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Encyclopedia > Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdistan (native)
Iraqi Kurdistan Region
Herêma Kurdistan
هه رێمى كوردستان
إقليم کردستان العراق
Flag of Kurdistan
Flag Coat of Arms
Anthem
Ey Reqîb
(English: "Hey Guardian")
Location of Iraqi Kurdistan (dark green) with respect to Iraq (light green) on a map of the Middle East.
Capital
(and largest city)
Arbil
36°11′N, 44°00′E
Official languages Kurdish, Arabic [1]
Government Parliamentary democracy
 -  President Massoud Barzani
 -  Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani
 -  Deputy Prime Minister Omer Fattah Hussain
Formation of Autonomous Region
 -  Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed March 11, 1970 
 -  Autonomy Accord Collapses March, 1974 
 -  Gained de facto Independence October, 1991 
 -  The TAL recognized the autonomy of the KRG as full sovereignty. January 30, 2005 
Area
 -  Total 80,000 km² (not ranked)
30,888 sq mi 
Population
 -  2005 estimate 5,500,000 (not ranked)
 -  Density 40/km² (not ranked)
15 /sq mi
HDI (As of 2006) n/a (n/a) (not ranked)
Currency Iraqi Dinar (IQD)
Time zone (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC+4)
Internet TLD Various
Calling code +964

Iraqi Kurdistan also known as Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: ههريمى كوردستان, Herêma Kurdistan, Arabic:إقليم كردستان العراق , also Southern Kurdistan and in Kurdish: Başûrî Kurdistan) is an autonomous, federally recognized political entity located in northern Iraq. It borders Iran to the east, Turkey to the north and Syria to the west. Its capital is the city of Arbil, known in Kurdish as Hewlêr. Image File history File links Flag_of_Kurdistan. ... Image File history File links Kurdistan_Emblem. ... The Flag of Kurdistan The flag used as the flag of Kurdistan first appeared during the Kurdish struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iraqi Kurdistan. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Ey Reqîb ( in Sorani) is sung by Kurdish nationalists as the Kurdish national anthem. ... Image File history File links LocationIraqiKurdistan_DeFactoMap. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The population is about 5-6 million. ... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: ArbÄ«l; Arabic: , ArbÄ«l; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Massoud Barzani Massoud Barzani (born August 16, 1946) is the head of the Autonomous Kurdish Government in Iraq and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... A Deputy Prime Minister is a member of a nations cabinet who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the real Prime Minister is temporarily absent. ... Omer Fattah Hussain is the deputy prime minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in Iraq. ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Law of Administration for the State of Iraq The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (also called the transitional administrative law or TAL)is the Iraqi constitution signed on March 8, 2004 by the Iraq Interim... Official languages: Kurdish and Arabic Capital: Erbil Prime Minister: Nechervan Idris Barzani Area about 80 000 km² Population  - Total (2005):  - Density: perhaps 5,750,000 40/km² Currency: Iraqi dinar Time zone: UTC+3 National anthem: Ey Reqîb The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code IQD User(s) Iraq Inflation rate 33% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: ArbÄ«l; Arabic: , ArbÄ«l; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Kurdistan literally means Land of the Kurds. The term Kurd in turn is derived from the Latin word Cordueni, i.e. the inhabitants of the ancient Kingdom of Corduene, which became a Roman province in 66 BC. For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... 60 BC Kingdom of Corduene Corduene (also known as Cordyene, Cardyene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk and Girdiyan) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, known today as Kurdistan. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 66. ...


In the new Iraqi Constitution, it is referred to as Kurdistan Region.[2] The regional government refers to it as Kurdistan-Iraq (or simply Kurdistan region) but avoids using Iraqi Kurdistan.[3] The full name of the local government is "Kurdistan Regional Government" (abbrev: KRG), and in Kurdish, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan. The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ...


Kurds also refer to the region as Kurdistana Başûr (South Kurdistan) or Başûrî Kurdistan (Southern Kurdistan or South of Kurdistan) referring to its geographical location with respect to the greater Kurdistan region. For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ...


During the Baath Party administration in the '70s and '80s, the region was called "Kurdish Autonomous Region". Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ...


History

Main article: History of the Kurds

Throughout History the region has been inhabited or ruled by various peoples, such as Hurrians, Mitannis, Assyrians, Turks, Medes, Persians, Adiabenians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs etc. In the medieval age, it was under domination of some semi-independent principalities, such as Soran, Baban, Badinan and Ardalan. The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Soran Emirate was a Kurdish principality. ... Baban, (1649-1850), was a Kurdish principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. ... Badinan is referred as the Kurmanji speaking Kurds in Iraq. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ...

