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Encyclopedia > Iraqi

The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. It shares borders with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria to the north-west, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east. It controls a very narrow section of coastline at Umm Qasr on the Persian Gulf. A new transitional government was elected in January 2005, following a March 2003 invasion led by British and American forces which drove the former leader Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party from power. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Mesopotamia ( Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan the Land between the Rivers or the Aramaic name Beth-Nahrin two rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the... This article is about the country of Kuwait. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... Cranes at Umm Qasr await cargo. ... A satellite image showing the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, Arabic: الخليج الفارسي) is an extension of the Gulf of Oman in between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ...

الجمهورية العراقية
(Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Iraqiyah)

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(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Allahu Akbar
(English: God is Great)
Image:LocationIraq.png
Official languages Arabic, Kurdish
Capital Baghdad
President Jalal Talabani
Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 57th
437,072 km²
1.1%
Population
 - Total (July 2004)
 - Density
Ranked 44th
25,374,691
59/km²
Independence October 1, 1919 from the Ottoman Empire

October 3, 1932 from the British To play the audio file do not click on the -image. ... Subject: New flag of Iraq Source: Encyclopædia Britannica File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... replacement for gif This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The version used after the 2004 transfer of sovereignty, with new script style. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... This article is about the notable Arabic phrase. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Geographic distribution The Kurdish languages (also called dialects of Kurdish) are spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state and chief of government. ... Jalal Talabani (b. ... List of Prime Ministers of Iraq The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ... Ibrahim al-Jaafari (b. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... Independence is autonomous self-government of a country by its residents and indigenous population. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...

GDP (PPP)
- Total (2003)
- GDP/head
Ranked 76th
$38.790 billion
$1,600
Currency Iraqi dinar
Time zone UTC +3
National anthem Mawtini (Words by: Ibrahim Touqan Music by: Walid George Gholmieh) Note: The Kurds use Ey Reqîb
Internet TLD .iq
Calling Code 964
State religion
(Citizens have religious freedom)
Islam
Contents

In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... You may be looking for: list of countries by GDP (nominal) - list based on current currency market exchange rates list of countries by GDP (PPP) - list based on purchasing power parity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A five-dinar note featuring Saddam Hussein The Iraqi dinar (ISO 4217: IQD) is the legal currency of Iraq. ... -1... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Ey Reqib is sung by Kurdish nationalists as the Kurdish national anthem. ... A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of which Internet domain names consist of. ... .iq is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Iraq. ... See also civil religion. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...

History

Main article: History of Iraq This article needs cleanup. ...


Modern Iraq, or the cliff, became a British mandate at the end of World War I, and was granted independence from British control in 1932. It was formed out of three former Ottoman Willayats (regions): Mosul, Baghdad and Basra. The British installed Hashemite monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown by one of a series of coups, the last of which in 1968 brought the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party to power. The Ba'ath's key figure was Saddam Hussein who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), Iraq's all powerful executive decision making body, in July 1979, killing off many of his opponents in the process. Saddam's absolute and particularly bloody control lasted throughout the Iran-Iraq War (19801988), which ended in stalemate, despite vast quantities of western-produced weaponry; the al-Anfal campaign of the late 1980s, which led to the gassing of thousands of Kurds in northern Iraq, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 resulting in the Gulf War and the UN imposed economic sanctions and no-fly zones which followed. The American-led 2003 invasion of Iraq removed Saddam Hussein's regime from power, replacing it with an interim American-backed Provisional Authority, and then an Interim Government. On January 30, 2005, Iraq held its first free elections in over 50 years, bringing a new situation to Iraq, which had been mostly dominated by its Sunni minority from its founding. A coalition of Kurds and Shiites came to power (both groups were repressed by Saddam's Government). The current situation remains volatile, but re-establishment of security should be accomplished within the next year. Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ... This article or section should be merged with ANFAL Al-Anfal Campaign - The anti-Kurdish campaign lead by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein, spanned between February and September 1988. ... This article is about the country of Kuwait. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... A no-fly zone is a territory over which aircraft (or unauthorized aircraft) are not permitted to fly. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Iraq Politics of Iraq includes the social relations involving authority or power in Iraq. ...


From 1979 to 2003, Iraq was under Ba'ath Party rule, under the leadership of President Saddam Hussein. The unicameral Iraqi parliament, the National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani, had 250 seats and its members were elected for 4-year terms. Like in presidential elections, no non-Ba'ath candidates were allowed to run. 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The Iraqi National Assembly is the unicameral parliament of Iraq which meets in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad. ...


