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Encyclopedia > Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of today's Republic of Ireland. Opponents of the treaty objected to the fact that it retained constitutional links between the United Kingdom and Ireland and that the six counties of Northern Ireland would not be included in the Free State. The Civil War cost the lives of more than had died in the War of Independence that preceded it and left Irish society deeply divided. Its influence in Irish politics remains evident today. June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...

Irish Civil War
Date June 28, 1922May 24, 1923
(executions and deaths continued after May 1923; amnesty declared on Nov 8, 1924)
Location Ireland
Result Confirmation of Irish Free State and defeat of anti-Treaty IRA forces
Casus
belli
Acceptance of the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Combatants
Irish National Army (pro-Treaty/Regulars)
Irish Republican Army (anti-Treaty/Irregulars)
Commanders
Michael Collins
Richard Mulcahy
Liam Lynch
Frank Aiken
Strength
National Army c. 55,000 men, 3500 officers by the end of the war c. 15,000 anti-Treaty IRA Volunteers
Casualties
c. 800 Irish Army killed
3 Garda Siochána killed [2]
unknown number of anti-treaty IRA, c. 2000-3000 killed (incl. 77 official executions), over 12,000 taken prisoner [1]
Civilians:(unknown, c. 250 casualties in Dublin fighting alone)[3]

Contents

June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (693x689, 245 KB) Summary Official Irish Defence Forces Badge (Public Domain) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Troops from the Ranger wing, the Irish armys Special forces The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ... For other people named Liam Lynch see Liam Lynch Liam Lynch (9 November 1893 - 10 April 1923) was an IRA officer in the Irish War of Independence and the commanding general of the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army during the Irish Civil War. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983) was a senior Irish politician. ... Troops from the Ranger wing, the Irish armys Special forces The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ...

Background

The Treaty

The Anglo-Irish Treaty arose from the Anglo-Irish War (or "Irish War of Independence"), fought between Irish separatists (organised as the extra-legal Irish Republic) and the British government, from 1919-1921. The treaty provided for a self-governing Irish state in 26 of Ireland's 32 counties, having its own army and police. However, rather than creating the independent republic favoured by most nationalists, the Irish Free State would be a dominion of the British Empire with the British monarch as head of state, in the same manner as Canada and Australia. The treaty also stipulated that members of the new Irish Oireachtas (parliament) would have to take the following "Oath of Allegiance" Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Great Seal of the Irish Free State All state documents were stamped with the Seal from 1931. ... The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Irish parliament) and Senators were required to take, in order to take their seats in Dáil Éireann (The Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (the Irish Senate). ...

"I... do solemnly swear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State as by law established, and that I will be faithful to His Majesty King George V, his heirs and successors by law in virtue of the common citizenship of Ireland with Great Britain and her adherence to and membership of the group of nations forming the British Commonwealth of nations".[4]

Image:Firstdail.jpg
First Dáil: Michael Collins (second from left, front row), Arthur Griffith (fourth from left, front row) Eamon de Valera (centre, front row), W.T. Cosgrave (second from right, front row).

This oath was considered highly objectionable by many Irish Republicans. Under the treaty the state was not to be called a republic but a "free state" and it was to include only the twenty-six southern and western counties of Ireland. The remaining six northeastern counties were to remain part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. The partition of Ireland had already been decided in the Government of Ireland Act 1920 and was confirmed in the Anglo-Irish treaty. Also, several strategic ports were to remain occupied by the Royal Navy. The First Dáil (Irish: An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921. ... General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ... Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... After the Irish Free State won independence in 1922, three deep water Treaty Ports, at Berehaven, Queenstown (renamed Cobh) and Lough Swilly, were retained by the United Kingdom as sovereign bases. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Nonetheless, Michael Collins, the republican leader who had led the Irish negotiating team, argued that the treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire and develop, but the freedom to achieve freedom". However, Anti-Treaty militants in 1922 believed that the Treaty would never deliver full Irish independence. General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and...


Split in the Nationalist movement

See also: IRA and the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Irish Republican Army was a guerrilla army that fought the Irish War of Independence against Britain from 1919–1921. ...


The split over the Treaty was deeply personal. The leaders on both sides had been close friends and comrades during the War of Independence. This made their lethal disagreement over the Treaty all the more bitter. Michael Collins felt that Éamon de Valera had sent him as plenipotentiary to negotiate the Treaty because he knew that the British would not concede an independent Irish republic and wanted Collins to take the blame for the compromise settlement. He therefore felt deeply betrayed when De Valera refused to stand by the agreement that the plenipotentiaries had negotiated with David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill. De Valera, for his part, was furious that Collins and Arthur Griffith had signed the Treaty without consulting him or the Irish cabinet. General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that confers, full powers. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ...