This article is part of the
Kurdish history and Culture series
Early ancestors
Ancient history
Medieval history
Modern history
Culture

The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Kurdish culture (Kurdish: çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. ... Gutium, Mat Quti, Mat Qurti, (Land of Guti or Qurti people) was an ancient hilly country in upper Mesopotamia, comprised the area between Euphrates on the west and Zagros mountains on the east, streching from Sumerian era to the end of Babylonian era. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Matiene was the name of northwestern Iran from the time of the arrival of Iranians, who overran the Kingdom of Mannae. ... Mede nobility. ... 60 BC Kingdom of Corduene Corduene (also known as Cordyene, Cardyene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk and Girdiyan) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, known today as Kurdistan. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ... The Kayusid or House of Kayus (also Kâvos) or Kâvusakân(226-380) was a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom in central and southern Kurdistan established in 226 CE. The House of Kayus was established after an agreement between Kurdish principalities and kingdoms and the Persian Empire, following a... Sharazor (also: Sharazur, Shahrazor, Shahrazur, Shahrezour, Shehrizor, land of Zor and City of Zor) was name of a historic Wilayet and a city situated to the south and east of Iraqi Kurdistan; // The name of Sharazor is formed of two words: Shar or shahr meaning: land, region, city; and Zor... The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ... Hasanwayhid,(959-1015), was a Kurdish principality centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). ... The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and Nomaniya(in north-eastern Iraq). ... Marwanid, (990-1085), was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia and Armenia, centered around the city of Diyarbakır. ... Bokhtan (also Bohtan, Botan) was a medieval Kurdish principality in Kurdistan centered at Jazira in southeastern Anatolia. ... Hadhabani (also: Hadhbani) was an 11th century Kurdish dynasty centered at Ushnu. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Badlis (1182-1847), was a Kurdish principality originated from the Rojaki tribe. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Badinan, was one of the more powerful and enduring Kurdish principalities. ... Soran Emirate (1399-1883 A.D) was a Kurdish principality in Southern Kurdistan Its Capital was the city of Rawanduz. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Baban, (1649-1850), was a Kurdish principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. ... Simko Shikak also Ismail Agha Shikak (1887-1930), was a Kurdish politician and nationalist. ... Flag Capital Sulaymaniyah Language(s) Kurdish Religion Islam Government Monarchy King Mahmud Barzanji Prime Minister Qadir Hafeed Historical era Interwar Period  - Treaty of Sèvres August 10, 1920  - Proclaimed October 10, 1921  - Treaty of Lausanne July 24, 1923  - Disestablished July, 1924  - British Mandate of Mesopotamia October 3, 1932 Currency Indian... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... Flag Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Approximate extent of the Republic. ... Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana ÃŽranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3], formerly: Persian Kurdistan) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... Turkish Kurdistan (Turkish: Türkiye Kürdistanı or Kuzey Kürdistan (Northern Kurdistan) or Kuzeybatı Kürdistan [1] (Northwestern Kurdistan), Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê [2] or Bakurê Kurdistanê [3]) Northern Kurdistan is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey densely inhabited by Kurds, which references the regions geographical... The Kurds in Turkey (Kurdish: Kurdên li Tirkiye, Turkish: Türkiyedeki Kürtler) who are an Indo-European people and their name first mentioned around 3000 BC by Sumerians [6] are remnants of ancient Iranians who resided in Anatolia before the expansion of the Median Empire, 600 BC... Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... The Kurdistan newspaper Kurdish literature (in Kurdish: Wêjey kurdî) is a literature written in Kurdish language. ... Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) referes to music performed in Kurdish language. ... Kurdish dance (Kurdish: Govend) is a group of traditional hand-holding dances similar to those from the Balkans, Lebanon, and to Iraq. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

British Mandate

On December 1, 1918, during a meeting in Sulaimaniya with Colonel Arnold Wilson, the Acting Civil Commissioner for Mesopotamia, Kurdish leaders called for British support for a united and independent Kurdistan under British protection. Between 1919 and 1922, Shaikh Mahmud Barzanji, an influential Kurdish leader based in Sulaimaniya, formed a Kurdish government and led two revolts against the British rule. It took the British authorities two years to put down his uprisings. The first revolt began on May 22, 1919 with the arrest of British officials in Sulaimaniya and it quickly spread to Mosul and Arbil. Then the British exiled Mahmoud to India. In July 1920, 62 tribal leaders of the region, called for independence of Kurdistan under a British mandate. The objection of the British to the Kurdish self-rule was driven by the fear that the success of the Kurdish area will tempt the two Arab areas of Baghdad and Basra to follow suit, hence endangering the direct British control over all Mesopotamia. In 1922, Britain restored Shaikh Mahmoud to power, hoping that he would organize the Kurds to act as a buffer against the Turks, who had territorial claims over Mosul. Shaikh Mahmoud declared a Kurdish Kingdom with himself as the King, though later on he agreed to limited autonomy within the new state of Iraq. In 1930, following the announcement of admission of Iraq to the League of Nations, Shaikh Mahmoud started a third uprising which was suppressed with British air and ground forces.[4][5] is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Sir Arnold Wilson was the British civil commissioner in Baghdad in 1918-1920. ... Sheikh Mahmmud Barzanji (Kurdish: Şêx Mehmûd Berzincî, Arabic:شیخ محمود برزنجي) was the leader of several Kurdish uprisings against the British Mandate of Iraq. ... Sulaymaniyah (Arabic: as-sulaymānīyä, Kurdish: Slêmanî) is a city in the southeast of greater Kurdistan (the Kurdish-speaking region of the Middle East). ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Arabic: , Arbīl; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies...


