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Encyclopedia > Irgun
Irgun emblem. The map shows the land claimed by the organization for the Jewish state, which corresponds to current Israel, West Bank, Gaza strip and Jordan.
Irgun emblem. The map shows the land claimed by the organization for the Jewish state, which corresponds to current Israel, West Bank, Gaza strip and Jordan.

Irgun (Hebrew: ארגון‎; shorthand for Ha'Irgun Ha'Tsvai Ha'Leumi B'Eretz Yisrael, הארגון הצבאי הלאומי בארץ ישראל, "National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a clandestine Zionist militant group that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948, as a militant offshoot of the earlier and larger Haganah (Hebrew: "The Defense", ההגנה) Jewish paramilitary organization. In Israel, Irgun is commonly referred to as Etzel (אצ"ל), an acronym of the Hebrew initials. For secrecy reasons, people often referred to the Irgun, in the time in which it operated, as Haganah Bet (Hebrew: literally "Defense 'B' " or "Second Defense" הגנה ב), Haganah Ha'leumit (ההגנה הלאומית) or Ha'ma'amad (המעמד). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Pantani. ... Image File history File links Pantani. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ...


The group made attacks against the British a central part of their initial efforts. It was armed expression of the nascent ideology of Revisionist Zionism, expressed by Ze'ev Jabotinsky as that "every Jew had the right to enter Palestine; only active retaliation would deter the Arabs and the British; only Jewish armed force would ensure the Jewish state".[1] The organization was a political predecessor movement to Israel's right-wing Herut (or "Freedom") party, which led to today's Likud party. Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Zeev Jabotinsky Zeev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky MBE (Hebrew: זאב זבוטינסקי, Russian: Зеэв (Владимир Евгеньевич) Жаботинский, 18 October 1880 – 4 August 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, soldier, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. He is however most known for being the founder and leader of the jewish terroristgroup Irgun. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Herut (Hebrew: חרות Freedom) was the political party of the Revisionist Zionist movement in Israel. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ...


The most well-known attack by Irgun was the bombing of King David Hotel in Jerusalem on 22 July 1946. British authorities condemned Irgun as terrorists already in the 1930s.[2] However, Irgun also had considerable support within the Zionist movement. The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...

Irgun Commanders

Contents

Zeev Jabotinsky Zeev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky MBE (Hebrew: זאב זבוטינסקי, Russian: Зеэв (Владимир Евгеньевич) Жаботинский, 18 October 1880 – 4 August 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, soldier, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. He is however most known for being the founder and leader of the jewish terroristgroup Irgun. ... Avraham Tehomi was born in 1903 in Odessa in the Russian Empire. ... David Raziel (December 19, 1910 - May 17, 1941) was a Jewish freedom fighter during the British Mandate of Palestine, and one of the founders of the Irgun. ... Yaakov Meridor (Hebrew: יעקב מרידור, born Yaakov Viniarsky on 29 September 1913, died 30 June 1995) was a notable Israeli independence fighter, businessman and politician. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ...

Nature of the Movement

Ze'ev Jabotinsky, Formulated the movement's ideology and Supreme Leader of the Irgun
Ze'ev Jabotinsky, Formulated the movement's ideology and Supreme Leader of the Irgun

Members of the Irgun came mostly from Beitar and from the Revisionist Party both in Palestine and abroad. The Revisionist Movement made up a popular backing for the underground organization. Ze'ev Jabotinsky, founder of Revisionist Zionism, was the commander of the organization until he died. He formulated the general realm of operation, regarding Restraint and the end thereof, and was the inspiration for the organization overall. An additional major source of idealogical inspiration was the poetry of Uri Zvi Greenberg. The symbol of the organization, with the motto רק כך (Only Thus), alongside a hand holding a rifle in the foreground of all of mandatory Palestine (both sides of the Jordan River), symbolized the striving for Hebrew independence over the entire land of Israel, to be achieved only by the power of Hebrew weapons. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Zionist youth movement Betar. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Zeev Jabotinsky Zeev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky MBE (Hebrew: זאב זבוטינסקי, Russian: Зеэв (Владимир Евгеньевич) Жаботинский, 18 October 1880 – 4 August 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, soldier, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. He is however most known for being the founder and leader of the jewish terroristgroup Irgun. ... The Great Uprising in Palestine. ... Uri Zvi Greenberg, late in life. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest...


The number of members of the Irgun varied from a few hundred to a few thousand. Most of its members were people who accepted the organization's command, under which they carried out various operations and filled positions, largely in contrast to British law. Most of them were "ordinary" people, who held regular jobs, and only a few dozens worked full time in the Irgun.


The Irgun disagreed with the policy of the Yishuv and with the World Zionist Organization, both with regards to strategy, basic ideology and with regards to PR and military tactics, such as use of force for Zionist ends, attitude towards the Arabs during the riots and relations with the British mandatory government. Therefore the Irgun tended to ignore the decisions made by the Zionist leadership and the Yishuv's institutions. This fact caused the elected bodies not to recognize the independent organization, and during most of the time of its existence the organization was seen as irresponsible, and its actions thus worthy of thwarting. Therefore the Irgun accompanied its armed operations with public relations campaigns, in order to convince the public of the Irgun's way and the problems with the official political leadership of the Yishuv. The Irgun put out numerous advertisements, an underground newspaper and even ran the first independent Hebrew radio station - Kol Zion HaLochemet. Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Structure, command, insignia

As an underground organization, members did not normally call it by its name, rather used other names. In the first years of its existence it was known primarily as "ההגנה הלאומית" (the National Haganah), and also by names such as "Irgun Bet", "Haganah Bet", the "Parallel Organization" and the "Rightwing Organization". Later on it was most widely known as "המעמד" (the Stand). The anthem adopted by the Irgun was "Anonymous Soldiers",[4] written by Avraham (Yair) Stern who was at the time a commander in the Irgun. Later on Stern defected from the Irgun and founded Lehi, and the song became the anthem of the Lehi. The Irgun's new anthem then became the third verse of the "Beitar Song", by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... For other uses, see Lehi. ...


In August 1933 a "Supervisory Committee" for the Irgun was established, which included representatives from most of the Zionist political parties. The members of this committee were Meir Grossman (of the Hebrew State Party), Rabbi Meir Bar Ilan (of the Mizrachi Party, either Immanuel Neumann or Yehoshua Supersky (of the General Zionists) and Ze'ev Jabotinsky or Eliyahu Ben Horin (of Hatzohar). The committee was in charge of the Irgun until 1937, when the movement split yet again. From that point on, the Irgun was under Jabotinsky's command. After his death ties were formed between the Irgun and the New Zionist Organization. These ties were broken in 1944 when the Irgun declared war on the British government. Meir Berlin, later Hebraized to Meir Bar-Ilan, (1880 - 1949, born Volozhin, Lithuania, died Jerusalem, Israel) was an Orthodox Judaism rabbi and leader of Religious Zionism, Mizrachi movement in USA and British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Mizrachi (acronym for Merkaz Ruchani or religious centre) is the name of the religious Zionist organization founded in 1902 in Vilna at a world conference of religious Zionists called by Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Reines. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Zeev Jabotinsky Zeev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky MBE (Hebrew: זאב זבוטינסקי, Russian: Зеэв (Владимир Евгеньевич) Жаботинский, 18 October 1880 – 4 August 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, soldier, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. He is however most known for being the founder and leader of the jewish terroristgroup Irgun. ... Hatzohar, (Union of Zionists-Revisionists or Alliance of Zionists-Revisionists) was organisation found by Zeev Jabotinsky in 1925. ... The New Zionist Organization was an attempt by the Revisionist Zionist movement to establish a rival to the Zionist Organization. ...


Within the Irgun, Avraham Tehomi was the first to serve as "Head of the Headquarters" or "Chief Commander". Alongside Tehomi served the "Headquarters". When the movement expanded, districts were laid out within the movement. A local Irgun unit was called a "Branch". A "Brigade" in the Irgun was made up of three sections. A section was made up of two groups, at the head of each was a "Group Head", and a deputy. Later on various newer units were established, who answered to a "Center" or "Staff"). Ranks were put into use later on and were (in ascending order) Deputy, Group Head, Sergeant (for a Section), Sergeant A (Brigade), First Sergeant (Battalion); officer ranks were "Gundar" (District of Unit Commander) and First Gundar (Senior Commander). A rank of Major was awarded to the Irgun commander Yaakov Meridor and a rank of Major General (Aluf) to David Raziel. Until his death in 1940, Jabotinsky was known as the "Military Commander of the Etzel" or the "Supreme Commander". Avraham Tehomi was born in 1903 in Odessa in the Russian Empire. ... Yaakov Meridor (Hebrew: יעקב מרידור, born Yaakov Viniarsky on 29 September 1913, died 30 June 1995) was a notable Israeli independence fighter, businessman and politician. ... Aluf is the term used for general in the Israeli Defence Forces. ... David Raziel (December 19, 1910 - May 17, 1941) was a Jewish freedom fighter during the British Mandate of Palestine, and one of the founders of the Irgun. ...


The military nature of the organization manifested itself in two ways. First, was the execution of strict drill exercises, carrying out of ceremonies at different times, and strict attention given to discipline, formal ceremonies and military relationships between the various ranks. Another way the military nature was apparent was the organized training regime. The Irgun trained with handguns and submachine guns, hand grenade throwing, and combined attacks on targets. The Irgun put out professional publications on combat doctrine, weaponry, leadership, drill exercises, etc. Among these publications were the 240 page book "The Gun" by David Raziel and Avraham (Yair) Stern, and the 284 page book "The Compiled and Expanded Guide to Drill Exercises" by David Raziel. Up until the Arab Revolt of 1936-1939 the Haganah also made use of these guidebooks (afterwards the Haganah published its own military literature). The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ...