The IRA West Cork Flying Column during the War of Independence. Most of the IRA units in Munster were against the Treaty

Dáil Éireann (the parliament of the Irish Republic) narrowly passed the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64 votes to 57 on January 7, 1922. Following the Treaty's ratification, a Provisional Government, headed by Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith, was set up to transfer power from the British administration to the Irish Free State. Image File history File links Flying Column, West Cork Brigade, during the War of Independence. ... Image File history File links Flying Column, West Cork Brigade, during the War of Independence. ... Irish stamp comemorating the first meeting of Dáil Éireann in 1919. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


Upon the Treaty's ratification Eamon de Valera resigned as President of the Republic and led the anti-treaty wing of Sinn Féin out of the Dáil. He challenged the right of the Dáil to approve the Treaty, saying that its members were breaking their oath to the Irish Republic. De Valera then attempted to promote a compromise, in which the new Irish Free State would have "external association" with the British Commonwealth rather than membership of it. Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1999)  -  Ransford Smith Establishment  -  as British Commonwealth 1926   -  as the Commonwealth 1949  Membership 53 sovereign states Website thecommonwealth. ...


More seriously, the majority of the Irish Republican Army officers were also against the Treaty and in March 1922, their ad-hoc Army Convention repudiated the authority of the Dail to accept the Treaty. The anti-treaty IRA formed their own Army Executive, which they recognised as the real government of the country. On 26 April the Minister of Defence, Richard Mulcahy, summarised the illegal activities by many IRA men over the previous 3 months, whom he described as 'seceding volunteers', including hundreds of robberies.[5] Yet this fragmenting army was the only police force on the ground as the R.I.C. was being disbanded. This article is about the historical army of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ...


However, both sides wanted to avoid civil war. Collins established an "army re-unification committee" to re-unite the IRA and organised an election pact with De Valera's anti-treaty political followers to jointly fight the Free State's first election in 1922 and form a coalition government afterwards. He also tried to reach a compromise with anti-treaty IRA leaders by agreeing to republican type constitution (with no mention of the British monarchy) for the new state. IRA leaders such as Liam Lynch were prepared to accept this compromise. However, the proposal for a republican constitution was vetoed by the British as being contrary to the terms of the treaty and they threatened to impose an economic blockade on Free State unless the treaty was fully implemented. Collins reluctantly agreed. This completely undermined the electoral pact between the pro and anti treaty factions, who went into the Irish general election on June 18, 1922 as hostile parties, both calling themselves Sinn Féin. The Pro Treaty Sinn Féin party won the election with 239,193 votes to 133,864 for anti-Treaty Sinn Féin. A further 247,226 people voted for other parties, all of whom supported the Treaty. The election showed that the Irish electorate supported the Treaty and the foundation of the Irish Free State and that the Sinn Féin party did not represent the opinions of everyone in the new state, but De Valera, his political followers and most of the IRA continued to oppose the Treaty. De Valera is quoted as saying, "the majority have no right to do wrong".[6] A general election took place in southern Ireland in 16 June 1922 under the provisions of the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty to elect a constituent assembly paving the way for the establishment of the Irish Free State. ... For other people named Liam Lynch see Liam Lynch Liam Lynch (9 November 1893 - 10 April 1923) was an IRA officer in the Irish War of Independence and the commanding general of the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army during the Irish Civil War. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


Meanwhile under the leadership of Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith, the pro-treaty Provisional Government set about establishing the Irish Free State, and organised the National Army - to replace the IRA - and a new police force. However, since it was envisaged that the new army would be built around the IRA, anti-treaty IRA units were allowed to take over British barracks and take their arms. In practice, this meant that by the summer of 1922, the Provisional government of the Free State controlled only Dublin and some other areas like Longford where the IRA units supported the treaty. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Troops from the Ranger wing, the Irish armys Special forces The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... This article is about the historical army of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ...


Fighting would ultimately break out when the Provisional government tried to assert its authority over well armed and intransigent anti-treaty IRA units around the country - particularly a hardline group in Dublin. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ...


Course of the war

See also Chronology of the Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War, was fought between June 1922 and May 1923. ...


Dublin fighting

The Four Courts along the River Liffey quayside. The building was occupied by Anti Treaty forces during the civil war, whom the National Army subsequently bombarded into surrender. The Irish national archives in the buildings were destroyed in the subsequent fire.The building was badly damaged but was fully restored after the war.
Main article: Battle of Dublin