By 1927, the Barzani clan had become vocal supporters of Kurdish rights in Iraq. In 1929, the Barzanis demanded the formation of a Kurdish province in northern Iraq. Emboldened by these demands, in 1931 Kurdish notables petitioned the League of Nations to set up an independent Kurdish government. Under the pressure from the Iraqi government and the British, the most influential leader of the clan, Mustafa Barzani was forced into exile in Iran in 1945. Later he moved to the Soviet Union after the collapse of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946.[6] The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Mustafa Barzani (March 14, 1903–March 1, 1979) was a Kurdish nationalist leader and President of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP). ... Flag Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Approximate extent of the Republic. ...


Barzani Revolts 1960-1975 and their Aftermath

After the military coup by Abdul Karim Qasim in 1958, Barzani was able to return from exile and to set up his own political party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, which was granted legal status in 1960. But soon afterwards, Qasim tried to incite Baradost and Zebari tribes against Barzani. In June 1961, Barzani led his first revolt against the Iraqi government with the aim of securing Kurdish autonomy. Due to the disarray in the Iraqi Army after the 1958 coup, Qasim's government was not able to subdue the insurrection. This stalemate irritated powerful factions within the military and is said to be one of the main reasons behind the Baathist coup against Qasim in February 1963. Abdul Salam Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964 which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and traditional forces led by Barzani on the other. Barzani agreed to the ceasefire and fired the radicals from the party. Despite this, Baghdad government tried once more to defeat Barzani's movement by the use of force. However, this campaign failed in 1966, when Barzani forces defeated the Iraqi Army near Rawanduz. After this, Arif announced a 12-point peace program in June 1966, which was not implemented due to the overthrow of Arif in 1968 in a coup by the Baath Party. The Baath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, however the campaign was stalled in 1969. This can be partly attributed to the internal power struggle in Baghdad and also tensions with Iran. Moreover, the Soviets pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani. Hence a peace plan was announced in March 1970 which provided for a broader autonomy than before. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies and it was to be implemented in four years.[7] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on a Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period.[8] In the following years, Baghdad government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Abdul Karim Qassim (or Abdel Karim Kassem or various other spellings) (1914_1963) was an Iraqi military officer involved in the 1958 military coup détat. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP; Kurdish: Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê or PDK) is a Kurdish political party led by Massoud Barzani. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Abdul Salam Arif (1921, Baghdad - April 13, 1966), president of Iraq (1963-1966). ... Rowanduz, رواندوز is a city located in Soran region in Iraqi Kurdistan close to Iranian border. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... Iraq map with Khanaqin Khanaqin (Arabic خانقين, Kurdish خانه قين Xaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is a city in eastern Iraq, south of Kurdish regions. ...


The Algiers Agreement

In 1974, Iraqi government began a new offensive against the Kurds and pushed them close to the border with Iran. Moreover, Iraq informed Tehran that it was willing to satisfy other Iranian demands in return for an end to its aid to the Kurds. With the mediation of the Algerian President Houari Boumédiènne, Iran and Iraq reached a comprehensive settlement in March 1975 known as Algiers Pact. The agreement left the Kurds helpless and Tehran cut supplies to the Kurdish movement. Barzani fled to Iran with many of his supporters. Others surrendered en masse and the rebellion was finished in a few days. As a result Iraqi government extended its control over northern region after 15 years and in order to secure its influence, started an Arabization program by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly the ones around Kirkuk.[9] The repressive measures carried out by the government against Kurds after the Algiers agreement, led to renewed clashes between the Iraqi Army and Kurdish guerrillas in 1977. As a result in 1978 and 1979, 600 Kurdish villages were burned down and around 200,000 Kurds were deported to the other parts of the country.[10] Houari Boumédienne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) (August 23, 1932 - December 27, 1978) was President of Algeria from 19 June 1965 to 27 December 1978 (Chairman of the Revolutionary Council until 12 December 1976). ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ...


Iran-Iraq War and Anfal Campaign

During the Iran-Iraq War, the government implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. Iraq was widely-condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures, including the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds, which resulted in thousands of deaths. (See Halabja poison gas attack.) Combatants  Iran Kurdish Peshmerga Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Photo said to have been taken in the aftermath of the attack. ...