Until World War II the Irgun was able to arm itself by weapons purchased in Europe, primarily Italy and Poland, and smuggled to Palestine. The Irgun also established workshops that manufactured spare parts and attachments for the weapons. Also manufactured were land mines and simple hand grenades. Another way in which the Irgun armed itself was "Confiscations" - smuggling stolen weapons from the British police and military. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Founding, development and key events

Founding

The Irgun's first steps were in the aftermath of the Riots of 1929. In the Jerusalem branch of the Haganah there were feelings of disappointment and internal unrest towards the leadership of the movements and the Histadrut (at that time the organization running the Haganah). These feelings were a result of the view that the Haganah had failed after ten years of existence in the face of murders, violence, property vandalism and Jewish abandonment of settlements and neighborhoods in light of outlaws' violence and local Arab gangs towards Jews. Likewise, critics of the leadership spoke out against alleged failures in the amount of weapons, readiness of the movement and its policy of restraint and not fighting back. On April 10, 1931, commanders and equipment managers announced that they refuse to return weapons to the Haganah that had been issued to them earlier, prior to the Nebi Musa holiday. These weapons were later returned by the commander of the Jerusalem branch, Abraham Tehomi, aka "Gideon". However, the commanders who decided to rebel against the leadership of the Haganah relayed a message regarding their resignations to the Vaad Leumi, and thus this schism created a new independent movement. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ההגנה) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Histadrut (Federation [of labor]) or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל) (Hebrew: General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel) is the Israeli trade union congress. ... Vaad Leumi (Hebrew language: ועד לאומי), also known as Jewish National Council of Palestine (JNC) was the main national institution of the yishuv (Jewish community) within the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


At the helm of the new underground movement stood Abraham Tehomi, alongside other founding members who were all senior commanders in the Haganah, members of the Young Labor Party and of the Histadrut. Also among them was Eliyahu Ben Horin, an activist in the Revisionist Party. This group was known as the "Odessan Gang", because they previously had been members of the Haganah Ha'Atzmit of Jewish Odessa. The new movement was named Irgun Tsvai Leumi, ("National Military Organization") in order to emphasize its active nature in contrast to the Haganah. Moreover, the organization was founded with the desire to become a true military organization and not just a militia as the Haganah was at the time. Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


In the autumn of that year the Jerusalem group merged with other armed groups affiliated with Beitar. The Beitar groups' center of activity was in Tel Aviv, and they began their activity in 1928 with the establishment of "Officers and Instructors School of Beitar". Students at this institutions had broken away from the Haganah earlier, for political reasons, and the new group called itself the "National Defense", הגנה הלאומית. During the riots of 1929 Beitar youth participated in the defense of Tel Aviv neighborhoods under the command of Yermiyahu Halperin, at the behest of the Tel Aviv city hall. After the riots the Tel Avivian group expanded, and was known as "The Right Wing Organization". This article is about the Zionist youth movement Betar. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


After the Tel Aviv expansion another branch was established in Haifa. Towards the end of 1932 the Haganah branch of Safed also defected and joined the Irgun. Additionally, many members of the Maccabi sports association. At that time the movement's underground newsletter, Ha'Metsudah (the Tower) also began publication, expressing the active trend of the movement. The Irgun also increased its numbers by expanding draft regiments of Beitar - groups of volunteers, committed to two years of security and pioneer activities. These regiments were based in places that from which stemmed new Irgun strongholds in the many places, including the settlements of Yesod HaMa'ala, Mishmar HaYarden, Rosh Pina, Metula and Nahariya in the north; in the center - Hadera, Binyamina, Herzliya, Netanya and Kfar Sava, and south of there - Rishon LeZion, Rehovot and Ness Ziona. Later on regiments were also active in the Old City of Jerusalem ("the Kotel Brigades") among others. Primary training centers were based in Ramat Gan, Qastina (by Kiryat Mal'akhi of today) and other places. Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... The Maccabi World Union was created at the 12th World Jewish Congress in Karlovy Vary, Czechoslovakia in 1921. ... Located in the Hula Valley, Yesod HaMaala is the first modern Jewish community in the Hula Valley. ... Rosh Pinna (also spelled Roch Pina, Rosh Pinah and other variations) is a local district in North District, Israel Northern District of Israel. ... Metula is a local municipality in the North District of Israel. ... Nahariyya (נהריה; unofficially also spelled Nahariya or Naharia) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Haderas Great Synagogue Hadera (Hebrew: חדרה) is a city in the Haifa District between Tel Aviv and Haifa in Israel. ... Binyamina (Hebrew: בינימינה) is a place in the north west of Israel, near the Mediterranean, south of Haifa and north of Netanya. ... Ben-GÅ«ryōn Avenue in the centre of Herzliyyāh, facing north towards Sōkōlōv Street (1998) Herzliya (in Hebrew: הֶרְצְלִיָּה, without Niqqud: הרצלייה, commonly pronounced in Hebrew as Hertseliya) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip in the south of the Sharon region, just north... Early morning in Netanya, Israel Netanya (Hebrew: נְתַנְיָה, Standard Hebrew NÉ™tanya) is a city in the Center District of Israel and is the capital of the Sharon plain. ... Kefar Sava (כפר סבא; unofficially also spelled and pronounced Kfar Saba) is a city in the Sharon area, Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Rishon Le Zion in 2002 Rishon LeZion, or Rishon LeZiyyon (ראשון לציון) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, in the Center District of Israel, just south of Tel Aviv, and part of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area (Gush... Rehovot (Hebrew רְחוֹבוֹת ) is a city in the Center District of Israel, about 20 km south of Tel Aviv. ... Ness Ziona (נס ציונה ; unofficially also spelled Nes Ziona) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ... Ramat Gan (רמת-גן) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, just east of Tel Aviv, and part of the metropolis known as Gush Dan, in the Tel Aviv District. ... Kiryat Malakhi (Hebrew: קִרְיַת מַלְאָכִי, also transliterated Kiryat Malachi or Qiryat Malakhi) is a city in the Southern District in Israel. ...


Under Tehomi's command

Avraham Tehomi, The First Commander of the Irgun
Avraham Tehomi, The First Commander of the Irgun

In 1933 there some signs of unrest, seen by the incitement of the local Arab leadership to act against the government. The strong British response put down the disturbances quickly, and the peace was kept. During that time the Irgun operated in a similar manner to the Haganah and was a guarding organization. The two organizations cooperated in ways such as coordination of posts and even intelligence sharing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In protest against, and with the aim of ending Jewish immigration to Palestine, the Great Arab Revolt of 1936-1939 broke out on April 19, 1936. The riots took the form of attacks by Arab rioters ambushing main roads, bombing of roads and settlements as well as property and agriculture vandalism. In the beginning, the Irgun and the Haganah generally maintained a policy of restraint, apart from a few instances. Some expressed resentment at this policy, leading up internal unrest in the two organizations. The Irgun tended to retaliate more often, and sometimes Irgun members patrolled areas beyond their positions in order to encounter attackers ahead of time. However, there were differences of opinion regarding what to do in the Haganah, as well. Due to the joining of many Beitar Youth members, Jabotinsky (founder of Beitar) had a great deal of influence over Irgun policy. Nevertheless, Jabotinsky was of the opinion that for moral reasons violent retaliation was not to be undertaken. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The Betar Movement (ביתר, also spelled Beitar) was founded in 1923 in Riga, Latvia, by Zionist leader Zeev Jabotinsky. ...


During the first stage of the Revolt, from April 1936 until October of that year, 80 Jews were killed, 369 were injured, 19 schools were attacked, nine orphanages and three old-age homes. 380 attacks on trains and buses were carried out, and approximately 4,000 acres (16 km²) of agricultural land were destroyed. These actions were carried out by armed Arab gangs who were joined by Syrian and Iraqi reinforcements. The Supreme Arab Committee, led by Haj Amin al-Husayni, who directed these riots, also declared a general strike on labor and trade. In the beginning of October 1936 gang activity declined due to the intervention of the British Army. Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ...


In November 1936 the Peel Commission was sent to inquire regarding the breakout of the riots and propose a solution to end the Revolt. In early 1937 there were still some in the Yishuv who felt the commission would recommend a partition of the land west of the Jordan River, thus creating a Jewish state on part of the land. The Irgun leadership, as well as the "Supervisory Committee" held similar beliefs, as did some members of the Haganah and the Jewish Agency. This belief strengthened the policy of restraint and led to the position that there was no room for defense institutions in the future Jewish state. Tehomi was quoted as saying: "We stand before great events: a Jewish state and a Jewish army. There is a need for a single military force". This position intensified the differences of opinion regarding the policy of restraint, both within the Irgun and within the political camp aligned with the organization. The leadership committee of the Irgun supported a merger with the Haganah. On April 24, 1937 a referendum was held among Irgun members regarding its continued independent existence. David Raziel and Avraham (Yair) Stern came out publicly in support for the continued existence of the Irgun: The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... The Great Uprising in Palestine. ...

The Irgun has been placed... before a decision to make, whether to submit to the authority of the government and the Jewish Agency or to prepare for a double sacrifice and endangerment. Some of our friends do not have appropriate willingness for this difficult position, and have submitted to the Jewish Agency and has left the battle... all of the attempts... to unite with the leftist organization have failed, because the Left entered into negotiations not on the basis of unification of forces, but the submission of one such force to the other...[5]

The first split

In April 1937 the Irgun split after the referendum. Approxmiately 1,500-2,000 people, about half of the Irgun's membership, including the senior command staff, regional committee members, along with most of the Irgun's weapons, returned to the Haganah, which at that time was under the Jewish Agency's leadership. In their opinion, in order to remove the Haganah from the Jewish Agency's leadership to the national institutions necessitated their return. Furthermore, they no longer saw significant ideological differences between the movements. Those who remained in the Irgun were primarily young activists, mostly laypeople, who sided with the independent existence of the Irgun. In fact, most of those who remained were originally Beitar people. Moshe Rosenberg estimated that approximately 1,800 members remained. In theory, the Irgun remain an organization not aligned with a political party, but in reality the supervisory committee was disbanded and the Irgun's continued ideological path was outlined according Ze'ev Jabotinsky's school of thought and his decisions, until the movement eventually became Revisionist Zionism's military arm. One of the major changes in policy by Jabotinsky's was the end of the policy of restraint. Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Great Uprising in Palestine. ...


On April 27, 1937 the Irgun founded a new headquarters, staffed by Moshe Rosenberg at the head, Avraham (Yair) Stern as secretary, David Raziel as head of the Jerusalem branch, Hanoch Kalai as commander of Haifa and Aharon Haichman as commander of Tel Aviv. On the 20th of Tammuz, (June 29) the day of Theodor Herzl's death, a ceremony was held in honor of the reorganization of the underground movement. For security purposes this ceremony was held at a construction site in Tel Aviv. Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... Tammuz (תמוז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz) This is the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year, the seventh month of the Arabic calendar, and the fourth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ...