In April 1922, 200 anti-treaty IRA militants, led by Rory O'Connor, occupied the Four Courts in Dublin, resulting in a tense stand-off. These Anti-Treaty Republicans wanted to spark a new armed confrontation with the British, which they hoped would unite the two factions of the IRA against their common enemy. However, for those who were determined to make the Free State into a viable, self-governing Irish state, this was an act of rebellion that would have to be put down by them rather than the British. Arthur Griffith was in favour of using force against these men immediately, but Michael Collins wanted at all costs to avoid civil war and left the Four Courts garrison alone until late June 1922, when his hand was forced by British pressure. image of Dublins main court building. ... image of Dublins main court building. ... Combatants Irish Republican Army Irish Free State Army Commanders Rory OConnor Oscar Traynor Michael Collins Strength 200 in Four Courts c. ... Rory OConnor (1883 - 1922) was an Irish republican activist. ... The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna in Irish) in Dublin is the Republic of Irelands main courts building. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Ironically, the British lost patience as result of an action ordered by Collins. He had Henry Hughes Wilson, a retired British General, assassinated in London on June 22 because of his role in attacks on Catholics in Northern Ireland.[7] Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, Bt. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Winston Churchill assumed that the anti-treaty IRA were responsible for the killing and warned Collins that he would use British troops to attack the Four Courts unless the Free State took action. The final straw for the Free State government came on June 27, when the Four Courts republican garrison kidnapped JJ "Ginger" O'Connell, a general in the new National Army. Collins, after giving the Four Courts garrison a final ultimatum to leave the building, decided to end the stand-off by bombarding the Four Courts garrison into surrender. The government then appointed Collins as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. This attack was not the opening shots of the war as skirmishes had taken place between pro and anti treaty IRA factions throughout the country when the British were handing over barracks. However this represented the 'point of no return' when all out war was ipso facto declared and the Civil War officially began.[8] Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Troops from the Ranger wing, the Irish armys Special forces The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ...


Michael Collins had accepted a British offer of artillery for use by the new army of the Free State (though General Nevil Macready gave just 200 shells of the 10,000 he had in store at Kilmainham barracks). The anti-treaty forces in the Four Courts, who possessed only small arms, surrendered after two days of bombardment and the storming of the building by Free State troops (June 28-30 1922). Pitched battles continued in Dublin until July 5, as anti-Treaty IRA units from the Dublin Brigade led by Oscar Traynor occupied O'Connell Street - provoking a week's more street fighting. The fighting cost both sides sixty-five killed and twenty-eight wounded. Among the dead was Republican leader Cathal Brugha. In addition, the Free State took over 500 Republican prisoners. The civilian casualties are thought to have numbered well over 250. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... General Sir Cecil Frederick Nevil Macready, 1st Baronet, GCMG, KCB, PC (7 May 1862–9 January 1946), known as Sir Nevil Macready and affectionately as Make-Ready (close to the correct pronunciation of his name), was a British Army officer. ... Kilmainham (Irish Cill Mhaighneann) is a suburb of Dublin south of the River Liffey and west of the city centre, in the Dublin 8 postal district. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Oscar Traynor (March 21, 1886-December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ... Daniel OConnell, 19th century nationalist leader, whose statue by John Henry Foley, stands on the street named after him. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ...

Cathal Brugha, Anti-Treaty leader killed during the fighting on Dublin's O'Connell St

When the fighting in Dublin died down, the Free State Government was left firmly in control of the Irish capital and the anti-treaty forces dispersed around the country, mainly to the south and west. Image File history File links Cathal Brugha (image before 1922) from postcard issued when he was killed. ... Image File history File links Cathal Brugha (image before 1922) from postcard issued when he was killed. ...

The Opposing forces

The outbreak of the civil war forced pro and anti treaty supporters to choose sides. Supporters of the treaty came to be known as "pro-treaty" or "Free State Army", legally the "National Army". Its opponents were known as "anti-treaty", "Irregulars" or "Republicans" and continued to refer to themselves as the "IRA". The Anti-Treaty IRA claimed that it was defending the Irish Republic that had been declared in 1916 during the Easter Rising, that had been confirmed by the First Dáil and that had been invalidly set aside by those who accepted the compromise of the Free State. Éamon de Valera stated that he would serve as an ordinary IRA volunteer, and left the leadership of the Anti-Treaty Republicans to military leaders such as Liam Lynch, the IRA Chief of Staff. Troops from the Ranger wing, the Irish armys Special forces The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The First Dáil (Irish: An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921. ... For other people named Liam Lynch see Liam Lynch Liam Lynch (9 November 1893 - 10 April 1923) was an IRA officer in the Irish War of Independence and the commanding general of the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army during the Irish Civil War. ... The following is the list of those who have served as Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army in the various incarnations of organisations bearing that name. ...

Liam Lynch -commander of the Anti-Treaty forces
Liam Lynch -commander of the Anti-Treaty forces

The Civil War split the IRA. When the civil war broke out, the Anti-Treaty IRA (concentrated in the south and west) outnumbered the pro-Free State forces -by roughly 15,000 men to 7,000 or over 2-1. (The paper strength of the IRA in early 1922 was over 72,000 men, but most of them were recruited during the truce with the British and fought in neither the War of Independence nor the Civil War). However the anti-treaty IRA lacked an effective command structure, a clear strategy and sufficient arms. They started the war with only 6,780 rifles and a handful of machine guns. Many of their fighters were armed only with shotguns. They also took a handful of armoured cars from British troops as they were evacuating the country. More important still, they had no artillery of any kind. As a result, they were forced to adopt a defensive stance throughout the war. Image File history File links Liam_Lynch. ... Image File history File links Liam_Lynch. ... Remington pump-action shotgun held by a Florida Highway Patrol cadet shotgun, see: Shotgun (disambiguation). ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ...


