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (April 25, 1621 - October 26, 1679), British soldier, statesman and dramatist, 3rd surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, was created baron of Broghill on February 28, 1627. ... Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel (1630 – 14 August 1691), the youngest of sixteen children of Sir William Talbot, Bart. ...


Political figures: Phelim O'Neill, James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, Patrick Darcy, Richard Martin fitz Oliver, Ulick de Burgh, 5th Earl of Clanricarde, Richard Bellings, Nicholas French, Nicholas Plunkett, Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, Charles I, Charles II Mountgarret Viscount Gormanstown. Sir Felim ONeill of Kinard (died 1652) was an Irish nobleman who led the Irish Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster which began on October 22, 1641. ... James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (October 19, 1610 - 1688) was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier. ... Richard Martin fitz Oliver, (c. ... Earl of Clanricarde is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. ... Richard Bellings (1613-1677) was a lawyer and political figure in 17th century Ireland and in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Giovanni Battista Rinuccini (1592-1653) was a Roman Catholic Archbishop in the mid seventeenth century. ... The name Charles I is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland Charles I of France (also known as Charles the Bald) Charles I of Spain (also known as Charles V of the German Empire) Charles I of Romania Charles I... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II...


others: Piaras Feiritear and Daibhi O Bruadair - poets William Petty (geographer) Daibhi O Bruadair (David O Bruadair) (1625? – January 1698) was one of the most significant Irish language Irish poets of the 17th century. ... William Petty Sir William Petty (May 27, 1623-December 16, 1687) was a scientist and philosopher. ...


Places associated with the period include;


Drogheda, Limerick, Dublin, Cork, Galway, Clonmel, Derry, Rathfarnham Castle, Trim Castle, Cahir Castle, Narrow Water, Bunratty Castle, Derry, Portadown, Ross Castle Drogheda (Droichead Átha in Irish, meaning Fordbridge) is an industrial and port town in County Louth on the east coast of Ireland, 56 km north of Dublin. ... Limerick (Irish: Luimneach) is a city and the county seat of County Limerick in the province of Munster, in the midwest of the Republic of Ireland. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... Cork (Corcaigh in Irish) is the second city of the Republic of Ireland. ... Galway (official Irish name: Gaillimh) is a city in the province of Connacht in Ireland and capital of County Galway. ... Clonmel (Cluain Meala in Irish) is a medium-sized town situated in south County Tipperary, Ireland. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish, Doire or Doire Cholm Chille), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... Origins Rathfarnham Castle was originally an Anglo-Norman castle built to defend the Pale from the Irish clans in the nearby Wicklow Mountains. ... Trim Castle, Trim, Ireland covers an area of 3 hectares, it is the remains of the largest castle in Europe, which was Norman in origin, built primarily by Hugh de Lacy and his son Walter de Lacy. ... Categories: Ireland-place stubs | Castles in Ireland ... Narrow Water Castle lies on the Co. ... Bunratty Castle is a Norman castle in County Clare, Ireland. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish, Doire or Doire Cholm Chille), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... Portadown (Port an Dúnáin in Irish) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... Ross Castle Ross Castle Ross Castle is the ancestral home of the ODonoghue clan. ...


See Also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Irish Confederate Wars (3059 words)
The Wars were the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms - a series of civil wars in Kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland (all ruled by Charles I of England) that also included the English Civil War and civil war in Scotland.
The rebellion spread throughout the country and at Kilkenny in 1642 the association of The Confederate Catholics of Ireland was formed to organise the Irish Catholic war effort.
Secondly, the Parliamentarians in Cork devastated the Confederate’s territory in Munster, provoking famine among the civilian population.
Plantations of Ireland - Wiki Ireland (4293 words)
The remaining Irish landowners were to be granted one quarter of the land in Ulster and the ordinary Irish population was supposed to be relocated to live near garrisons and Protestant churches.
The Irish Catholic upper classes were unable to stop the continued plantations in Ireland because they had been barred from public office because of their religion and had become a minority in the Irish Parliament by 1615, as a result of the creation of "pocket boroughs" in planted areas.
The Irish Confederates had pinned their hopes on a Royalist victory in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, so thath they could cite their loyalty to Charles I and force him into accepting their demands - including toleration for Catholicism, Irish self government and an end to the Plantation policy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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