Ze'ev Jabotinsky placed Col. Robert Bitker at the head of the Irgun. Bitker had previously served as Beitar commissioner in China and had military experience. A few months later, probably due to total incompatibility with the position, Jabotinsky replaced Bitker with Moshe Rosenberg. When the Peel Commission report was published a few months later, the Revisionist camp decided not to accept the commission's recommendations. Moreover, the organizations of Beitar, Hatzohar and the Irgun began to increase their efforts to bring Jews to the land of Israel, illegally. This Aliyah was known as the עליית אף על פי "Af Al Pi (Nevertheless) Aliyah". As opposed to this position, the Jewish Agency began acting on behalf of the Zionist interest on the political front, and continued the policy of restraint. From this point onwards the differences between the Haganah and the Irgun were much more obvious. The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ... Hatzohar, (Union of Zionists-Revisionists or Alliance of Zionists-Revisionists) was organisation found by Zeev Jabotinsky in 1925. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Illegal Aliyah

The ship Patria unloading immigrants at the beach in Tel Aviv
The ship Patria unloading immigrants at the beach in Tel Aviv

According to Jabotinsky's "Evacuation Plan", which called for millions of European Jews to be brought to Palestine at once, the Irgun helped the illegal immigration of European Jews to the land of Israel. This was named by Jabotinsky the "National Sport". The most significant part of this illegal immigration prior to World War II was carried out by the Revisionist camp, largely because the Yishuv institutions and the Jewish Agency shied away from such an expensive illegal project, as well as the belief that Britain would in the future allow widespread Jewish immigration. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the effort initiated by Polish Zionists from Lublin to bring European Jews to Palestine (1944-48), see Berihah. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ...


The Irgun joined forces with Hatzohar and Beitar in September 1937, when it assisted with the Aliyah of a convoy of 54 Beitar members at Tantura Beach (near Haifa). The Irgun was responsible for discreetly bringing the Olim or Jewish immigrants to the beaches, and dispersing them among the various Jewish settlements. The Irgun also began participating in the organizing of the immigration enterprise and undertook the process of accompanying the ships. This began with the ship Draga which arrived at the coast of the land of Israel in September 1938. In August of the same year, an agreement was made between Ari Jabotinsky (the son of Ze'ev Jabotinsky), the Beitar representative and Hillel Kook, the Irgun representative, to coordinate the immigration (also known as Haapala). This agreement was also made in the "Paris Convention" in February 1939, at which also present were Ze'ev Jabotinsky and David Raziel. Afterwards, the "Aliyah Center" was founded, made up of representatives of Hatzohar, Beitar, and the Irgun, thereby making the Irgun a full participant in the organization and execution process. Hatzohar, (Union of Zionists-Revisionists or Alliance of Zionists-Revisionists) was organisation found by Zeev Jabotinsky in 1925. ... This article is about the Zionist youth movement Betar. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה; ascent) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Hillel Kook (Hebrew: , born 24 July 1915, died 18 August 2001), also known as Peter Bergson (Hebrew: פיטר ברגסון), was a Revisionist Zionist activist, politician, and prominent member of the Irgun. ... For the effort initiated by Polish Zionists from Lublin to bring European Jews to Palestine (1944-48), see Berihah. ...


The difficult conditions on the ships demanded a high level of discipline. The people on board the ships were often split into units, led by commanders. In addition to having a daily roll call and the distribution of food and water (usually very little of either), organized talks were held to provide information regarding the actual arrival in Palestine. One of the largest ships was the Sakaria, with 2,300 Olim, who at the time made up 0.5% of the Jewish population in Palestine. The first vessel arrived on April 13, 1937, and the last on February 13, 1940. All told, about 18,000 Jews reached Palestine with the help of the Revisionist organizations and private initiatives of other Revisionists. Most were not caught by the British. Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה; ascent) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


End of restraint

David Raziel, commander of the Irgun
David Raziel, commander of the Irgun

Irgun members continued to defend settlements, but at the same time began counter-attacks, thus ending the policy of restraint. These attacks were intended to instill fear in the Arab side, in order to cause the Arabs to wish for peace and quiet. In March 1938, David Raziel wrote in the underground newspaper "By the Sword" a constitutive article for the Irgun overall, in which he coined the term "Active Defense": Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The actions of the Haganah alone will never be a true victory. If the goal of the war is to break the will of the enemy - and this cannot be attained without destroying his spirit - clearly we cannot be satisfied with solely defensive operations... Such a method of defense, that allows the enemy to attack at will, to reorganize and attack again... and does not intend to remove the enemy's ability to attack a second time - is called passive defense, and ends in downfall and destruction... whoever does not wish to be beaten has no choice by to attack. The fighting side, that does not intend to oppress but to save its liberty and honor, he too has only one way available - the way of attack. Defensiveness by way out offensiveness, in order to deprive the enemy the option of attacking, is called active defense.

The first operations began around April 1936, and by the end of World War II, more than 250 Arabs had been killed. The trend of activities was an attempt to respond "an eye for an eye" in the form of violent operations against Arab violence, and often to match the form of retaliation or its location to correspond to the attack that prevoked it. A number of examples: “Talion” redirects here. ...

  • After an Arab shooting at "Carmel" school in Tel Aviv, which resulted in the death of Jewish child, Irgun members attacked an Arab neighborhood near Kerem Hatemanim in Tel Aviv, killing one Arab man and injuring another.
  • On August 17, the Irgun responded to shootings by Arabs from the Jaffa-Jerusalem train towards Jews that were waiting by the train block on Herzl St. in Tel Aviv. The same day, when a Jewish child was injured by the shooting, Irgun members attacked a train on the same route, killing one Arab and injuring five.

During 1936 Irgun members carried out approximately ten retaliatory operations. A oil painting of the neighbourhood Kerem HaTemanim (Hebrew: כרם התימנים) is a Yemenite Israeli neighbourhood in within Tel Aviv-Yafo. ... Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Throughout 1937 the Irgun continued this line of operation.

  • On March 6, a Jew at Sabbath prayers at the Western Wall was shot by a local Arab. A few hours later the Irgun shot at an Arab in the Jerusalem neighborhood of Rechavia.
  • On June 29, a band of Arabs attacked an Egged bus on the Jerusalem - Tel Aviv road, killing one Jew. The following day, two Jews were also killed near Karkur. A few hours later, the Irgun carried out a number of operations.
    • An Arab bus making its way from Lifta was attacked in Jerusalem.
    • In two other locations in Jerusalem, Arabs were shot as well.
    • In Tel Aviv, a hand grenade was thrown at an Arab coffee shop on Carmel St., injuring many of the patrons.
    • Irgun members also injured an Arab on Reines St. in Tel Aviv.
    • On September 5, the Irgun responded to the murder of a rabbi on his way home from prayer in the Old City of Jerusalem by throwing explosives at an Arab bus that had left Lifta, injuring two female passengers and a British police officer.

A more complete list can be found here. The wall by night “Wailing Wall” redirects here. ... Egged A bendy city bus in Israel. ... Pardes Hanna-Karkur (Hebrew: פרדס חנה-כרכור) is a town (local council) in the Haifa District of Israel. ... Derelict houses line the hillside of Lifta Lifta (Arabic: ; ‎ Mei Niftoach, lit. ... The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ... During the Great Uprising (1936-1939) of the Arabs in Palestine, in which more than 320 Jews were killed by Arab attacks, the Irgun carried out sixty retaliatory attacks against Arabs, reflecting its worldview that political violence and terrorism were legitimate tools in the Jewish national struggle for the Land...


At that time, however, these acts were not yet a part of a formulated policy of the Irgun.[6] Not all of the aforementioned operations received a commander's approval, and Jabotinsky was not in favor of such actions at the time. Jabotinsky still hoped to establish a Jewish force out in the open that would not have to operate underground. However, the failure, in its eyes, of the Peel Commission and the renewal of violence on the part of the Arabs caused the Irgun to rethink its official policy. The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ...


Increase in operations

November 14, 1937 was a watershed in Irgun activity. From that date, the Irgun increased its reprisals. Following an increase in the number of attacks aimed at Jews, including the killing of five kibbutz members near Kiryat Anavim (today Ma'aleh Ha'Chamisha Kibbutz), the Irgun undertook a series of attacks in various places in Jerusalem, killing five Arabs. Operations were also undertaken in Haifa (shooting at the Arab-populated Wadi Nisnas neighborhood) and in Herzliya. The date is known as the day the policy of restraint (Havlagah) ended, or as "Black Sunday". This is when the organization fully changed its policy, with the approval of Jabotinsky and Headquarters to the policy of "active defense" in respect of Irgun actions.[7] Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Kiryat Anavim (Hebrew: , lit. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Ben-GÅ«ryōn Avenue in the centre of Herzliyyāh, facing north towards Sōkōlōv Street (1998) Herzliya (in Hebrew: הֶרְצְלִיָּה, without Niqqud: הרצלייה, commonly pronounced in Hebrew as Hertseliya) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip in the south of the Sharon region, just north... The Great Uprising in Palestine. ...


The British responded with the arrest of Beitar and Hatzohar members as suspected members of the Irgun. Military courts were allowed to act under "Time of Emergency Regulations" and even sentence people to death. In this manner Yehezkel Altman, a guard in a Beitar battalion in the Nahalat Yizchak neighborhood of Tel Aviv, shot at an Arab bus, without his commanders' knowledge. Altman was acting in response to a shooting at Jewish vehicles on the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem road the day before. He turned himself in later and was sentenced to death, a sentence which was later commuted to a life sentence.


Despite the arrests, Irgun members continued fighting. Jabotinsky lent his moral support to these activities. In a letter to Moshe Rosenberg on March 18, 1938 he wrote:

Tell them: from afar I collect and save, as precious treasures, news items about your lives. I know of the obstacles that have not impeded your spirit; and I know of your actions as well. I am overjoyed that I have been blessed with such students.

The Irgun continued activities such as these, however following Rosenberg's orders they were greatly curtailed. Furthermore, in fear of the British threat of the death sentence for anyone found carrying a weapon, all operations were suspended for eight months. However, opposition to this policy gradually increased. In April, 1938, responding to the killing of six Jews, in which a woman was raped and dismembered, Beitar members from the Rosh Pina Brigade went on a reprisal mission, without the consent of their commander, as described by historian Avi Shlaim: Rosh Pinna (also spelled Roch Pina, Rosh Pinah and other variations) is a local district in North District, Israel Northern District of Israel. ... Avi Shlaim was born in Baghdad in 1945 and grew up in Israel where he did national service from 1964 to 1966. ...