By contrast, the Free State government managed to expand its forces dramatically after the start of the war. Michael Collins and his commanders were able to build up an army which was able to overwhelm the Irregulars in the field. British supplies of artillery, aircraft, armoured cars, machine guns, small arms and ammunition were much help to pro-treaty forces. The National Army amounted to 14,000 men by August 1922, was 38,000 strong by the end of 1922 and by the end of the war, it had swollen to 55,000 men and 3,500 officers, far in excess of what the Irish state would need to maintain in peacetime. Collins' most ruthless officers and men were recruited from the Dublin "Active Service Unit" (the elite unit of the IRA's Dublin Brigade), which Collins had commanded in the Irish War of Independence and in particular from his assassination unit "The Squad". In the new National Army, they were known as the Dublin Guard. Towards the end of the war, they were implicated in some notorious atrocities against Anti-Treaty guerrillas. Most of the National Army's officers were Pro-Treaty IRA men as were a substantial number of their soldiers. However, many of the new Army's other recruits were unemployed veterans of the First World War, where they had served in the Irish Division of the British Army. Former British Army officers were also recruited for their technical expertise. The Republicans made much use of this fact in their propaganda —- claiming the Free State was only a proxy force for Britain itself. However, in fact, the majority of the Free State soldiers were raw recruits without military experience in either the First World War or the subsequent Irish War of Independence. Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... Boxes of ammunition clog a warehouse in Baghdad Ammunition is a generic military term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... The Dublin Guard was a unit of the Irish Republican Army, in the Irish War of Independence and then of the Irish Army during the Irish Civil War 1922-23. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The 16th (Irish) Division was a division of the New Army, raised in Ireland from the Irish National Volunteers in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


The Free State takes major towns

Arthur Griffith
(1871-1922)

With Dublin in pro-treaty hands, conflict spread throughout the country. The war started with the anti-Treaty forces holding Cork, Limerick and Waterford as part of a self-styled independent "Munster Republic". However, the Anti-Treaty side were not equipped to wage conventional war. As a result Liam Lynch was unable to take advantage of the Republican's initial advantage in numbers and territory held. He hoped simply to hold the "Munster Republic" long enough to force Britain to re-negotiate the Treaty. historical image of Arthur Griffith who died in August 1922. ... historical image of Arthur Griffith who died in August 1922. ... The Irish Free State offensive of July-September 1922 was the decisive military stroke of the Irish Civil War. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... The IRA West Cork Flying Column (Anti-Treaty) during the War of Independence. ...


However, the large towns in Ireland were all relatively easily taken by the Free State in August 1922. Michael Collins, Richard Mulcahy and Eoin O'Duffy planned a nationwide Free State offensive, dispatching columns overland to take Limerick in the west and Waterford in the south-east and seaborne forces to take counties Cork and Kerry in the south and Mayo in the west. Limerick fell on July 20, Waterford on the same day and Cork city on August 10 after a Free State force landed by sea at Passage West. Another seaborne expedition to Mayo in the west secured government control over that part of the country. While in some places the Republicans had put up determined resistance, nowhere were they able to defeat regular forces armed with artillery and armour. There was only one real conventional battle during the Free State offensive. This was the Battle of Killmallock, fought when Free State troops advanced south from Limerick. General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ... Places called Mayo include:hi County Mayo, a county in Ireland Mayo, a settlement in County Mayo, Ireland Mayo, a place in the U.S. state of Florida Mayo, a town in Trinidad and Tobago The Division of Mayo, an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia Mayo, a town in... Combatants Irish Army Dublin Guard Irish Republican Army Commanders General Eoin ODuffy Major General W.R.E. Murphy Liam Deasy Strength 1,500 troops at start of battle nearly 4,000 by end of battle plus artillery and armoured cars 2,000 at start of battle plus armoured cars...


Government victories in the major towns inaugurated a period of inconclusive guerrilla warfare. Anti-Treaty IRA units dispersed and held out in areas such as the western part of counties Cork and Kerry in the south, county Wexford in the east and counties Sligo and Mayo in the west. Sporadic fighting also took place around Dundalk, where Frank Aiken and the Fourth Northern Division of the Irish Republican Army were based. Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wexford Code: WX Area: 2,352 km² Population (2006) 131,615 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Places called Mayo include:hi County Mayo, a county in Ireland Mayo, a settlement in County Mayo, Ireland Mayo, a place in the U.S. state of Florida Mayo, a town in Trinidad and Tobago The Division of Mayo, an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia Mayo, a town in... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Fourth Northern Division of the Irish Republican Army operated in an area covering parts of counties Louth, Armagh, Monaghan, and Down. ...


It took eight more months of intermittent warfare before the war was brought to an end. This period was marked by assassinations and executions of leaders formerly allied in the cause of Irish independence. Commander-in-Chief Michael Collins was killed in an ambush by anti-treaty republicans at Béal na mBláth, near his home in County Cork, in August 1922.[9] Collins' death increased the bitterness of the Free State leadership towards the Republicans and probably contributed to the subsequent descent of the conflict into a cycle of atrocities and reprisals. Arthur Griffith, the Free State president had also died of a brain hemorrhage ten days before, leaving the Free State government in the hands of William Cosgrave and the Free State army under the command of General Richard Mulcahy. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ...