Al-Anfal campaign constituted a systematic genocide of the Kurdish people in Iraq. From March 29, 1987 until April 23, 1989, Iraqi army under the command of Ali Hassan al-Majid carried out a genocidal campaign against Kurds, characterized by the following human rights violations: The widespread use of chemical weapons, the wholesale destruction of some 2,000 villages, and slaughter of around 50,000 rural Kurds, by the most conservative estimates. The large Kurdish town of Qala Dizeh (population 70,000) was completely destroyed by the Iraqi army. The campaign also included Arabization of Kirkuk, a program to drive Kurds out of the oil-rich city and replace them with Arab settlers from central and southern Iraq.[11] Kurdish sources report the number of dead to be greater than 182,000.[12] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ali Hassan al-Majid (Arabic: علي حسن المجيد) (born 1941) is a former Iraqi Defense Minister and commander. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, Kirkūk; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


After the Persian Gulf War

The Kurdistan Region was originally established in 1970 as the Kurdish Autonomous Region following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. A Legislative Assembly was established in the city of Arbil with theoretical authority over the Kurdish-populated governorates of Arbil, Dahuk and As Sulaymaniyah. In practice, however, the assembly created in 1970 was under the control of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein until the 1991 uprising against his rule following the end of the Persian Gulf War. Concerns for Safety of Kurdish refugees was reflected in the United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 which gave birth to a safe haven, in which allied air power protected a Kurdish zone inside Iraq.[13] While the no-fly zone covered Dohuk and Irbil, it left out Sulaimaniya and Kirkuk. Then following several bloody clashes between Iraqi forces and Kurdish troops, an uneasy and shaky balance of power was reached, and the Iraqi government withdrew its military and other personnel from the region in October 1991. At the same time, Iraq imposed an economic blockade over the region, reducing its oil and food supplies.[14] The region thus gained de facto independence, being ruled by the two principal Kurdish parties – the Kurdish Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan – outside the control of Baghdad. The region has its own flag and national anthem. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: ArbÄ«l; Arabic: , ArbÄ«l; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... A governorate is a country subdivision. ... ArbÄ«l (أربيل in Arabic language, Hewlêr in Kurdish , also transliterated as Irbil or Erbil) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... Dahuk (also referred to as Dohuk) (Arabic: دهوك , Kurdish: Duhok) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... As SulaymānÄ«yah province is a province of Iraq, within the Kurdish Autonomous Region. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Dahuk (also referred to as Dohuk) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... This article is about the province of Iraq. ... Sulaymaniyah (Arabic: as-sulaymānÄ«yä, Kurdish: Slêmanî) is a city in the southeast of greater Kurdistan (the Kurdish-speaking region of the Middle East). ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... Founded by Mustafa Barzani, the legendary Kurd who fought numerous revolts against Baghdad with success. ... The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est 1975) (Kurdish: Yakêtî Nîştimanî Kurdistan) is a Sunni political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ...


Elections held in June 1992 produced an inconclusive outcome, with the assembly divided almost equally between the two main parties and their allies. During this period, the Kurds were subjected to a double embargo: one imposed by the United Nations on Iraq and one imposed by Saddam Hussein on their region. The severe economic hardships caused by the embargoes, fueled tensions between the two dominant political parties: KDP and PUK over control of trade routes and resources.[15] This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. After 1996, 13% of the Iraqi oil sales were allocated for Iraqi Kurdistan and this led to a relative prosperity in the region.[16] Direct United States mediation, led the two parties to a formal ceasefire in Washington Agreement in September 1998. It is also argued that the Oil for Food Program from 1997 onward had an important effect on cessation of hostilities.[17] Kurdish parties joined forces against the Iraqi government in the Operation Iraqi Freedom in Spring 2003. The Kurdish military forces known as peshmerga played a key role in the overthrow of the former Iraqi government.[18] On May 19, 1992, elections were held to the Kurdistan National Assembly, the parliament of the Kurdish Autonomous Region in Iraq. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Founded by Mustafa Barzani, the legendary Kurd who fought numerous revolts against Baghdad with success. ... The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est 1975) (Kurdish: Yakêtî Nîştimanî Kurdistan) is a Sunni political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peshmerga, peshmarga or peshmerge (Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ...


KDP and PUK have united to form an alliance with several smaller parties, and the Kurdish alliance has 53 deputies in the new Baghdad parliament, while the Kurdish Islamic Union has 5. PUK-leader Jalal Talibani has been elected President of the new Iraqi administration, while KDP leader Massoud Barzani is President of the Kurdistan Regional Government. Jalal Talabani (in Kurdish:ﺟﻪﻻﻝ ﺗﺎﻟﻪﺑﺎﻧﻰ /Celal Talebanî )(in Arabic: جلال طالباني: jalâl tâlabânî) (born 1933), Iraqi politician, was named President of Iraq on April 6, 2005 by the Iraqi National Assembly. ... Massoud Barzani Massoud Barzani (born August 16, 1946) is the head of the Autonomous Kurdish Government in Iraq and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ...