On 21 April 1938, after several weeks of planning, he and two of his colleagues from the Irgun (Etzel) ambushed an Arab bus at a bend on a mountain road near Safad. They had a hand-grenade, a gun and a pistol. Their plan was to destroy the engine so that the bus would fall off the side of the road and all the passengers would be killed. When the bus approached, they fired at it (not in the air, as Mailer has it) but the grenade lobbed by Ben Yosef did not detonate. The bus with its screaming and terrified passengers drove on.[8]

Although the incident ended without casualties, the three were caught, and one of them - Shlomo Ben-Yosef was sentenced to death. Demonstrations around the country, as well as pressure from institutions and people such as Dr. Chaim Weizmann and the Chief Rabbi of Mandatory Palestine, Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog did not reduce his sentence. In Shlomo Ben-Yosef's writings in Hebrew were later found: Shlomo Ben-Yosef was born in Poland as Shalom Tabachnik on May 7, 1913. ... Haim Azriel Weizman (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן, also known as Chaijim Weizmann or Chaim Weizmann, November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel which eventually became... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, also known as Isaac Herzog, was the first Chief Rabbi of the Republic of Ireland and, later, of the British mandate in Palestine and Israel, once formed. ...

I am going to die and I am not sorry at all. Why? Because I am going to die for our country. Shlomo Ben-Yosef.

On June 29, 1938 he was executed, and was the first of Olei Hagardom. The Irgun revered him after his death and many regarded him as an example. Monument commemorating those who were hanged in the gallows, situated in Ramat Gan Olei Hagardom (Hebrew: Those hanged in the gallows, עולי הגרדום) is the term commonly used for those Jewish fighters that were tried before British Mandate courts and executed by hanging, usually in the Acre prison. ...


In light of this, and due to the anger of the Irgun leadership over the decision to adopt a policy of restraint until that point, Jabotinsky relieved Rosenberg of his post and replaced him with David Raziel who proved to be the most prominent Irgun commander until Menachem Begin. Jabotinsky simultaneously instructed the Irgun to end its policy of restraint, leading to armed offensive operations until the end of the Arab Revolt in 1939. In this time the Irgun mounted about 40 operations against Arabs and Arab villages, for instance:   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ...

  • After a Jewish father and son were killed in the Old City of Jerusalem, on June 6, 1938, Irgun members threw explosives from the roof of a nearby house, killing two Arabs and injuring four.
  • The Irgun planted land mines in a number of Arab markets, primarily in places identified by the Irgun as activity centers of armed Arab gangs.
    • Explosives detonated in the Arab souk in Jerusalem on July 15, killed ten local Arabs.
    • In similar circumstances, 70 Arabs were killed by a land mine planted in the Arab souk in Haifa.

This action led the British Parliament to discuss the disturbances in Palestine. On February 23, 1939 the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Malcolm MacDonald revealed the British intention to cancel the mandate over Palestine and establish a state that would preserve Arab rights. This caused a wave of riots and attacks by Arabs against Jews. The Irgun responded four days later with a series of attacks on Arab buses and other sites. The British used military force against the Arab rioters and in the latter stages of the revolt by the Arab community in Palestine deteriorated into a series of internal gang wars. “Minefield” redirects here. ... The souq in Marrakech, Morocco A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ... The souq in Marrakech, Morocco A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Malcolm Ian Macdonald (born January 7, 1950, Fulham, England) was an English footballer always known as Supermac. Born in Fulham, London, Macdonald started out as a full back before switching to centre forward. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...


During the same period

In reality, the armed operations against Arabs were the actions of small groups, or even individual Irgun members. Most of the Irgun were involved during this time with protection and defense of settlements. By the late thirties, the Irgun comprised mainly Beitar youth (from its branches or from its work brigades), Hazohar members and the National Workers Union, youth belonging to the Maccabi youth group, members of the religious youth group "Alliance of the Hasmoneans" and students from the national unions Yavneh, Yodfat and Elal. In certain places, including settlements in Samaria, the Sharon and southern Judea these were the primary defensive forces. In some areas Irgun forces cooperated with Haganah members, such as in the setting up of Tel Zur (now known as Even-Yehuda), a Tower and Stockade Beitar settlement. The Maccabi World Union was created at the 12th World Jewish Congress in Karlovy Vary, Czechoslovakia in 1921. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Sharon (Hebrew שרון Šārôn) is a region of the central coast of Israel. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Even Yehuda a village in the Sharon region of Netanya. ... Tower and stockade is a term used to describe a massive settlement campaign by Zionist settlers in the British Mandate of Palestine between 1936 and 1939, during the Arab Uprising, when the establishment of new Jewish settlements was restricted by the mandatory authorities. ...


At the same time, the Irgun also established itself in Europe. The Irgun built underground cells that participated in organizing Aliyah convoys. The cells were made up almost entirely of Beitar members, and their primary activity was military training in preparation for emigration to Palestine. Ties formed with the Polish authorities brought about courses in which Irgun commanders were trained by Polish officers in advanced military issues such as guerrilla warfare, tactics and laying land mines. Avraham (Yair) Stern was notable among the cell organizers in Europe. In 1937 the Polish authorities began to deliver large amounts of weapons to the underground. The transfer of handguns, rifles, explosives and ammunition stopped with the outbreak of World War II. Another field in which the Irgun operated was the training of pilots, so they could serve in the Air Force in the future war for independence, in the flight school in Lod. “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... A tactic is a method employed to help achieve a certain goal. ... Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... Downtown area of Lod Lod (Hebrew לוֹד; Arabic اَلْلُدّْ al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda, Tiberian Hebrew לֹד Lōḏ) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ...


Towards the end of 1938 there was progress towards aligning the ideologies of the Irgun and the Haganah. Many rid themselves of the illusion that a Jewish state would be soon exist on that divided land. The Haganah founded פו"מ, a special operations unit, (pronounced poom), which carried out armed operations in response to, and in order to prevent Arab violence. These operations continued into 1939. Furthermore, the opposition within the Yishuv to illegal immigration significantly reduced, and the Haganah began to bring Jews to Palestine using rented ships, as the Irgun had in the past. Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ...


First operations against the British

The publishing of MacDonald White Paper in May 1939 brought with it new edicts that were intended to lead to a more equitable settlement betweens Jews and Palestinians. However it was considered by some to be adversely affecting the continued development of the Jewish community. Chief among these was the prohibition on selling land to Jews and minuscule quotas for Jewish immigration. The entire Yishuv was furious at the contents of the White Paper. There were demonstrations against the White Paper and it was known as the "Treacherous Paper" because it was seen as the Jews' ultimate betrayal by the British, and the end of their desire to establish a homeland in the land of Israel. The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour of Jews and...


The Irgun began sabotaging strategic infrastructure such as electricity facilities, radio and telephone lines. It also started publicizing its activity and its goals. This was done in street announcements, newspapers, as well as the underground radio station Kol Zion HaLochemet. The British responded with numerous arrests of Beitar and Hatzohar members, some of whom were mistreated to obtain information about the Irgun. The Irgun warned that such activity would lead to a response. On August 26, 1939 the Irgun published a death sentence against Ralph Krans, a British police officer who, as head of the Jewish Department in their secret police, had tortured a number of youths who were underground members. Krans and another British officer in the secret police were killed from a hidden mine explosion by the Irgun. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hatzohar, (Union of Zionists-Revisionists or Alliance of Zionists-Revisionists) was organisation found by Zeev Jabotinsky in 1925. ...


The British increased their efforts against the Irgun. As a result David Raziel, commander of the Irgun was arrested on May 19. On August 31 the British police arrested members meeting of the Irgun headquarters. On September 1, 1939 World War II broke out. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During World War II

Following war's outbreak, Ze'ev Jabotinsky and the New Zionist Organization voiced their support for the Britain and France. In mid-September 1939 Raziel was moved from his place of detention in Tzrifin. This, among other events, triggered the Irgun to announce a cessation of its activities against the British so as not to hinder Britain's effort to fight "the Hebrew's greatest enemy in the world - German Nazism". This announcement ended with the hope that after the war a Hebrew state would be founded "within the historical borders of the liberated homeland". After this announcement Irgun, Beitar and Hatzohar members, including Raziel and the Irgun leadership, were gradually released from detention. The Irgun did not rule out joining the British Army and the Jewish Brigade. Irgun members did enlist to various army units.[9] Irgun members also assisted British forces with intelligence in Romania, Bulgaria, as well as Morocco and Tunisia. An Irgun unit also operated in Syria and Lebanon. David Raziel later died in such an operation in the service of Britain. The New Zionist Organization was an attempt by the Revisionist Zionist movement to establish a rival to the Zionist Organization. ... Tzrifin is an area in Gush Dan (Dan Region) in central Israel, located on the eastern side of Rishon LeZion and bordered to the east by Beer Yaaqov. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Jewish Brigade recruitment poster: For Vengeance and Salvation! A recruitment drive poster for the Jewish Brigade: Soldiers of 1915-1918: to the flag! (Figure in background represents the Jewish Legion of World War I) The Jewish Brigade was a fighting unit in the British Army composed of volunteers from the...


During the Holocaust Beitar members revolted numerous times against the Nazis in occupied Europe. The largest of these revolts was the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising where an armed underground organization, comprising Beitar, Hatzohar and Polish Irgun cell members and known as Żydowski Związek Wojskowy, (Jewish Military Union) fought. There were instances of Beitar members enlisted in the British military smuggled British weapons to the Irgun. For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Combatants Nazi Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Odilo Globocnik Ludwig Hahn Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman... Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Wojskowy (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground resistance organization operating during World War II in the area of the Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ...


From 1939 onwards, an Irgun delegation in the United States, worked for the creation of a Jewish army, to fight alongside the Allied Forces, and to be made up of Jewish refugees and Jews from Palestine. In July 1943 the "Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People in Europe" was formed and it worked until the end of the war to rescue the Jews of Europe from the Nazis and to garner public support. However, it was not until January 1944 that President Franklin Roosevelt established the War Refugee Board, which did achieve some success in saving Jews in Europe. FDR redirects here. ... The War Refugee Board, established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in January of 1944, was a U.S. executive agency created to aid civilian victims of the Nazi and Axis powers. ...