In October 1922, Eamon de Valera and the anti-treaty TDs (members of the Dail Parliament) set up their own "Republican government" in opposition to the Free State. However, by then the anti-Treaty side held no significant territory and De Valera's "government" had no authority over the population. In any case, the IRA leaders paid no attention to it, seeing the Republican authority as vested in their own military leaders. Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ...

Michael Collins, as Commander-in-Chief at President Griffith's funeral, one week before his own death.
Michael Collins, as Commander-in-Chief at President Griffith's funeral, one week before his own death.

Image File history File linksMetadata Portrait_of_Micheál_Ó_Coileáin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Atrocities, executions and the end of the war

The final phase of the Civil War degenerated into a series of atrocities that left a lasting legacy of bitterness in Irish politics. The Free State began executing republican prisoners on November 17, 1922, when four IRA men were shot by firing squad. They were followed on November 24 by the execution of acclaimed author and treaty negotiator Robert Erskine Childers. In all, the Free State sanctioned 77 official executions of Anti-Treaty prisoners during the civil war. The Anti-Treaty IRA in reprisal assassinated TD (member of Parliament) Sean Hales. On December 7, 1922, the day after Hales' killing, four prominent Republicans (one from each province), who had been held since the first week of the war—Rory O'Connor, Liam Mellows, Richard Barett and Joe McKelvey—were executed in revenge for the killing of Hales. In addition, Free State troops, particularly in County Kerry, where the guerrilla campaign was most bitter, began unofficial killings of captured Anti-Treaty fighters. The most notorious example of this occurred at Ballyseedy, where 9 Republican prisoners were tied to a landmine, which was detonated. Then the survivors were killed with machine guns. Memorial to the Republican soldiers murdered by Free State forces at Ballyseedy, County Kerry. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Erskine Childers Robert Erskine Childers DSO (25 June 1870 - 24 November 1922) was an author and Irish nationalist who was executed by the authorities of the newly independent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... Sean Hales was an Irish political activist in the early 20th century. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... During late Gaelic and early historic times Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the tuatha. ... Rory OConnor (1883 - 1922) was an Irish republican activist. ... Liam Mellows (25 May 1895–8 December 1922), sometimes spelled Mellowes, was born in Manchester, England to Irish parents, and grew up in County Wexford, Ireland. ... Joe McKelvey (died December 8, 1922) was an Irish Republican Army officer who was executed during the Irish Civil War in 1922. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...

Richard Mulcahy - the Free State General who instituted the policy of executions of republican prisoners in reprisal for the murder of elected representatives.
Richard Mulcahy - the Free State General who instituted the policy of executions of republican prisoners in reprisal for the murder of elected representatives.

The Anti-Treaty IRA were unable to maintain an effective guerrilla campaign, since the great majority of the Irish population did not support them. This was demonstrated in the elections immediately after the civil war, which Cumann na nGaedheal, the Free State party, won easily (See Irish general election, 1923 for the results). The Roman Catholic Church also supported the Free State, deeming it the lawful government of the country, denouncing the Anti-Treaty IRA and refusing to administer the Sacraments to Anti-Treaty fighters. On October 10, 1922, The Catholic Bishops of Ireland issued a formal statement, describing the anti-treaty campaign as, Image File history File links General Richard Mulcahy, TD in 1923. ... Image File history File links General Richard Mulcahy, TD in 1923. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Cumann na nGaedheal (League of the Gaels) was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties. ... The Irish general election of 1923 was held on August 27, 1923. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...

a system of murder and assassination of the National forces without any legitimate authority...the guerrilla warfare now being carried on [by] the Irregulars is without moral sanction and therefore the killing of National soldiers is murder before God, the seizing of public and private property is robbery, the breaking of roads, bridges and railways is criminal. All who in contravention of this teaching, participate in such crimes are guilty of grievous sins and may not be absolved in Confession nor admitted to the Holy Communion if they persist in such evil courses.[10]

This stance would have influenced many Catholic Irish people at the time. Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...


The lack of public support for the Anti-Treaty IRA, the determination of the government to defeat them and their lack of will all contributed to their defeat. By February 1923, republican leader Liam Deasy had already surrendered to Free State forces and called on other republicans to do the same. As the conflict petered out into a de facto victory for the pro-Treaty side, De Valera asked the IRA leadership to call a ceasefire, but they refused. Some historians suggest that the death of Liam Lynch, the intransigent Republican leader, in a skirmish in the Knockmealdown mountains in County Waterford on April 10, allowed the more pragmatic Frank Aiken, who took over as IRA Chief of Staff, to call a halt to what seemed a futile struggle. Aiken's accession to IRA leadership was followed on April 30 by the declaration of a ceasefire on behalf of the anti-treaty forces. On May 24, 1923, Aiken followed this with an order to IRA volunteers to dump arms rather than surrender them or continue a fight which they were incapable of winning. Thousands of Anti-Treaty IRA members (including Eamon de Valera) were arrested by the Free State forces in the weeks after the end of the war, when they had dumped their arms and returned home. Liam Deasy was an Irish Republican Army officer in the Irish War of Independence and the Irish Civil War of the 1920s. ... For other people named Liam Lynch see Liam Lynch Liam Lynch (9 November 1893 - 10 April 1923) was an IRA officer in the Irish War of Independence and the commanding general of the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army during the Irish Civil War. ... County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983) was a senior Irish politician. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The Free State government had started peace negotiations in early May which broke down.[11] Without a formal peace, holding 13,000 prisoners and worried that fighting could break out again at any time, it enacted the Emergency Powers Act on 2 July by a vote of 37 - 13.[12]