Politics

President George W. Bush talks to reporters as he welcomes Massoud Barzani, the President of the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq, to the Oval Office at the White House, Tuesday, Oct 25, 2005.
President George W. Bush talks to reporters as he welcomes Massoud Barzani, the President of the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq, to the Oval Office at the White House, Tuesday, Oct 25, 2005.

Since 1992, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has been based in Erbil. The KRG has a parliament, elected by popular vote, called the Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly, and a cabinet composed of the KDP, the PUK and their allies (Iraqi Communist Party, the Socialist Party of Kurdistan etc.). Nechervan Idris Barzani has been prime minister of the KRG since 1999. Official languages: Kurdish and Arabic Capital: Erbil Prime Minister: Nechervan Idris Barzani Area about 80 000 km² Population  - Total (2005):  - Density: perhaps 5,750,000 40/km² Currency: Iraqi dinar Time zone: UTC+3 National anthem: Ey Reqîb The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (515x743, 80 KB) This image was moved to Commons by User:Cool_Cat (here: Cool_Cat) with the tool CommonismNow. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (515x743, 80 KB) This image was moved to Commons by User:Cool_Cat (here: Cool_Cat) with the tool CommonismNow. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Massoud Barzani Massoud Barzani (born August 16, 1946) is the head of the Autonomous Kurdish Government in Iraq and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ... This article is about the province of Iraq. ... Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly (Kurdish: Encumenî Nîştimanî Kurdistan, Arabic: lit: Al-Majlis Al-Watani Li Kurdistan) is the parliament of Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... Since its foundation in 1934, the Iraqi Communist Party (in Arabic: الحزب الشيوعي العراقي) has dominated the left in Iraqi politics. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq Kurdish politicians were represented in the Iraqi governing council. On January 30, 2005 three elections were held in the region: 1) for Transitional National Assembly of Iraq 2) for Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly and 3) for provincial councils.[19] The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period recognized the autonomy of the Kurdistan Regional Government during the interim between "full sovereignty" and the adoption of a permanent constitution. This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The Iraqi Governing Council. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Law of Administration for the State of Iraq The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (also called the transitional administrative law or TAL)is the Iraqi constitution signed on March 8, 2004 by the Iraq Interim... The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a referendum on whether or not to ratify the proposed Iraqi constitution of 2005. ... The current constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. ...


The Kurdistan Regional Government currently has constitutionally recognised authority over the provinces of Erbil, Dohuk, and Suleimaniya, as well as de facto authority over parts of Diyala and Ninawa and Kirkuk (at-Ta'mim) provinces. This article is about the province of Iraq. ... Dahuk (also referred to as Dohuk) (Arabic: دهوك , Kurdish: Duhok) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... As Sulaymānīyah province is a province of Iraq, within the Kurdish Autonomous Region. ... Diyala is one of the constituent governorates of the nation of Iraq. ... Ninawa (in Arabic: نینوا ,in kurdish: Neynewa, in Assyrian: Nineveh) is a governorate (province) in Iraq, and the Arabic name for the biblical city of Nineveh in Assyria. ... At Tamim is a province of the nation of Iraq. ...


Economy

The Kurdistan region's economy is dominated by the oil industry, agriculture and tourism[20]. Due to relative peace in the region it has a more developed economy in comparison to other parts of Iraq. The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... “Tourist” redirects here. ...


Prior to the removal of Saddam Hussein, the Kurdistan Regional Government received approximately 13% of the revenues from Iraq's Oil-for-Food Program. By the time of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, the program had disbursed $8.35 billion to the KRG. Iraqi Kurdistan's food security allowed for substantially more of the funds to be spent on development projects than in the rest of Iraq. By the program's end in 2003 $4 billion of the KRG's oil-for-food funds remained unspent. The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the United Nations in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and the like. ...


Following the removal of Saddam Hussein's administration and the subsequent violence, the three provinces fully under the Kurdistan Regional Government's control were the only three in Iraq to be ranked "secure" by the US military. The relative security and stability of the region has allowed the KRG to sign a number of investment contracts with foreign companies. In 2006 the first new oil well since the invasion of Iraq was drilled in the Kurdistan region by the Norwegian energy company DNO. Initial indications are that the oil field contains at least 100 million barrels of oil and will be pumping 5,000 bpd by early 2007. The KRG has signed exploration agreements with two other oil companies, Canada's Western Oil Sands and the UK's Sterling Energy. De Nederlandse Opera (DNO) is the leading opera company of the Netherlands. ... Barrels per day (abbreviated bpd or b/d) is a measurement used to describe the amount of crude oil produced or consumed by an entity in one day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Oil exploration is the search by petroleum geologists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earths surface. ... Western Oil Sands (TSX: WTO), headquartered in Calgary, Alberta is a 20 percent partner in the Athabasca Oil Sands Project. ...