The second split

Avraham (Yair) Stern

Throughout this entire period the British continued enforcing the MacDonald White Paper's provisions, which included a ban on the sale of land to Jews, restrictions on Jewish immigration and increased vigilance against illegal immigration. Part of the reason why the British banned land sales (to anyone) was the confused state of the post Ottoman land registery, it was difficult to determine who actually owned the land that was for sale. Image File history File links AvStern. ... Image File history File links AvStern. ... The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour of Jews and...


Within the ranks of the Irgun this created much disappointment and unrest, at the center of which was disagreement with the leadership of the New Zionist Organization, David Raziel and the Irgun Headquarters. On June 18, 1939 Avraham (Yair) Stern and others of the leadership were released from prison and a rift opened between them the Irgun and Hatzohar leadership. The controversy centred on the issues of the underground movement submitting to public political leadership and those of fighting the British. On his release from prison Raziel resigned from Headquarters. To his chagrin, independent operations of senior members of the Irgun were carried out and even some commanders who doubted Raziel's loyalty. The New Zionist Organization was an attempt by the Revisionist Zionist movement to establish a rival to the Zionist Organization. ...


In this stead, Stern was elected to the leadership. Beitar and Hatzohar members resented this appointment because it was seen as undermining Jabotinsky's authority. In the past, Stern had founded secret Irgun cells in Poland without Jabotinsky's knowledge, in opposition to his opinion. Furthermore, Stern was in favor of removing the Irgun from the authority of New Zionist Organization, whose leadership urged Raziel to return to the command of the Irgun, and he finally consented. Jabotinsky wrote to Raziel and to Stern. These letters were distributed to the branches of the Irgun:

'...I call upon you: Let nothing disturb our unity. Listen to the commissioner (Raziel), whom I trust, and promise me that you and Beitar, the greatest of my life's achievements, will stand strong and united and allow me to continue with the hope for victory in the war to realize our old Maccabean dream...' This article is about the Zionist youth movement Betar. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ...

Stern was sent a telegram with an order to obey Raziel, who was reappointed. However, these events did not prevent the splitting of the organization. Suspicion and distrust were rampant among the members. Out of the Irgun a new organization was created on July 17, 1940[10], which was first named "The National Military Organization in Israel" (as opposed to the "National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") and later on changed its name to Lehi, an acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel", (לח"י - לוחמי חירות ישראל). Jabotinsky died in New York, on August 4, 1940, yet this did not prevent the Lehi split. For other uses, see Lehi. ... This article is about the state. ...


The primary difference between the Irgun and the newly formed organization was its intention to fight the British in Palestine, regardless of their war against Germany. Later, additional operational and ideological differences developed that contradicted some of the Irgun's guiding principles. For example the Lehi supported the exchange of population with regards to the local Arabs. The Irgun, on the other hand, acted according the Revisionist school of thought that said 'There he shall quench his thirst with plenty and happiness, the son of Arab, son of Nazareth (i.e. Christian) and my son.'


Moreover, the Irgun's fight against the British was only intended to expel them from the area, and the option of future diplomatic ties with Britain was not discounted. The Lehi, however, declared total war against imperialism and the empire. Also unlike Irgun fighters, Lehi fighters would travel with their weapon on them at all times. One more striking difference was the fact that the Irgun concentrated its operations against British centers of government and its facilities in Palestine, and sometimes warned the British about impending explosions. This contrasted the Lehi's struggle that, at times, was directed towards personal attacks and the assassination of leadership, military, and police figures.


Towards a change of policy

The Irgun's Anthem[11]

Tagar -
Through all obstacles and enemies
Whether you go up or down
In the flames of revolt
Carry a flame to kindle - never mind!
For silence is filth
Worthless is blood and soul
For the sake of the hidden glory

To die or to conquer the hill -
Yodefet, Masada, Beitar.

The split damaged the Irgun both organizationally and from a morale point of view. As their spiritual leader, Jabotinsky's death also added to this feeling. Together, these factor brought about a mass abandonment by members. The British secret police took advantage of this weakness to gather intelligence and arrest Irgun activists. The new Irgun leadership, which included Meridor, Yerachmiel Ha'Levi, Moshe Segal and others used the forced hiatus in activity to rebuild the injured organization. This period was also marked by more cooperation between the Irgun and the Jewish Agency, however Ben Gurion's uncompromising demand that Irgun accept the Agency's command foiled any further cooperation. ...


In both the Irgun and the Haganah more voices were being heard opposing any cooperation with the British. Nevertheless, an Irgun operation carried out in the service of Britain was aimed at sabotaging pro-Nazi forces in Iraq, including the assassination of Haj Amin al-Husayni. Among others, Raziel and Yaakov Meridor participated. On April 20, 1941, during a Luftwaffe air raid on Habbaniya Airport near Baghdad, David Raziel, commander of the Irgun, was killed during the operation. Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... Yaakov Meridor (Hebrew: יעקב מרידור, born Yaakov Viniarsky on 29 September 1913, died 30 June 1995) was a notable Israeli independence fighter, businessman and politician. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


In late 1943 a joint Haganah - Irgun initiative was developed, to form a single fighting body, unaligned with any political party, by the name of עם לוחם (Fighting Nation).[12][13] The new body's first plan was to kidnap the British High Commissioner of Palestine, Sir Harold MacMichael and deport him to Cyprus. However the Haganah leaked the planned operation and it was thwarted before it got off the ground. Nevertheless, at this stage the Irgun ceased its cooperation with the British. As Eliyahu Lankin tells in his book: Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael (1882-1969) was a British colonial administrator. ... The following persons have been listed either by the Irguns website[1] or by reputable independent sources (meeting Wikipedia standards for reliablity) as being notable members of the Irgun, a Zionist paramilitary organization that existed from 1931 through 1948, when it was formally dissolved and its members integrated into...

Immediately following the failure of Fighting Nation practical discussions began in the Irgun Headquarters regarding a declaration of war

Revolt

In 1941 Menachem Begin arrived in Palestine as a soldier in the Polish army-in-exile,[14] which was commanded by Władysław Anders and known as "Anders Army", from which he was soon released. His arrival created new-found expectations within the Irgun and Beitar. Begin had served as head of the Beitar movement in Poland,[15] and was a respected leader. Yaakov Meridor, then the commander of the Irgun, raised the idea of appointing Begin to the post. In late 1943, when Begin accepted the position, a new leadership was formed. Meridor became Begin's deputy, and other members of the board were Aryeh Ben Eliezer, Eliyahu Lankin, and Shlomo Lev Ami.[16]   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders Lt. ... Polish volunteers to the Anders Army, released from Soviet POW camp. ... Yaakov Meridor (Hebrew: יעקב מרידור, born Yaakov Viniarsky on 29 September 1913, died 30 June 1995) was a notable Israeli independence fighter, businessman and politician. ...


On February 1, 1944 the Irgun put up posters all around the country, proclaiming a revolt against the British mandatory government. The posters started by saying that all of the Zionist movements stood by the Allied Forces and over 25,000 Jews had enlisted in the British military. The hope to establish a Jewish army had died. Throughout the war the Middle East Arabs had favoured Germany's side. European Jewry was trapped and was being destroyed, yet Britain, on its part, did not allow any rescue missions. This part of the document ends with the following words: This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...

The White Paper is still in effect. It is enforced, despite the betrayal of the Arabs and the loyalty of the Jews; despite the mass enlisting to the British Army; despite the ceasefire and the quiet in The Land of Israel; despite the massacre of masses of the Jewish people in Europe...
The facts are simple and horrible as one. Over the last four years of the war we have lost millions of the best of our people; millions more are in danger of eradication. And The Land of Israel is closed off and quarantined because the British rule it, realizing the White Paper, and strives for the destruction of our people's last hope.

The Irgun then declared that, for its part, the ceasefire was over and they were now at war with the British. It demanded the transfer of rule to a Jewish government, to implement ten policies. Among these were the mass evacuation of Jews from Europe, the signing of treaties with any state that recognized the Jewish state's soveriegnty, including Britain, granting social justice to the state's residents, and full equality to the Arab population. The proclamation ended with: The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour of Jews and... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

The God of Israel, God of Hosts, will be at our side. There is no retreat. Liberty or death. ...the fighting youth will not recoil in the face of sacrifices and suffering, blood and torment. They will not surrender, so long as our days of old are not renewed, so long as our nation is not ensured a homeland, liberty, honor, bread, justice and law.

The Irgun began this campaign rather weakly - the organization was only about 1,000 strong, out of which only some 200 were fighters. Weapons were also sparse. The Irgun underwent a reorganization and was redivided in different brigades: Combat Corps - the Irgun's primary fighting force; The Sea - the Irgun's special operations unit; Delek (דלק - Gasoline) - intelligence; HATAM ( חת"מ - Revolutionary Publicity Corps); and HAT (ח"ת - Planning Division). The Irgun became more secretive and its commanders assumed new identities and homes. Begin, for example, assumed a Rabbi's identity ("Yisrael Sasover"), and was sometimes known as "Ben Ze'ev" or "Dr. Kenigshopper".


Struggle against the British

The Irgun began a terrorist operation against the symbols of government, in an attempt to harm the regime's operation as well as its reputation. The Irgun made a rule for itself - no individual terror and an attempt to avoid causalties.[16], it is a matter of debate as to whether Irgun met these rules. The first attack was on February 12, 1944 at the government immigration offices, a symbol of the immigration laws. The attacks went smoothly and ended with no casualties - as they took place on a Saturday night, when the buildings were empty - in the three largest cities: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. On February 27 the income tax offices were bombed. Parts of the same cities were blown up, also on a Saturday night, prior warnings were put up near the buildings. On March 23 the national headquarters building of the British police in the Russian Compound in Jerusalem was attacked, and part of it was blown up. These attacks in the first few months were sharply condemned by the organized leadership of the Yishuv and by the Jewish Agency, who saw them as dangerous provocations. The Holy Trinity church in the Russian Compound The Russian Compound (Migrash Harusim; Hebrew: ) is one of the oldest districts in Jerusalem, Israel, including a few government buildings and one large church. ...