Attacks on former Loyalists

Although the cause of the civil war was the treaty, as the war developed the Republicans sought to identify their actions with the traditional republican cause of the "men of no property" and the result was that the war also saw large Anglo-Irish landowners, and some not very well-off Protestant Loyalists, attacked. A total of 192 "stately homes" of the old landed class were destroyed by republicans during the war.[13] Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... For the township in Canada, see Loyalist, Ontario In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. ...


The stated reason for such attacks was that some landowners had become Free State Senators. Among the prominent senators whose homes were attacked were: Palmerstown House near Naas which belonged to the Earl of Mayo and to Moore Hall in Mayo, the house of Oliver St John Gogarty (who also survived an assassination attempt), Horace Plunkett (who had helped to establish the rural co-operative schemes), and HS Guinness of the Guinness family.[14] WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... The title Earl of the County of Mayo, usually known simply as Earl of Mayo, was created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1785 for John Bourke, 1st Viscount Mayo. ... Moore Hall is a co-ed residents hall at Kansas State University. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Oliver St John Gogarty (August 17, 1878-September 22, 1957) was an Irish physician and surgeon, who was also a poet and writer, one of the most prominent Dublin wits, and for some time a political figure of the Irish Free State. ... Sir Horace Curzon Plunkett (24 October 1854-1932), was an Irish unionist, later nationalist politician and Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Guinness family is an extensive aristocratic Irish family noted for their accomplishments in brewing, banking and diplomacy. ...


However, in addition to their allegiance to the Free State, there were also other factors behind republican animosity towards the old landed class. Many, but not all of these people, had supported the Crown forces during the War of Independence. This support was often largely moral, but sometimes it took the form of actively assisting the British in the conflict. Such attacks should have ended with the Truce of July 11, 1921. However, in fact, they continued after the Truce and escalated during the civil war. July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ...


In addition, many of the Landlord class were the focus of rural class antagonism that had been simmering since the Land War of the 1880s. Though the Wyndham Act of 1903 allowed tenants to buy land from their landlords, much untenanted land remained and some republicans followed Michael Davitt's policy that all land should be made available to 'the nation'. This made the former landlords' post-independence situation difficult, and in the anarchy of the Civil War they became easy targets. Sometimes these attacks had sectarian overtones, although most anti-treaty IRA men made no distinction between Catholic and Protestant supporters of the Irish government. The Land War in Irish History was a period of agrarian agitation in rural Ireland in the 1870s, 1880s and 1890s. ... Michael Davitt c. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The Free State made efforts to protect Protestants and their property, most notably in County Louth, where a special police force was set up specifically for this purpose.[citation needed] Controversy continues to this day about the extent of intimidation of Protestants at this time, but many left Ireland during and after the civil war. Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dundalk Code: LH Area: 820 km² Population (2006) 110,894 Website: www. ...


Cost and results

Cost

The Civil War, though short, was bloody. It cost the lives of many senior figures, including Michael Collins, Cathal Brugha and Arthur Griffith. Both sides carried out brutal acts: the anti-treaty forces murdered TDs and burned many historic homes while the government executed anti-treaty prisoners, officially and unofficially. The pro-treaty National Army suffered 800 fatalities and perhaps as many as 4,000 people were killed in total, though the precise figures have yet to be determined.[15] In addition, about 12,000 Republicans were interned by the end of the Civil War, most of whom were not released until 1924. In October to November 1923, up to 8,000 IRA prisoners went on hunger strike in protest at their continued detention. Michael Collins is the name of: Michael Collins (Irish leader), the Irish patriot and revolutionary of the 20th century Michael Collins (Limerick politician), a modern-day Irish politician Michael Collins (astronaut), the American astronaut Michael Collins (footballer), an Irish footballer currently playing for Huddersfield Town Michael P. Collins, a Canadian... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Internment (disambiguation). ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ...


However, it has also been argued that the human cost of the Irish Civil War could have been far worse than it actually was. The numbers killed were relatively modest by the standards of other contemporary civil wars - for example in Russia and Spain. Moreover, the new Police force, the Civic Guards, was not involved which meant that it was possible for the Free State to establish an unarmed and politically neutral police service after the war. The (Irish) Civic Guard was formed by the Provisional Government of Ireland in February 1922, to replace the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and take over the responsibility of policing the fledgling Irish Free State. ...