In November 2003, the US-managed Coalition Provisional Authority announced plans to turn over sovereignty to an Iraqi Interim Government by mid-2004. The actual transfer of sovereignty occurred on June 28, 2004. The interim president is Sheikh Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer, and the interim prime minister Iyad Allawi. 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for November, 2003. ... The seal of the CPA in Iraq Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA) was the organization established by the United States Government that acted as a caretaker administration in Iraq until civilian rule resumed on June 28, 2004. ... The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until elections are conducted on January 30th, 2005. ... Shaikh (شيخ, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ... Ghazi al-Yawer Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (born 1958? in Mosul, Iraq) is the interim President of Iraq. ... Iyad Allawi Dr. Iyad Allawi (اياد علاوي) (born 1945) is the interim Prime Minister of Iraq. ...


On January 30, 2005, the Iraqi people voted in an election conducted by their transitional government which elected a 275-member Transitional National Assembly. The Assembly will: January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

  • Serve as Iraq's national legislature. It has named a Presidency Council, consisting of a President and two Vice Presidents. (By unanimous agreement, the Presidency Council will appoint a Prime Minister and, on his recommendation, cabinet ministers.)
  • Draft Iraq's new constitution, which will be presented to the Iraqi people for their approval in a national referendum in October 2005. Under the new constitution, Iraq will elect a permanent government in December 2005.

Under the Iraqi transitional constitution, signed March 2004, the country's executive branch is now led by a three-person presidential council. The election system for the council effectively ensures that all three of Iraq's major ethnic groups are represented. The constitution also includes basic freedoms like freedom of religion, speech, and assembly, and in many ways has been hailed as more liberal than the U.S. constitution. Controversially, however, it states that all laws that were in effect on the transfer date cannot be repealed. Furthermore, since the coalition forces are currently an official occupying power under the United Nations, coalition troops can remain in control of the country indefinitely despite the transfer of sovereignty. Since Iraqi forces are currently considered ill-equipped to police and secure the country, it is expected that coalition troops will remain in the country for many years to come. However, these rules will be set aside once the Transitional National Assembly is seated. The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period is the current Iraqi constitution signed on March 8, 2004 by the Iraq Interim Governing Council. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one wishes. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ...


On April 5, the Iraqi National Assembly appointed Jalal Talabani, a Kurdish leader, President. It also appointed Adel Abdul Mehdi, a Shiite Arab, and Ghazi al-Yawar, the former Interim President and a Sunni Arab, as Vice Presidents. These three men comprise the presidency council, who have named Ibrahim al-Jaafari as the Prime Minister of Iraq. Jalal Talabani (b. ... Ghazi al-Yawer Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (born 1958? in Mosul, Iraq) is the interim President of Iraq. ... Ibrahim al-Jaafari (b. ... List of Prime Ministers of Iraq The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ...


Governorates

Main article: Governorates of Iraq Iraq is divided into 18 provinces or governorates, called muhafazat in Arabic (singular - muhafazah): See also List of places in Iraq External link http://www. ...


Iraq is divided into 18 governorates or provinces (Arabic: muhafazat, singular - muhafazah, Kurdish: پاریزگه Pârizgah). Particularly in Iraqi government documents the term governorate is preferred: A governorate is a subnational entity. ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ...

The constitutionally recognized Kurdistan Autonomous Region includes parts of a number of northern provinces, and is largely self-governing in internal affairs. Al Anbar is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Karbala province, or Al Karbala province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Najaf province, or An Najaf province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... This article is about the province of Iraq. ... As Sulaymānīyah province is a province of Iraq. ... At Tamim is a province of the nation of Iraq. ... Babil is a province in Iraq. ... Baghdad Province in the nation of Iraq includes the city of Baghdad and the surronding metropolitan area. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Official languages: Kurdish and Arabic Capital: Erbil Prime Minister: Nechervan Idris Barzani Area about 80 000 km² Population  - Total (2005):  - Density: perhaps 5,750,000 40/km² Currency: Iraqi dinar Time zone: UTC+3 National anthem: Ey Reqîb The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970 following...


Geography

Map of Iraq
Map of Iraq

Main article: Geography of Iraq File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of Iraq Iraq List of places in Iraq 2003 invasion of Iraq Template:Taxobox-2003 Invasion of Iraq Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Iraq Map Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. ...