At the same time the Lehi also renewed its attacks against the British.[17] The Irgun continued to attack police stations and headquarters, and Tegart Fort, a fortified police station (today the location of Latrun). One relatively complex operation was overtaking of the governmental radio station in Ramallah, on May 17, 1944. For other uses, see Lehi. ... A Tegart fort is a style of militarized police fortress constructed throughout Palestine during the British Mandatory period. ... The Trappist Monastery The area of Latrun (Hebrew: ‎) (al-Latrun in Arabic) is a region of the Ayalon Valley, about 15 kilometers west of Jerusalem and 14 kilometers southeast of Ramla. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ...


One symbolic act by the Irgun happened before Yom Kippur of 1944. They plastered notices around town, warning that no British officers should come to the Western Wall on Yom Kippur, and for the first time since the mandate began no British police officers were there to prevent the Jews from the traditional Shofar blowing at the end of the fast.[18] After the fast that year the Irgun attacked four police stations in Arab settlements. In order to obtain weapons, the Irgun carried out "confiscation" operations - they took over British armouries and smuggled stolen weapons to their own hiding places. During this phase of activity the Irgun also cut all of its official ties with the New Zionist Organization, so as not to tie their fate in the underground organization. Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... The wall by night “Wailing Wall” redirects here. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The New Zionist Organization was an attempt by the Revisionist Zionist movement to establish a rival to the Zionist Organization. ...


Begin wrote in his memoirs, The Revolt: As a literary genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire from the Latin memoria, meaning memory) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ...

History and experience taught us that if we are able to destroy the prestige of the British in Palestine, the regime will break. Since we found the enslaving government's weak point, we did not let go of it.[19]

Underground exiles

Image:GoleyAfrica.jpg
Exiles to Africa in a Camp in Sembel, 1946. The sign says "If I Forget Thee, O Jerusalem, Let My Right Hand Wither"

In October 1944 the British began expelling hundreds of arrested Irgun and Lehi members to detention camps in Africa. 251 detainees from Latrun were flown on thirteen planes, on October 19 to a camp in Asmara, Eritrea. Eleven additional transports were made. Throughout the period of their detention, the detainees often initiated rebellions and hunger strikes. Many escape attempts were made until July 1948 when the exiles were returned to Israel. While there were numerous successful escapes from the camp itself, only nine men actually made it back all the way. One noted success was Yaakov Meridor's, who escaped nine times until he managed to reach Europe in April 1948. These tribulations were the subject of his book Long is the Path to Freedom: Chronicles of one of the Exiles. Excavation of archaeological site outside of Sembel, Eritrea Sembel was the site of a village near Asmara, however it is now a suburb of Asmara, Eritrea to the south. ... The Trappist Monastery The area of Latrun (Hebrew: ‎) (al-Latrun in Arabic) is a region of the Ayalon Valley, about 15 kilometers west of Jerusalem and 14 kilometers southeast of Ramla. ... Asmara (English) (Geez: አሥመራ Asmera, formerly known as Asmera, or in Arabic: Asmaraa) is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people. ... Yaakov Meridor (Hebrew: יעקב מרידור, born Yaakov Viniarsky on 29 September 1913, died 30 June 1995) was a notable Israeli independence fighter, businessman and politician. ...


Hunting Season

On November 6, 1944, Lord Moyne, British Deputy Resident Minister of State in Cairo was assassinated by Lehi members Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet-Zuri. This act raised concerns within the Yishuv from the British regime's reaction to the underground's violent acts against them. Therefore the Jewish Agency decided on starting a Hunting Season[20][21], known as the saison, (from the French "la saison de chasse"). During the Hunting Season people suspected of belonging to or supporting the Irgun or the Lehi were removed from schools, work places and the Klalit HMO. Most of the people who partook in these activities were members of the Haganah and the Palmach. The carried out surveillance, kidnapping, investigation of Irgun and Lehi members and either turned them over to the British, or provided details regarding their whereabouts. Among those turned over where members of the Irgun headquarters - Yaakov Meridor, Shlomo Lev Ami, and Eliyahu Lankin. Lord Moyne Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne PC (29 March 1880 – 6 November 1944) was a British politician and businessman. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Eliyahu Hakim (1925-22 March 1945) was a member of the Stern Gang who was executed in Egypt for assassinating of Lord Moyne, the British Minister Resident in the Middle East. ... Eliyahu Bet-Zuri (1922-22 March 1945) was a member of the Stern Gang who was executed in Egypt for assassinating of Lord Moyne, the British Minister Resident in the Middle East. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Palmach (Hebrew: פלמח, an acronym for Plugot Mahatz (Hebrew: פלוגות מחץ), Strike Companies) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah, the unofficial army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


The Hunting Season managed to paralyze the Irgun's activity for a few months, but not destroy the organization. The Irgun's recuperation was noticeable when it began to renew its cooperation with the Lehi in May 1945, when it sabotaged oil pipelines, telephone lines and railroad bridges. All in all, over 1,000 members of the Irgun and Lehi were arrested and interred in British camps during the Saison. Eventually the Hunting Season died out, and there was even talk of cooperation with the Haganah leading to the formation of The Jewish Resistance Movement. The Jewish Resistance Movement (Hebrew: , Tnuat HaMeri HaIvri, literally Hebrew Rebellion Movement) was an umbrella group for militant Jewish underground movements in the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


The Jewish Resistance Movement

Towards the end of July 1945 the Labour party in Britain was elected to power. The Yishuv leadership had high hopes that this would change the anti-Zionist policy that the British maintained at the time. However, these hopes were quickly dashed when the government limited Aliyah with the intention that the population of Palestine west of the Jordan River would not be more than one third of the total. This, along with the stepping up of arrests and their pursuit of underground members and illegal immigration organizers led to the formation of the Jewish Resistance Movement. This body consolidated the armed resistance to the British of the Irgun, Lehi, and the Haganah. For ten months the Irgun and the Lehi cooperated and they carried out nineteen attacks and defense operations. The Haganah and the Palmach carried out ten such operations. Furthermore, the Haganah assisted in landing 13,000 illegal immigrants. The Jewish Resistance Movement (Hebrew: , Tnuat HaMeri HaIvri, literally Hebrew Rebellion Movement) was an umbrella group for militant Jewish underground movements in the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The Jewish Resistance Movement (Hebrew: , Tnuat HaMeri HaIvri, literally Hebrew Rebellion Movement) was an umbrella group for militant Jewish underground movements in the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Tension between the underground movements and the British increased with the increase in operations. On April 23, 1945 an operation undertaken by the Irgun in Tegart Fort went badly and gunfights broke out. One Irgun member was killed and his body was later hanged on the fort's fence. Another fighter, Yizchak Bilu, was killed as well in a diversionary ploy - an explosive device fell out of his hand, and he leapt onto it in order to save his comrades, who were also carrying explosives. Also in the operation Dov Gruner was caught. He stood trial and was sentenced to be executed by hanging, and he refused to sign a pardon request.[22] He was hanged on April 16, 1947[23] A Tegart fort is a style of militarized police fortress constructed throughout Palestine during the British Mandatory period. ...


British relations with the Yishuv worsened, at the height of which was Operation Agatha. The government denied the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry's recommendation to bring 100,000 Jews to Palestine at once. As a result of the discovery of documents tying the Jewish Agency to The Jewish Resistance Movement the Irgun was asked to speed up the plans for the King David Hotel bombing.[24] The hotel was where the documents were located, the base for the British Secretariat, the military command and a branch of the Criminal Investigation Division (police). On July 22 the Irgun bombed the King David. The Irgun later said that a warning sent out ahead of time was never taken seriously.[25] According to Shmuel Katz, in his book Days of Fire: Operation Agatha (sometimes called Black Sabbath) was a series of arrests made in Palestine on Saturday, June 29, 1946. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ... Samuel Katz (Hebrew: שמואל כץ Shmuel Katz), alias Mooki (Hebrew: מוקי) (born December 9, 1914) is an Israeli writer, historian and journalist. ...

The Haganah Radio later broadcast a report that on receiving the warning Sir John Shaw, the Chief Secretary of the British administration, had said: "I give orders here. I don't take orders from Jews", and that he had insisted that nobody leave the building. The bombing killed 91 people. The Jewish Agency and the Haganah shied away from taking responsibility for the attack and condemned it sharply. One of the dead was Jewish and Etzel sympathizer Yulius Jacobs. Menachem Begin reportedly was very saddened and upset. He was angry that the British did not evacuate and so there were casualties, which was against the Irgun's policy.[26]

Independent struggle against the British

The King David Hotel bombing and the arrest of Jewish Agency and other Yishuv leaders as part of Operation Agatha caused the Haganah to cease their armed resistance activity against the British. Yishuv and Jewish Agency leaders were released from prison at Tegart Fort. From then until the end of the British mandate the resistance was led by the Irgun and Lehi. In early September 1946 the Irgun renewed its attacks, against railroads, communication lines and bridges. One prominent operation was the attack on the train station in Jerusalem, in which Meir Feinstein was arrested and later committed suicide awaiting execution. According to the Irgun these sort of operations were legitimate, since the trains primarily served the British, for redeployment of their forces. For a while the British stopped train traffic at night. The Irgun also publicized warnings, in three languages, not to use specific trains in danger of being attacked. The Irgun also re-established many representative offices internationally, and by 1948 operated in 23 states. In these countries the Irgun sometimes acted against the local British representatives or led public relations campaigns against Britain. On October 31, 1946, in response to the British barring entry of Jews from Palestine, the Irgun blew up the British embassy in Rome.[27] The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ... Operation Agatha (sometimes called Black Sabbath) was a series of arrests made in Palestine on Saturday, June 29, 1946. ... A Tegart fort is a style of militarized police fortress constructed throughout Palestine during the British Mandatory period. ... A version of this article in Hebrew has been listed at Wikipedia:Translation into English. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


In December 1946 a sentence of 18 years and 18 beatings was handed down to a young Irgun member. The Irgun made good on a threat they made and after the detainee was beaten, Irgun members kidnapped British officers and beat them in public. The operation, known as the "Night of the Beatings" brought an end to British beatings punishments. The British, taking these acts seriously, moved many British families in Palestine into the confines of military bases, and some moved home.