The stability of the Kurdistan region has allowed it to achieve a higher level of development than other regions in Iraq. In 2004 the per capita income was 25% higher than in the rest of Iraq. Two international airports at Arbil and Sulaimaniya both operate flights to Middle Eastern and European destinations. The government continues to receive a portion of the revenue from Iraq's oil exports, and the government will soon implement a unified foreign investment law. The KRG also has plans to build a media city in Arbil and free trade zones near the borders of Turkey and Iran. Erbil International Airport (IATA: EBL, ICAO: ORER) is an airport 10 kilometers outside of the city of Arbil (Erbil), a city with more than 1 million inhabitants, in the northern Iraqi Kurdistan region. ... Sulaimaniyah International Airport (IATA: SUL, ICAO: ORSU) is an airport 15 kilometers outside of the city of Sulaimaniyah, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A free trade zone (FTZ) or Export processing zone (EPZ) is one or more areas of a country where tariffs and quotas are eliminated and bureaucratic requirements are lowered in hopes of attracting new business and foreign investments. ...


Since 2003, the stronger economy of Kurdistan has attracted around 20,000 Arab workers from the rest of Iraq to seek jobs in Iraqi Kurdistan.[21] According to Iraqi president Jalal Talabani, since 2003 the number of millionaires in the Kurdish city of Silêmani has increased from 12 to 2000, reflecting the financial and economic growth of the region.[22] Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: , ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected State President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly. ...


Geography

A popular waterfall near Erbil.
A popular waterfall near Erbil.

The Iraqi Kurdistan is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point known locally as Cheekah Dar (black tent). There are many rivers flowing and running through mountains of the region making it distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, picturesque nature. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1934x2707, 1853 KB) This spring-fed waterfall is a favorite tourist destination, and it located outside of Arbil, Arbil Province, Iraq (IRQ). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1934x2707, 1853 KB) This spring-fed waterfall is a favorite tourist destination, and it located outside of Arbil, Arbil Province, Iraq (IRQ). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Cheekah Dar (Black Tent) is the highest point in Southern Kurdistan at 3,611 m (11,847 ft). ...


The mountainous nature of Kurdistan, the difference of temperatures in its various parts, and its wealth of waters, make Kurdistan a land of agriculture and tourism. In addition to various minerals, oil in particular, which for a long time was being extracted via pipeline only in Kurdistan through Iraq.


The largest lake in the region is Lake Dukan. Lake Dukan is the largest lake in Kurdistan Region which lies in northeastern Iraq. ...


It is worthy to note that the term "Northern Iraq" is a bit of a geographical ambiguity in usage. "North" typically refers to the Kurdistan Region. "Center" and "South" or "Center-South" when individually referring to the other areas of Iraq or the rest of the country that is not the Kurdistan Region. Most media sources continually refer to "North" and "Northern Iraq" as anywhere north of Baghdad.


Governorates

Iraqi Kurdistan is divided among 6 governorates of which currently three are under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government. These governorates are called in Kurdish parêzge. Particularly in Iraqi government documents, the term governorate is preferred: Iraq is divided into 18 governorates or provinces (muhafazah): The current set of governorates were established in 1976. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ...

Iraqi Kurdistan.
Iraqi Kurdistan.
  • The governorates wholly under the Kurdistan Regional Government are:
1. As Sulaymaniyah (Slêmanî)
2. Erbil (Hewlêr)
3. Dahuk (Duhok)
  • The governorates claimed totally or in part by the Kurdistan Regional Government are:
4. Diyala
5. Kirkuk (Kerkûk)
6. Ninawa
7. Salah ad Din
8. Wasit

There will be a referendum to determine whether these governorates will be included in the Kurdish Regional Government sometime between now and November 2007, while Kurds are insisting that the referendum be held as soon as possible. Image File history File links KurdistanRegion_Governorates. ... Image File history File links KurdistanRegion_Governorates. ... As SulaymānÄ«yah province is a province of Iraq, within the Kurdish Autonomous Region. ... ArbÄ«l (أربيل in Arabic language, Hewlêr in Kurdish , also transliterated as Irbil or Erbil) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... Dahuk (also referred to as Dohuk) (Arabic: دهوك , Kurdish: Duhok) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... A referendum will be held in the Iraqi governorate of Kirkuk on 15 November 2007 on whether to become part of the region of Iraqi Kurdistan. ... Diyala (Arabic: ديالى) is one of the constituent governorates of the nation of Iraq. ... At Tamim is a province of the nation of Iraq. ... Ninawa (in Arabic: نینوا ,in kurdish: Neynewa ) in Assyrian: Nineve is a governorate (province) in Iraq, and the Arabic name for the biblical city of Nineveh in Assyria. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Die_derzeitige_Demarkationslinie_Kurdische_Autonome_Region.jpg


http://www.embargos.de/irak/occupation/hintergrund/kurd_claimed_jg-s.jpg


Demographics

Ethnic and religious distribution of Iraq.