Large parts of Iraq consist of desert, but the area between the two major rivers Euphrates and Tigris is fertile, with the rivers carrying about 60 million cubic meters of silt annually to the delta. The north of the country is largely mountainous, with the highest point being Haji Ibrahim at 3,600 m. Iraq has a small coastline with the Persian Gulf. Close to the coast and along the Shatt al-Arab there used to be marshlands, but many of these were drained in the 1990s. A dune in the Egyptian desert Desert in California In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... A satellite image showing the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, Arabic: الخليج الفارسي) is an extension of the Gulf of Oman in between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in southern Iraq. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM...


The local climate is mostly a desert clime with mild to cool winters and dry, hot, cloudless summers. The northern mountainous regions experience cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding. The capital Baghdad is situated in the centre of the country, on the banks of the Tigris. Other major cities include Basra in the south and Mosul in the north. Iraq is considered to be one of the fifteen lands that comprise the so-called "Cradle of Humanity". Map of the climate of the Earth The climate (ancient Greek: κλίμα) is the weather averaged over a long period of time. ... A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... Mosūl ( Kurdish: Mûsil, Arabic: موصل, al Mawsil) or Nineveh ( Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ) is a city in northern Iraq/Central Assyria. ... The 19th-century evangelical Protestants who invented the term Cradle of Humanity made generalized but undocumented claims that the term originated in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century, and that it was used by early Arab Christians to refer to a geographic area that falls within a 1,000 mile radius...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Iraq This article needs cleanup. ...


Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq suffered economic losses from the war of at least US$100 billion. After hostilities ended in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. A combination of low oil prices, onerous repayment of the war debts (at around US$3 billion a year) and the costs of reconstruction resulted in a serious financial crisis which was the main short term motivation for the invasion of Kuwait. Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The word billion, and its equivalents in other languages, refer to one of two different numbers. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The word billion, and its equivalents in other languages, refer to one of two different numbers. ...


Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the Ba`ath Party government have hurt the economy, implementation of the United Nations' oil-for-food program started in December 1996 was to have improved conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. For the first six, six-month phases of the program, Iraq was allowed to export limited amounts of oil in exchange for food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. Subsequent investigation of the program has revealed significant corruption, with highly placed U.N. officials being bribed, Ba'ath Party officials receiving lucrative kickbacks, and much of the money from oil sales being redirected into weapons research and acquisition by the Iraqi military. This article is about the country of Kuwait. ... Sanctions is the plural of sanction (see also penalty). ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ...


In December 1999, the UN Security Council authorised Iraq to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Iraq changed its oil reserve currency from US dollar to euro in 2000. Oil exports were more than three-quarters of the pre-war level. However, 28% of Iraq's export revenues under the program are deducted to meet UN Compensation Fund and UN administrative expenses. The drop in GDP in 2001 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the economy has to a great extent shut down and attempts are underway to revive it from the damages of the war and rampant crime. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... A reserve currency is a currency which is held in significant quantities by other governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Euro (disambiguation). ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United...


During his year as the supreme authority in Iraq, Ambassador Paul Bremer issued a series of orders designed to restructure Iraq's broadly socialist economy in line with neo-liberal thinking. Order 39 laid out the framework for the privatization of everything in Iraq aside from the oil reserves themselves, and permitted 100% foreign ownership of Iraqi assets. Other orders established a flat tax of 15% and permitted foreign corporations to repatriate 100% of profits earned in Iraq. Opposition from senior Iraqi officials together with the poor security situation meant that Bremer's privatization plan was not implemented during his reign, though his Orders remain in place. L. Paul Bremer Lewis Paul Bremer III, also known as Jerry Bremer, (born September 30, 1941) was named Director of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for post-war Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq to replace Jay Garner on May 6, 2003. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by encouraging free...


The second attempt to liberalize Iraq's economy is linked to the Iran-Iraq war debt. The creditors who financed the Iran-Iraq war had presented post-Saddam Iraq with a bill of nearly US$130 billion of debt and past-due-interest, which had not been serviced during the 13 years of sanctions. The Jubilee Iraq campaign argued that these debts were odious (or illegitimate) given that they came from loans to a dictator fighting a war which caused the Iraqi people a great deal of harm, and should therefore be written off unconditionally. The creditors however only offered a partial reduction and rescheduling of their claims in return for an Iraqi commitment to implement an International Monetary Fund economic program. This deal, with the Paris Club cartel of creditors including the US and Britain, was signed on 20 November 2004. The following day the interim Iraqi National Assembly issued a strongly worded resolution rejecting the Paris Club's terms and declaring that the debt was odious. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the worlds richest countries, which provides financial services such as debt restructuring, debt relief, and debt cancellation to indebted countries and their creditors. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Iraq Almost 75% of Iraqs population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. ...