On February 14, 1947 Ernest Bevin announced that the Jews and Arabs would not be able to agree on any British proposed solution for the land, and therefore the issue must be brought to the United Nations for a final decision. The Yishuv thought of the idea to transfer the issue to the UN as a British attempt to save time until a UN inquiry commission would be established, and its ideas discussed, all the while the Yishuv would weaken. Foundation for Immigration B increased the number of ships which, in fact, saved the lives of European Jews. The British still strictly enforced the policy of immigration and illegal immigrants were placed in detention camps in Cyprus, which only increased the anger of the Jewish community towards the mandate government. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Irgun stepped up its activity and from February 19 until March 3 it attacked 18 British military camps, convoy routes, vehicles, and other facilities. The most notable of these attacks was the use of a car bomb to destroy the Goldschmidt House Officers Club in Jerusalem, which was in a heavily guarded compound.[28] Seventeen officers were killed in the attack. As a result, a curfew was imposed over much of the country, enforced by approximately 20,000 British soldiers. [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 3 the leader of the opposition in the House of Commons asked Winston Churchill given that the size of the military force in Palestine was four times the size of that in India, at a price of £4,000 per soldier a year - what was the point of continuing the bloodshed? Some of the British press also supported a British exit from Palestine. During the martial conditions imposed by the British, the Lehi and the Irgun carried out 68 operations, many against military targets, including Camp Schneller in Jerusalem, by breaking through the outer fortifications. This attack, which succeeded in overcoming the many British security measures, created a media uproar, and the curfew was cancelled four days later. is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... Churchill redirects here. ...

Executed Members of the Irgun
  • Shlomo Ben-Yosef
  • Dov Gruner
  • Mordechai El'kachi
  • Yehiel Drezner
  • Eliezer Kashani
  • Meir Feinstein
  • Yaakov Weiss
  • Avshalom Haviv
  • Meir Nakar

On April 16, 1947 Dov Gruner, Yehiel Drezner, Eliezer Kashani, and Mordechai El'kachi were hanged, while singing Hatikvah. On April 21 Meir Feinstein and Lehi member Moshe Barazani blew themselves up, using a hand grenade, hours before their scheduled hanging. And on May 4 one of the Irgun's largest operations took place - the raid of the prison in the citadel in Acre. The operation was carried out by 23 men, along with the help of the Irgun and Lehi prisoners inside the prison. The raid allowed 41 underground members to escape, although some were caught outside of the prison, and some were killed in the escape. Along with the underground movement members, many Arab criminals also escaped. The operation resonated all over the world. Three of the attackers - Meir Nakar, Avshalom Haviv, and Yaakov Weiss - were caught and sentenced to death. Monument commemorating those who were hanged in the gallows, situated in Ramat Gan Olei Hagardom (Hebrew: Those hanged in the gallows, עולי הגרדום) is the term commonly used for those Jewish fighters that were tried before British Mandate courts and executed by hanging, usually in the Acre prison. ... Shlomo Ben-Yosef was born in Poland as Shalom Tabachnik on May 7, 1913. ... A version of this article in Hebrew has been listed at Wikipedia:Translation into English. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hatikvah (Hebrew: הַתִּקְוָה, “The Hope”, Arabic transliteration هاتكفا), sometimes styled HaTikva(h), is the national anthem of Israel. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A version of this article in Hebrew has been listed at Wikipedia:Translation into English. ... Moshe Barazani or Moshe Barzani (1928-1947), was a Kurdish Jew and a member of Lehi (The Freedom Fighters of Israel). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ...


After the three's death sentence was final the Irgun tried to save them by kidnapping hostages - two British sergeants, in the streets of Netanya. British forces closed off and combed the area in search of the two, but did not find them. On July 29, 1947 in the afternoon Meir Nakar, Avshalom Haviv, and Yaakov Weiss were hanged. Approximately thirteen hours later the sergeants' death sentence was read before them, and Sergeants Mervyn Paice and Clifford Martin were hanged in a forest south of Netanya. This action caused an outcry in Britain and was condemned both there and by leaders of the Yishuv. [29] For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... Early morning in Netanya, Israel Netanya (Hebrew: נְתַנְיָה, Standard Hebrew Nətanya) is a city in the Center District of Israel and is the capital of the Sharon plain. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This episode, along with the King David Hotel bombing, and the beating of the British officers is thought to be one of the deciding factors in the British final choice to leave Palestine. The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was also influenced by these actions. At the same time another incident was developing - the events of the ship Exodus 1947. The 4,500 Holocaust survivors on board were not allowed to enter Palestine. UNSCOP also covered the events. Some of its members were even present at Haifa port when the putative immigrants were forcefully removed from their ship onto the deportation ships, and later commented that this strong image helped them press for an immediate solution for Jewish immigration and the question of Palestine. The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ... The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was a United Nations special committee that was formed in the May of 1947, in response to the handover of the British Mandate of Palestine to the United Nations to vote upon which solution to use for partitioning the land. ... Exodus 1947 after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). ...


Two weeks later, the House of Commons convened for a special debate on events in Palestine, and concluded that the British soldiers must be evacuated as soon as possible.


War of Independence

Main article: 1948 Arab-Israeli War

UNSCOP's conclusion was a unanimous decision to end the British mandate and majority opinion to divide the area west of the Jordan River between a Jewish state and an Arab state. During the UN's deliberations regarding the committee's recommendations the Irgun avoided initiating any attacks, so as not to influence the UN negatively on the idea of a Jewish state. On November 29 the UN General Assembly voted in favor of ending the mandate and establishing two states on the land. That very same day the Irgun and the Lehi renewed their attacks on British targets. Then next day the local Arabs began attacking the Jewish community, thus beginning the first stage of the Israeli War of Independence. The first attacks on Jews were in Jewish neighborhoods of Jerusalem, in and around Jaffa, Bat Yam, Holon, and Ha'Tikvah neighborhood in Tel Aviv. Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, called the War of Independence by Israelis and al Nakba the catastrophe by Arabs, was the first in a series of wars in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... Hebrew בת ים Name Meaning Daughter of the sea Founded in 1926 Government City (from 1958) District Tel Aviv Population 130,400 (2004) Jurisdiction 8,000 dunams (8 km²) Mayor Shlomo Lahiani Beach of Bat-Yam Bat Yam (Hebrew: ) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, just south of... The Yanshul, half-cat half-owl, the symbol of Holons Childrens Museum. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


In the autumn of 1947 the Irgun membership was approximately 4,000 people. The goal of the organization at that point was the conquest of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea for the sake of the future Jewish state and preventing the Arab Legion from destroying the Jewish community. The Irgun became almost an overt organization, establishing military bases in Ramat Gan and Petach Tikvah. Additionally it recruited openly, thus significantly increasing in size. During the war the Irgun fought alongside the Lehi and the Haganah in the front against the Arab attacks. At first the Haganah maintained a defensive policy, as it had until then, but after the Convoy of 35 incident it completely abandoned its policy of restraint: "Distinguishing between individuals is longer possible, for now - it is a war, and the even the innocent shall not be absolved."[30] Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Arab Legion (al-Jaysh al-ArabÄ«) was Transjordans and later also Jordans regular army. ... Ramat Gan (רמת-גן) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, just east of Tel Aviv, and part of the metropolis known as Gush Dan, in the Tel Aviv District. ... Petah Tikva in 1912. ... On the 16 of January 1948, the convoy of 35 was sent by the Jewish Haganah underground army to resupply the four blockaded kibbutzim of Gush Etzion (the Etzion bloc), south of Jerusalem, following the Arab attack of January 14. ...


The Irgun also began carrying out reprisal missions, as it had under David Raziel's command. At the same time though, it published announcements calling on the Arabs to lay down their weapons and maintain a ceasefire:

The National Military Organization has warned you, if the murderous attacks on Jewish civilians shall continue, its soldiers will penetrate your centers of activity and plague you. You have not heeded the warning. You continued to harm our brothers and murder them in wild cruelty. Therefore soldiers of the National Military Organization will go on the attack, as we have warned you.
...However even in these frenzied time, when Arab and Jewish blood is spilled at the British enslaver, we hereby call upon you... to stop the attacks and create peace between us. We do not want a war with you. We are certain that neither do you want a war with us... [31]

However the mutual attacks continued. The Irgun attacked the Arab villages of Tira near Haifa, Yehudiya ('Abassiya) in the center, and Shuafat by Jerusalem. In Jerusalem Irgun members dropped an explosive device into a large group of unarmed Arabs who were waiting for a bus by Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem, killing many. The Irgun also attacked in the Wadi Rushmiya neighborhood in Haifa and Abu Kabir in Jaffa. On December 29 Irgun units arrived by boat to the Jaffa shore and a gunfight between them and Arab gangs ensued. The following day seven Arabs were killed, and dozens injured, near the refineries in Haifa. In response, Arab workers attacked Jews in the area, killing 41. This sparked a Haganah response in Balad al-Sheykh. The Irgun's goal in the fighting was to move the battles from Jewish populated areas to Arab populated areas. On January 1, 1948 the Irgun attacked again in Jaffa, its men entering the city dressed as British; later in the month it attacked in Beit Nabala, a base for many Arab fighters. Tira (טירה) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Shuafat was a wealthy Arab village to the northeast of Jerusalem, which became after six day war in 1967 part of municipalital area of Jerusalem and therefore a neigbourhood under full Israeli (not military) control. ... The Jaffa Gate The Jaffa Gate is a stone portal in the historic walls of Jerusalems Old City; it is one of eight gates in Jerusalems Old City walls. ... Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Haifa Oil Refinery Massacre occurred on December 30, 1947, just after the 1947 UN Partition Plan for Palestine. ... Balad al-Shaykh, was an Arab village in Palestine, now part of the Israeli town of Nesher. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Beit Nabala was a Muslim village in the district of al-Ramla in Palestine that was destroyed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


In February the Irgun attacked traffic near Yehudiya ('Abassiya), Yazur, and Ramle. Irgun fighters participated in fights against Arab militants in Ramle and Qalqilyah. In March the Irgun attacked the village of Qaqun (near Tulkarem), which had many Arab militants among its residents. Deir Yassin, was a village west of Jerusalem that had signed a non-belligerency pact with its Jewish neighbors and repeatedly had barred entry to foreign irregulars[32]. On April 9 approximately 120 Irgun and Lehi members began an operation to capture the village. During the operation Irgun members shot at fleeing individuals and families. A Haganah report writes: Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... Tulkarm (Arabic طولكرم Ṭūlkarm; Standard Hebrew טולכרם) is an Arab city in the West Bank. ... Deir Yassin, also Dayr Yasin, was an Arab village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ...