The population is about 5-6 million. The majority of these are Sunni Muslims. There are also significant numbers of Yazidis, Kakeyís and Christians. Kurds comprise the ethnic majority in the region while the Turkmen, Assyrians, Armenians and Arabs who reside particularly in the western part of the area make up the rest. Image File history File links Iraq_demography. ... Image File history File links Iraq_demography. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... Yarsan or Ahl-i Haqq (Kurdish:Yarsan/Yaresan or Kakeyi, Arabic,Persian:اهل حق, Ahl-e Haqq, derived from an Arabic phrase translatable as People of the Truth and as Men of God[1]) is a religious sect, and its followers are primarily found in western Iran. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Languages Aramaic Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples The Assyrians (also called Syriacs or Aramaeans[11]) are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but many of whom have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


Culture

Main article: Kurdish culture
A Kurdish woman makes bread in traditional Kurdish way of baking
A Kurdish woman makes bread in traditional Kurdish way of baking

Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily of two layers of indigenous (Hurrian), and of the ancient Iranic (Medes). Kurdish culture (Kurdish: çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1900x2800, 2391 KB) A Kurdish woman makes bread in a tent city set up by Allied forces as part of Operation Provide Comfort, an effort to aid the refugees who fled the forces of Saddam Hussein in northern Iraq. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1900x2800, 2391 KB) A Kurdish woman makes bread in a tent city set up by Allied forces as part of Operation Provide Comfort, an effort to aid the refugees who fled the forces of Saddam Hussein in northern Iraq. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Mede nobility. ...


Kurds have always been among the more liberal Muslims and as a result Kurdish women have faced less restrictions in wearing hijab or holding jobs outside home than other Muslim women. Among their neighbours, the Kurdish culture is closest to Iranian culture . For example they celebrate Newroz as the new year day, which is celebrated on March 21. It is the first day of the month of Xakelêwe in Kurdish calendar and the first day of spring.[23] “Higab” redirects here. ... Norouz (Newroz in Kurdish) (also spelled Noe-Rooz, Norouz, Norooz, Noruz, Novruz, Noh Ruz, Nauroz, Nav-roze, Navroz, Náw-Rúz or Nowrouz and in Persian نوروز) is the traditional Iranian festival of spring which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. ...


Music

Main article: Kurdish music

Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). There was no specific music related to the Kurdish princely courts, and instead, music performed in night gatherings (şevbihêrk) is considered classical. Several musical forms are found in this genre. Many songs are epic in nature, such as the popular lawiks which are heroic ballads recounting the tales of Kurdish heroes of the past like Saladin. Heyrans are love ballads usually expressing the melancholy of separation and unfulfilled love. Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks are songs performed specifically in autumn. Love songs, dance music, wedding and other celebratory songs (dîlok/narînk), erotic poetry and work songs are also popular. Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) referes to music performed in Kurdish language. ... For the 2001 film, see Storytelling (film) Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in words, images, and sounds. ... For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... The Bard (ca. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Military

Main article: Peshmerga

Peshmerga is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters, they have been labelled by some as freedom fighters. Literally meaning "those who face death" (pêş front + merg death e is) the peshmerga forces of Kurdistan have been around since the advent of the Kurdish independence movement in the early 1920s, following the collapse of the Ottoman and Qajar empires which had jointly ruled over the area known today as Kurdistan. Peshmerga, peshmarga or peshmerge (Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Contras were often referred to as Freedom Fighters by US President Ronald Reagan. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ...


Peshmerga forces also played a significant role with coalition troops in the war against the Ba'ath government in Northern Iraq.


Education

Kurdistan’s official universities are listed below, followed by their English acronym (if commonly used), internet domain, establishment date and latest data about the number of students.

Institute Internet Domain Est. Date Students
Salahaddin University (SU) www.usalah.org 1968 18,000 (2006)
University of Sulaimani (US) www.univsul.com 1968 (?) (2006)
University of Dohuk www.dohukuni.net 1992 4,629 (2006)
University of Koya (KU) koyauniversity.org 2003 (?) (2006)
University of Kurdistan www.ukh.ac 2006 400 (2006)
American University of Iraq - Sulaimani www.auis.org 2007 50 (2007)

The Salahaddin University (Zankoy Selaheddîn in Kurdish) is located in Arbil (Hewler), capital of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Founded on the 31st of October 1992 with two colleges and a total of 149 students, University of Dohuk includes now 11 colleges with more than 7435 undergraduate students and 79 Postgraduate students in all specializations. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American University of Iraq in Sulaimani (AUIS) was the third American University to be opened in the Middle East. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Views of Kurdistan

Historical and touristic attractions

Geli Eli Beg Waterfall Geli Eli Beg Waterfall is one of the most beautiful waterfalls in Iraqi Kurdistan which lies in the mountainous northern part of the country in the Kurdistan Region, northern Arbil. ... The Citadel of Arbil (in Kurdish: Qelay Hewlêr) is an ancient citadel located in northern Mesopotamia, (northern modern Iraq), in center of city of Arbil (Hewler) capital of Kurdistan Region. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Arbil. ... Sulaymaniyah (Arabic: as-sulaymānīyä, Kurdish: Slêmanî) is a city in the southeast of greater Kurdistan (the Kurdish-speaking region of the Middle East). ... Zakho (Kurdish: Zaxo,Arabic: زاخو) is a city in the Duhok province of Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq, near the border with Turkey. ... Sulaymaniyah (Arabic: as-sulaymānīyä, Kurdish: Slêmanî) is a city in the southeast of greater Kurdistan (the Kurdish-speaking region of the Middle East). ...