The economic costs of the war were also high. As their forces abandoned their fixed positions in July-August 1922, the republicans burned many administrative buildings and businesses they had been occupying. In addition, their subsequent guerrilla campaign caused much destruction and the economy of the Free State suffered a hard blow in the earliest days of its existence as a result. The material damage caused by the war to property came to over £30 million. Particularly damaging to the Free State's economy was the systematic destruction of railway infrastructure and roads by the republicans. In addition, the cost to the Free State of waging the war came to another £17 million. By September 1923 Deputy Hogan estimated the cost at £50m.[16] The new State ended 1923 with a budget deficit of over £4 million.[17]


Political results

The fact that the Irish Civil War was fought between Irish Nationalist factions meant that the issue of Northern Ireland was ignored and Ireland was spared what could have been a far bloodier civil war based on ethnic and sectarian lines over the future of Ireland's six north-eastern counties. In fact, because of the Irish Civil War, Northern Ireland was able to consolidate its existence and partition of Ireland was confirmed for the foreseeable future. The war confirmed the northern unionists' existing prejudices against the ethos of all shades of nationalism. Collins, up to the outbreak of the civil war and possibly until his death, had been planning to launch a clandestine guerrilla campaign against the North and was funnelling arms to the northern units of the IRA to this end. This may have led to open hostilities between North and South had the Irish Civil War not broken out. In the event, it was only well after their defeat in the Civil War that anti-treaty Irish Republicans seriously considered whether to take armed action against British rule in Northern Ireland (the first serious suggestion to do this came in the late 1930s). The northern units of the IRA largely supported the Free State side in the civil war due to Collins's policies and over 500 of them joined the new Free State's National Army. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


The cost of the war and the budget deficit it caused was a difficulty for the new Free State and affected the Boundary Commission negotiations of 1925, which were to determine the border with Northern Ireland. The Free State agreed to waive its claim to predominantly Nationalist areas in Northern Ireland and in return its agreed share of the Imperial debt under the 1921 Treaty was not paid.[18][19] The Irish Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921. ...

W.T. Cosgrave
W.T. Cosgrave

In 1926, having failed to persuade the majority of the anti-treaty IRA or the anti-treaty party of Sinn Féin to accept the new status quo as a basis for an evolving Republic, a large faction led by De Valera and Aiken left to resume constitutional politics and to found the Fianna Fáil party. Whereas, Fianna Fáil was to become the dominant party in Irish politics, Sinn Féin became a small, isolated political party. The IRA, then much more numerous and influential than Sinn Féin, remained associated with Fianna Fáil (though not directly) until banned by De Valera in 1935. cropped image of WT Cosgrave from Image:WTCosgrave. ... cropped image of WT Cosgrave from Image:WTCosgrave. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland with 55,000 members. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


As with most civil wars, the internecine conflict left a bitter legacy, which continues to influence Irish politics to this day. The two largest political parties in the Republic are still Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, the descendants respectively of the anti-treaty and pro-treaty forces of 1922. Until the 1970s, almost all of Ireland's prominent politicians were veterans of the civil war, a fact which poisoned the relationship between Ireland's two biggest parties. Examples of Civil War veterans include: Eamon de Valera, Frank Aiken, Todd Andrews, Sean Lemass, (Republican) and W.T. Cosgrave, Richard Mulcahy and Kevin O'Higgins (Free State).[20][21] Moreover, many of these men's sons and daughters also became politicians, meaning that the personal wounds of the civil war were felt over three generations. In the 1930s after Fianna Fáil took power for the first time, it looked possible for a while that the Civil War might break out again between the IRA and the pro-Free State Blueshirts. Fortunately, this crisis was averted and by the 1950s, political violence was no longer prominent in politics in the Republic of Ireland. Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicized to ) (approximate English translation: Family or Tribe of the Irish) and officially, Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland, presently forming the largest opposition party in the Dail (Irish Parliament), and claims a membership... Dr. C.S. Todd Andrews (October 6, 1901 - October 11, 1985) was an Irish revolutionary and public servant. ... ... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ... Kevin Christopher OHiggins (Irish name Caoimhín Críostóir Ó hUiginn; June 7, 1892 – July 10, 1927). ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ...


However, the breakaway IRA continued (and continues in various forms) to exist. Up until the 1980s it still claimed to be the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic declared in 1918 and annulled by the Treaty of 1921. Some people, notably Michael McDowell, claim that this attitude, which dates from the Civil War, still underpins the politics of the Provisional IRA. Michael McDowell (Irish: ;[1] born May, 1951) was an Irish politician who led the Progressive Democrats political party. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all...