Almost 72% of Iraq's population consists of Arabic speakers (mainly Iraqi but some Hejazi); the other major ethnic group are the Kurds (25%), who live in the north and north-east of the country. The Kurds differ from Arabs in many ways including culture, history, clothing, and language. Other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, Armenians (3%) and Yezidis (possible descendants of the ancient Sumerian culture, part of the Kurdish population). About 2,500 Jews and 20,000 - 50,000 Marsh Arabs live in Iraq. Arab (disambiguation). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Assyrians (ܐܫܘܪܝܶܐ) is the name of a people from Northern Mesopotamia in Middle East, today split in three parts; Turkey, Syria and Iraq. ... There are several meanings to Turkmen: Related to the country Turkmenistan Turkmen language Turkmen people A breed of horse called the Turkoman This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... See Lurs for other uses Lur is a name given to two distinct types of wind musical instrument. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ...


Arabic and Kurdish are official languages and English is the most commonly spoken Western language. East Aramaic is also used by the country's Assyrian population. Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Geographic distribution The Kurdish languages (also called dialects of Kurdish) are spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This article is currently being completely revised at Assyrian/Revision For the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom, see Assyria. ...


There are more Arab Iraqi Muslims members of the Shiite sect than there are Arab Iraqi Muslims of the Sunni sect, but there is a large Sunni population as well, made up of mostly Arabs, Kurds, and Turkomans, (Shiite 60% of total population). Small communities of Christians, Baha'is, Mandaeans, Shabaks, and Yezidis also exist. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims. Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Arab (disambiguation). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... There are several meanings to Turkmen: Related to the country Turkmenistan Turkmen language Turkmen people A breed of horse called the Turkoman This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Shabaks comprise a religious group in Iraq that has been recorded separately in censuses since the days of the British mandate. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Demographic information from the 2004 edition of the CIA's The World Factbook: The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...

  • Ethnic groups: Arab 70%-75%, Kurdish 20%-25%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
  • Religions: Muslim 93-95% (Shi'ite 60%, Sunni 40%), Christian,Yezidi or other 5-7%

Culture

Main article: Culture of Iraq Iraq has one of the worlds oldest cultural histories. ...

Iraq is known primarily for an instrument called the oud (similar to a lute) and a rebab (similar to a fiddle); its stars include Ahmed Mukhtar and the Assyrian Munir Bashir. ...

Miscellaneous topics

See also: 2005, Iraq, Occupation of Iraq Events January January 4 - Governor Ali Al-Haidri, governor of Baghdad province, is assassinated along with two of his bodyguards January 26 31 US-Marines killed, as a helictopter went down near the Jordan border. ... See also: 2004, Iraq, Occupation of Iraq Events January January 10 - Protests in the city of Amarah because of an unemployment crisis. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... This is a list of places in Iraq. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 675,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: NA Telephone system: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been rebuilt domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic... Railways: total: 2,032 km standard gauge: 2,032 km 1. ... Most Iraqis identify strongly with a tribe (ashira), and nearly half of Iraqis are more loyal to their clans or tribes than to the national government. ... Politics of Iraq includes the social relations involving authority or power in Iraq. ... The Military of Iraq consists of the Iraqi Army fields infantry, mechanized, and armored divisions. ... Iraqi-Iranian relations have remained cool since the end of the Iraq-Iran War in 1988. ... The human rights situation in Iraq is the subject of three separate articles: The human rights in pre-Saddam Iraq The human rights in Saddams Iraq The human rights in post-Saddam Iraq This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Iraqi insurgency is a neologism to describe a loosely organized hostile opposition to the United States run Coalition of the Willing, which, according to the US military is centered in Fallujah. ... After World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the province of Iraq came under the control of the United Kingdom. ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state and chief of government. ... List of Prime Ministers of Iraq The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ... This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Iraq. ...