The conquest of the village was carried out with great cruelty. Whole families - women, old people, children - were killed. ... Some of the prisoners moved to places of detention, including women and children, were murdered viciously by their captors.[33]

The operation resulted in five Irgun members dead and 40 injured and 100 to 120 dead villagers.[34] Some say that this incident was an event that accelerated the Arab exodus from Palestine.[35]Four days later, on April 13, the Arabs launched a strike on a medical convoy traveling to Hadassah Hospital. Around 77 doctors, nurses, and other Jewish civilians were massacred. The Hadassah medical convoy massacre was an event that took place during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, on April 13, 1948, when a Jewish medical convoy was attacked by Arab forces. ...


The Irgun cooperated with the Haganah in the conquest of Haifa. At the regional commander's request, on April 21 the Irgun took over an Arab post above Hadar Ha'Carmel as well as the Arab neighborhood of Wadi Nisnas, adjacent to the Lower City. Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Irgun acted independently in the conquest of Jaffa (an Arab city according to the U.N. partition plan). On April 25 Irgun units, about 600 strong, left the Irgun base in Ramat Gan towards Arab Jaffa. Difficult battles ensued, and the Irgun faced resistance from the Arabs as well as the British.[36] Under Amichai "Gidi" Faglin's command, the Irgun's chief operations officer, the Irgun captured the neighborhood of Manshiya, which threatened the city of Tel Aviv. Afterwards the force continued to the sea, towards the area of the port, and using mortars, shelled the southern neighborhoods. In his report concerning the fall of Jaffa the local Arab military commander, Michel Issa, writes: 'Continuous shelling with mortars of the city by Jews for four days, beginning 25th April, […] caused inhabitants of city, unaccustomed to such bombardment, to panic and flee.'[37] According to Morris the shelling was done by the Irgun. Their objective was 'to prevent constant military traffic in the city, to break the spirit of the enemy troops [and] to cause chaos among the civilian population in order to create a mass flight'.[38] High Commissioner Cunningham wrote a few days later 'It should be made clear that IZL attack with mortars was indiscriminate and designed to create panic among the civilian inhabitants'.[39] These actions caused many Arab residents to flee the city, and 30 Irgun members were killed in the flight. The British demanded the evacuation of the newly conquered city, however the Irgun had previously agreed with the Haganah that British pressure would not lead to withdrawal from Jaffa and that custody of captured areas would be turned over to the Haganah. The city ultimately fell on May 13 after Haganah forces entered the city and took control of the rest of the city, from the south - part of the Hametz Operation which included the conquest of a number of villages in the area. The battles in Jaffa were a great victory for the Irgun. This operation was the largest in the history of the organization, which took place in highly built up area that had many militants in shooting positions. During the battles explosives were used in order to break into homes and continue forging a way though them. Furthermore, this was the first occasion in which the Irgun had directly fought British forces, reinforced with armor and heavy weaponry. The city began these battles with a population estimated at 55,000, which shrank to some 4,100 Arab residents by the end of major hostilities. Since the Irgun captured the neighborhood of Manshiya on its own, causing the flight of many of Jaffa's residents, the Irgun took credit for the conquest of Jaffa. Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ramat Gan (רמת-גן) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, just east of Tel Aviv, and part of the metropolis known as Gush Dan, in the Tel Aviv District. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Additional information

While the strategy, tactics, and operational methods of the organization changed through the years, its primary goals were to:

  • Provide a non-Socialist alternative to the leading Zionist organizations;
  • Eliminate or reduce the threat of Arab attacks on Jewish targets by assured and harsh retaliation for such attacks;
  • Bring to an end the British mandatory rule

The group went through several phases in its short lifespan, not listed above:

  • In 1948, the group was formally dissolved and its members integrated into the newly formed Israeli Defense Forces. This integration largely coincided with the sinking of the Altalena, a ship with fighters Irgun had recruited and arms Irgun had acquired for the Israeli forces.

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... The Altalena Affair was a violent confrontation that took place in June of 1948 between the newly-formed Israel Defense Forces and the Irgun (Etzel), a paramilitary Jewish group. ...

Views about Irgun

Views about the Irgun have been as disparate as any other political topic in Israel society. Leaders within the mainstream Jewish Agency, Haganah, Histadrut, as well as British authorities, routinely condemned Irgun operations as terrorist and branded it an illegal organization[40] as a result of the group's attacks on civilian targets. However, privately at least the Haganah kept a dialogue with the dissident groups. The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ההגנה) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Histadrut (Federation [of labor]) or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל) (Hebrew: General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel) is the Israeli trade union congress. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... During the Great Uprising (1936-1939) of the Arabs in Palestine, in which more than 320 Jews were killed by Arab attacks, the Irgun carried out sixty retaliatory attacks against Arabs, reflecting its worldview that political violence and terrorism were legitimate tools in the Jewish national struggle for the Land...


References

  1. ^ Howard Sachar: A History of the State of Israel, pps 265-266
  2. ^ ww2peopleswar
  3. ^ Raziel was arrested by the British on May 19, 1939 and was replaced by Hanoch Kalai[1]. On August 31, 1939 Kalai was arrested and Benyamin Zeroni[2] took his place until Raziel's release and return to the leadership on October 20.
  4. ^ http://www.betar.org.il/music/songs/hayalim.htm (Hebrew), http://www.betar.org.il/music/songs/musicfiles/Khaialim_Almonim.mp3
  5. ^ Yosef Kister, The Etzel, (Hebrew) pp. 38
  6. ^ "Tagar u'Magen (Jabotinsky and the Etzel)" (Hebrew), Jabtotinsky Publishing, pp. 28
  7. ^ "The Birth of an Underground Organization", Yehuda Lapidot, pp. 62 (Hebrew)
  8. ^ Avi Shlaim (January 6, 2005). Bombers not Martyrs. London Review of Books.
  9. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/irgun.html
  10. ^ http://www.etzel.org.il/english/ac05.htm
  11. ^ http://www.csuohio.edu/tagar/betar.htm
  12. ^ http://www.palmach.org.il/show_item.asp?levelId=38612&itemId=5199&itemType=0 (Hebrew)
  13. ^ http://www.fromoccupiedpalestine.org/node/1146
  14. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/sullivan/bios/MenachemBegin-Bio.html
  15. ^ http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1978/begin-bio.html
  16. ^ a b http://www.etzel.org.il/english/ac06.htm
  17. ^ Chapter Eight: The Struggle for the Establishment of the State of Israel
  18. ^ http://www.daat.ac.il/daat/history/hayom/2a-2.htm (Hebrew)
  19. ^ Menachem Begin (1977). The Revolt. 
  20. ^ http://www.etzel.org.il/english/ac07.htm
  21. ^ http://www.daat.ac.il/daat/english/history/lapidot/8.htm
  22. ^ http://www.etzel.org.il/english/ac14.htm
  23. ^ Olei Hagardom
  24. ^ Jabotinsky Institute Archives (k-4 1/11/5)
  25. ^ Menachem Begin, The Revolt. 1951, pp. 221
  26. ^ Katz, Shmuel. Days of Fire. Karni Press, 1966, p.196-197.(Hebrew)
  27. ^ J. Bowyer Bell, Terror out of Zion (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1977). pp.181
  28. ^ http://www.etzel.org.il/english/ac12.htm
  29. ^ Eye for an Eye for an Eye, Time Magazine. Aug. 11, 1947
  30. ^ Netanel Lorech, Events of the War of Independence, Massada Publishing, 1958. pp. 85 (Hebrew)
  31. ^ Petition of Our Arab Neighbors: Announcement in Arabic to the Arab Rioters (Hebrew)
  32. ^ B. Morris, 2004, 'The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited', p. 237
  33. ^ quoted by B. Morris, 2004, 'The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited', p. 237
  34. ^ B. Morris, 2004, 'The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited', p. 238
  35. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/israel_at_50/profiles/81305.stm
  36. ^ http://www.etzel.org.il/english/ac18.htm
  37. ^ W. Khalidi, 1998, 'Selected Documents on the 1948 Palestine War', J. Palestine Studies 27(3), p. 60-105
  38. ^ Morris, 2004, 'The Birth ... Revisited', p. 213
  39. ^ Morris, 2004, 'The Birth ... Revisited', p. 213
  40. ^ ww2peopleswar

Monument commemorating those who were hanged in the gallows, situated in Ramat Gan Olei Hagardom (Hebrew: Those hanged in the gallows, עולי הגרדום) is the term commonly used for those Jewish fighters that were tried before British Mandate courts and executed by hanging, usually in the Acre prison. ...

Further reading

  • J. Bowyer Bell, Terror Out of Zion: Irgun Zvai Leumi, Lehi, and the Palestine Underground, 1929-1949, (Avon, 1977), ISBN 0-380-39396-4
  • Menachem Begin, The Revolt - Memoirs of the leader of the Irgun, Dell Books, (New York, NY, 1978)
  • Uri Avnery, Terrorism: the infantile disease of the Hebrew revolution, self-published booklet, 1945.
  • Lossin, Yigal. Pillar of Fire: The Rebirth of Israel trans. Zvi Ofer, Shikmona Publishing Ltd., 1983.

  (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Uri Avnery (Hebrew: , also transliterated Uri Avneri, born September 10, 1923 in Beckum, Germany as Helmut Ostermann), is a German Jewish-born Israeli journalist, left-wing peace activist, and former Knesset member, who was originally a member of the right-wing Revisionist Zionist movement. ...

External links

The National Archives building at Kew. ... Over seventy countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation. ...

See also

For other uses, see Lehi. ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... During the Great Uprising (1936-1939) of the Arabs in Palestine, in which more than 320 Jews were killed by Arab attacks, the Irgun carried out sixty retaliatory attacks against Arabs, reflecting its worldview that political violence and terrorism were legitimate tools in the Jewish national struggle for the Land... The following persons have been listed either by the Irguns website[1] or by reputable independent sources (meeting Wikipedia standards for reliablity) as being notable members of the Irgun, a Zionist paramilitary organization that existed from 1931 through 1948, when it was formally dissolved and its members integrated into... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ...


 
 

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