Notes

  1. ^ Michael Hopkinson, Green Against Green, p 272-273
  2. ^ ibid
  3. ^ Paul V Walsh, The Irish Civil War - A study of the conventional phase
  4. ^ (M.E. Collins, Ireland 1868-1968, page 286)
  5. ^ [[1]]
  6. ^ M.E. Collins, Ireland 1868-1966, p.297
  7. ^ Michael Hopkinson, Green Against Green, page 112, "Joe Sweeney, the pro-treaty military leader in Donegal, recorded meeting Collins shortly shortly after the assassination. He told Ernie O'Malley, 'Collins told me he had arranged the shooting of Wilson...he looked very pleased'. Frank Thornton one of Collins old Squad recalled that the killing was carried out on the direct orders of GHQ.Mick Murphy of Cork no 1 Brigade, said that when in London he had been asked to take part in the plot explaining, 'they had instructions then from Michael Collins to shoot Wilson'...statements from Collins' intelligence agents point to fresh instruction being given in June. It is clear also that [Reginald] Dunne [the assassin] and spent some time closeted with him". ME Collins, Ireland 1868-1966, p229, "Evidence has since come to light proving it was Collins, enraged by Wilson's role in the north, who ordered the killing". Niall C Hartigan, The Kerry Landings, p29, "It is probable that the execution of the ...field marshal was ordered by Collins".
  8. ^ In clashes between pro and anti treaty fighters prior to June 28, eight men had been killed and forty nine wounded, Niall C. Harrington, Kerry Landings, p.22
  9. ^ In the 1996 film Michael Collins, Eamon de Valera meets the killer of Michael Collins prior to the assassination. However, although de Valera was in the area at the time, he is not thought to have ordered the assassination.
  10. ^ Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera, p344)
  11. ^ Dáil Éireann - Volume 3 - 10 May, 1923
  12. ^ Dáil Éireann - Volume 3 - 02 July, 1923
  13. ^ (M.E Collins, Ireland 1868-1966, p431)
  14. ^ Freemans Journal, March 28 1923
  15. ^ Michael Hopkinson, Green against Green, p272-3, "There are no means by which to arrive at even approximate figures for the dead and wounded. Mulcahy stated that around 540 pro-Treaty troops were killed between the Treaty's signing and the war's end; the government referred to 800 army deaths between January 1922 and April 1924. There was no record of overall republican deaths, which appear to have been very much higher. No figure exists for total civilian deaths."
  16. ^ [[2]]
  17. ^ (Hopkinson, Green Against Green, page 273)
  18. ^ Calton Younger, Ireland's Civil War (Frederick Muller, 1968), p516.
  19. ^ Dáil Éireann - Volume 13 - 07 December, 1925
  20. ^ Whose brother Noel, a captain in the anti-Treaty IRA, was abducted and shot by Free State forces in July 1923, two months after the war had ended. His body was dumped in the Wicklow Mountains, near Glencree, where it was found in October 1923. The spot where his body was found is marked by a memorial.
  21. ^ O'Higgins was the Minister for Economic Affairs in the Free State government and was known to be in favour of executions of prisoners. His elderly father was killed by republicans during the civil war. He was assassinated in 1927 by anti-treaty IRA members on his way to Mass. He was killed in reprisal for what they viewed as his responsibility for executions of republicans during the civil war.

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Timothy Patrick Coogan is an Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and was appointed editor of the Irish Press newspaper in 1968. ... The Wicklow Mountains are a range of mountains in the south-east of Ireland. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ...

Bibliography

  • Calton Younger, Ireland's Civil War (Frederick Muller, London, 1968).
  • "A record of some mansions and houses destroyed 1922-23" (The Irish Claims Compensation Association, 1924).
  • Ernie O'Malley, The Singing Flame, Dublin, 1978.
  • M.E. Collins, Ireland 1868-1966, Dublin, 1993.
  • Michael Hopkinson, Green against Green - the Irish Civil War
  • Eoin Neeson, The Irish Civil War
  • Paul V Walsh, The Irish Civil War 1922-23 -A Study of the Conventional Phase
  • Meda Ryan, The Real Chief: The Story of Liam Lynch (Mercier Press, Dublin, 2005)
  • Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow, Dublin, 1993
  • The Treaty Debates Dec 1921-Jan 1922 on-line.
  • Niall C. Harrington, Kerry Landings

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Irish Civil War (1012 words)
The Irish Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of today's Republic of Ireland.
The Irish War of Independence), fought between Irish separatists (organised as the extra-legal Irish Republic) and the British government, from 1919-1921.
Dáil Éireann (the parliament of the Irish Republic) narrowly passed the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921.
Irish Civil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5083 words)
Although the cause of the civil war was the treaty, as the war developed the Republicans sought to identify their actions with the traditional republican cause of the "men of no property" and the result was that the war also saw large Anglo-Irish landowners, and some not very well-off Protestant Loyalists, attacked.
The fact that the Irish Civil War was fought between Irish Nationalist factions meant that the issue of Northern Ireland was ignored and Ireland was spared what could have been a far bloodier civil war based on ethnic and sectarian lines over the future of Ireland's six north-eastern counties.
Collins, up to the outbreak of the civil war and possibly until his death, had been planning to launch a clandestine guerrilla campaign against the Northern state and was funnelling arms to the northern units of the IRA to this end.
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