External links

  • Future of Iraq Portal (http://www.justinalexander.net/iraq/) Over 1000 well organised links including news, blogs and NGOs.
  • Iraq: Relief and Recovery (http://home.developmentgateway.org/iraq) Development Gateway's knowledge sharing community on Iraq's development needs and efforts.
  • Sourcewatch on reconstruction of Iraq contractors (http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Reconstruction_of_Iraq_contractors).
  • Iraqi Interim Government (http://www.iraqigovernment.org/) Official website
  • Iraq Analysis (http://www.iraqanalysis.org/) Information Source Listings and analysis on post-invasion Iraq
  • Jubilee Iraq (http://www.jubileeiraq.org) Campaign to eliminate the odious debt and reparations
  • Amnesty International Report on Iraq (http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engMDE140082001?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESIRAQ)
  • Coalition Provisional Authority (http://www.cpa-iraq.org/)Now defunct occupation authority, site is archived.
  • US Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq (http://baghdad.usembassy.gov/)
  • Iraq the Model (http://www.iraqthemodel.com/)
  • Arab Gateway: Iraq (http://www.al-bab.com/arab/countries/iraq.htm)
  • BBC News Country Profile - Iraq (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/791014.stm)
  • CIA World Factbook - Iraq (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)
  • Library of Congress Country Study - Iraq (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/iqtoc.html) data as of May 1988
  • LookSmart - Iraq (http://search.looksmart.com/p/browse/us1/us317916/us559898/us560105/us560111/) directory category
  • Open Directory Project - Iraq (http://dmoz.org/Regional/Middle_East/Iraq/) directory category
  • Yahoo! - Iraq (http://dir.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/Iraq/) directory category
  • Yahoo! News Full Coverage - Iraq (http://story.news.yahoo.com/fc?cid=34&tmpl=fc&in=World&cat=Iraq) news headline links
  • Indepth Analysis of the Gulf War (http://www.indepthinfo.com/iraq/index.shtml)
  • Iraq News (http://www.HavenWorks.com/world/iraq)
  • Iraqi civilian deaths since start of war in 2003 (http://www.iraqbodycount.net/)
  • Postcolonial Iraq (http://jelloul.blogspot.com/)
  • Schema-root.org: Iraq (http://schema-root.org/region/mideast/iraq/) 178 Iraq related topics, each with its own current news feed
  • Dahr Jamail Iraq Dispatches (http://www.dahrjamailiraq.com/index.php) News From Inside Iraq



The International Freedom of Expression eXchange (IFEX), founded in 1992, is a global network of more than 60 Non-governmental organisation that promotes and defends the right to freedom of expression. ...

Countries and Territories in Southwest Asia

Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Cyprus | Egypt | Gaza Strip | Georgia | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Oman | Qatar | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Syria | Turkey | United Arab Emirates | West Bank | Yemen This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Dari-Persian: Afğānistān افغانستان) is a country in Central Asia. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain (occasionally spelt Bahrein), is a borderless island nation in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... This article is about the country of Kuwait. ... The Lebanese Republic or Lebanon is a country in Southwest Asia, bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Sultanate of Oman is a country in the southwestern part of Asia, on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. ... The State of Qatar (قطر) is an emirate in the Middle East. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... The West Bank is a territory in the Middle East constituting the area west of the Jordan River annexed by Jordan at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. ...


Countries and Territories in the Middle East
Bahrain | Cyprus | Egypt | Gaza Strip | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Oman | Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Syria | Turkey | United Arab Emirates | West Bank | Yemen


This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain (occasionally spelt Bahrein), is a borderless island nation in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... This article is about the country of Kuwait. ... The Lebanese Republic or Lebanon is a country in Southwest Asia, bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Sultanate of Oman is a country in the southwestern part of Asia, on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. ... The State of Qatar (قطر) is an emirate in the Middle East. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... The West Bank is a territory in the Middle East constituting the area west of the Jordan River annexed by Jordan at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. ...

Arab League
Algeria | Bahrain | Comoros | Djibouti | Egypt | Iraq | Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Libya | Mauritania | Morocco | Oman | State of Palestine | Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Somalia | Sudan | Syria | Tunisia | United Arab Emirates | Yemen

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iraqi Interim Government - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1035 words)
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30th, 2005.
The Iraqi Interim Government itself took the place of the Coalition Provisional Authority (and the Iraq Interim Governing Council) on June 28, 2004, and was replaced by the Iraqi Transitional Governmenton May 3, 2005.
Allawi was a former member of the Iraq Interim Governing Council and was chosen by the council to be the Interim Prime Minister of Iraq to govern the country beginning with the United States' handover of sovereignty (June 28, 2004) until national elections, scheduled for early 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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