Other parts of Kurdistan

Southern Kurdistan (or Iraqi Kurdistan) is a geo-cultural region located in present-day Northern Iraq. ... Kurds are the largest ethinc minority in Syria; // Demography The Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... For the Iranian province of Kurdistan, please see Kurdistan Province, Iran. ...

See also

The Other Iraq is an advertising campaign created to promote commerce in the Kurdish region of Iraq. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Below the 18 governorates, Iraq is divided into 111 districts (qadaa). ... Archibald Milne Hamilton (? - 1972) was a New Zealand-born engineer, notable for building the Hamilton Road through Kurdistan and designing the Hamilton-Callender bridge system. ...

External links

  • Kurdistan Regional Government
  • Willing to face Death: A History of Kurdish Military Forces - the Peshmerga - from the Ottoman Empire to Present-Day Iraq, By M. G. Lortz, Master of Arts Thesis in International Affairs, Florida State University, 2005.
  • Kurdistan - The Other Iraq
  • Kurdistan Development Corporation
  • Kurdistan TV (English Programme)
  • Kurdish Media
  • Visitor's impression of Sulaymaniyah

References

  1. ^ According to Kurdistan law, all minority languages including Syriac, Turkmeni and Armenian are protected and the first two languages have a local official status in the areas where a majority of the inhabitants speak those languages, alongside Kurdish language.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ C. Dahlman, The Political Geography of Kurdistan, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol.43, No.4, 2002, p.286
  5. ^ Saad Eskander, Britain's Policy in Southern Kurdistan: The Formation and Termination of the First Kurdish Government, 1918-1919, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol.27, No.2, 2000 pp.151,152,155,160
  6. ^ G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, p.118, 1977
  7. ^ G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp.118-120, 1977
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, p.121, 1977
  10. ^ M. Farouk-Sluglett, P. Sluglett, J. Stork, Not Quite Armageddon: Impact of the War on Iraq, MERIP Reports, July-September 1984, p.24
  11. ^ Human Rights Watch Report About Anfal Campaign, 1993.
  12. ^ [4]
  13. ^ L. Fawcett, Down but not out? The Kurds in International Politics, Reviews of International Studies, Vol.27, 2001 p.117
  14. ^ M. Leezenberg, Iraqi Kurdistan: contours of a post-civil war society, Third World Quarterly, Vol.26, No.4-5, June 2005, p.636
  15. ^ H.J. Barkey, E. Laipson, Iraqi Kurds And Iraq's Future, Middle East Policy, Vol. XII, No.4, Winter 2005, pp.67
  16. ^ M. M. Gunter, M. H. Yavuz, The continuing Crisis In Iraqi Kurdistan, Middle East Policy, Vol. XII, No.1, Spring 2005, pp.123-124
  17. ^ M. Leezenberg, Iraqi Kurdistan: contours of a post-civil war society, Third World Quarterly, Vol.26, No.4-5, June 2005, p.639
  18. ^ [5]
  19. ^ H. Walker, T. Clark, Election in Iraq - 30 January 2005:An Assessment, Journal of Asian Affairs, Vol.36, No.2, July 2005, p.182
  20. ^ British agency Hinterland Travel has recently started small scale tourism tours to the region [6].
  21. ^ H.J. Barkey, E. Laipson, Iraqi Kurds And Iraq's Future, Middle East Policy, Vol. XII, No.4, Winter 2005, p.68
  22. ^ Jalal Talabani, in a letter to the people of the United States, September 2006 [7]
  23. ^ [8]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iraqi Kurdistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3626 words)
The Kurdistan region's economy is dominated by the oil sector, agriculture and tourism.
The Iraqi Kurdistan is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point known locally as Cheekah Dar (fl tent).
Iraqi Kurdistan is divided among 6 governorates of which currently three are under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government.
iraqi kurdistan region, the Parliament of Kurdistan (633 words)
By Iraqi Kurdistan Region, we mean the southern part of Kurdistan attached to Iraq according to an agreement between Britain.
Iraqi Kurdistan is comprised of the six governorates of Arbil, Sulaimanya, Dohuk, Kirkuk, parts of Dyala and Nineva.
Nevertheless the Kurdish revolt flared up again in 1976 in the mountains and valleys of Kurdistan defying deportation campaigns, Arabization and terrorism, and for years, especially in the eighties, the Kurdish people were subjected to brutal military campaigns and genocidal operations by chemical and biological weapons and the ill-famed Anfal operations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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