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Encyclopedia > Iraq War troop surge of 2007
This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.

The "troop surge" is a phrase commonly used to describe U.S. President George W. Bush's strategy change involving an increase in the number of American troops deployed to the Iraq War to provide security to Baghdad and Al Anbar Province. The two operations in which these troops were used are called Operation Fardh al-Qanoon, (otherwise known as the Baghdad Security Plan) and Operation Phantom Thunder. [1] Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Ford Motor Companys restructuring plan, made public in 2006, is known as The Way Forward. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Al Anbar (Arabic: ‎ ) is an overwhelmingly Sunni Arab province of Iraq. ... Combatants United States Army New Iraqi Army Iraqi insurgency Commanders Abboud Qanbar David Petraeus unknown Strength ~90,000 [1] unknown Casualties 202 KIA, 605+ WIA (US)[2] 374 killed (Iraqi Security Forces) 490 killed (66 bombers)[3], ~2,500 captured (not all insurgents) 4,513 civilians killed (by July 1... Combatants United States New Iraqi Army 1920 Revolution Brigade[1] Awakening movements in Iraq [2] Iraqi Insurgency Al-Qaeda in Iraq Commanders Gen. ...


On January 10, 2007, President Bush announced changes in the administration's political and military strategy in the Iraq War during a national television speech broadcast. The speech and underlying strategy had been crafted under the working title "The New Way Forward." In the address Bush stated “America will change our strategy to help the Iraqis carry out their campaign to put down sectarian violence and bring security to the people of Baghdad. This will require increasing American force levels. So I've committed more than 20,000 additional American troops to Iraq. The vast majority of them -- five brigades -- will be deployed to Baghdad”[2] January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the term working title. ...


The substance of the strategy change was widely debated even prior to Bush's speech. Following the speech, the press continued to report efforts by the Bush administration to promote the strategy, and several prominent political and military leaders made public acts decrying or supporting the plan for various reasons.


The plan resulted in an Iraqi-led initiative to secure Baghdad starting in February 2007. Combatants United States Army New Iraqi Army Iraqi insurgency Commanders Abboud Gambar David Petraeus unknown Strength ~90,000 [1] unknown Casualties Iraqi Security Forces: 68 US forces: 22 KIA, 35 WIA[1] Iraqi goverment claim: 120 killed, 813 captured[2](including ten bombers) Operation Law and Order (Arabic: ‎ Fard al...

Contents

Controversy over "troop surge" and associated terminology

The phrases "New Way Forward",[3][4] "The New Way Forward"[5][6] and "A new way forward in Iraq"[7] were widely used by White House Press Secretary Tony Snow[8] and the news media prior to the President's speech announcing the policy change. The US press also refers to this proposed increase as a "surge" or "Iraq troop surge." Following the speech, some Democrats began using the term "escalation" rather than "surge",[9] though others in the party use the terms interchangeably.[10] Robert Anthony Tony Snow (born June 1, 1955) is the current White House Press Secretary for President George W. Bush. ... Escalation is the phenomenon of something getting worse step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War. ...


UC Berkeley linguistics professor and Rockridge Institute senior fellow George Lakoff criticized the use of the word "surge" as an example of framing the argument in Bush's favor. The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... The Rockridge Institute is an American non-profit research and progressive think tank located in Berkeley, California. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In media studies, sociology and psychology, framing is a process of selective control over the individuals perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. ...

The word "surge" indicates a short-term increase in force that has an effect and naturally goes back to its previous level. In military parlance, a "surge force" is the opposite of a "base force": troops come in to do a job that can be done quickly, and then leave. They are not "based." That is not the Bush plan. Only one major combat unit will be sent that was not scheduled to go. Other units will go earlier and leave later — indefinitely later, since there is no end date or condition. It is also questionable whether they will be effective, since previous "surges" (without the use of the word) have been failures. To use the word "surge" is to subscribe to Bush's misleading frame.[11]

Demand for policy change

2006 election as referendum on Iraq War

Polls showed that before the 2006 general election, “A substantial majority of Americans expect Democrats to reduce or end American military involvement in Iraq if they [won] control of Congress”.[12] This view of the election as a referendum on the war was endorsed by Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi who in the final days of the campaign said, “This election is about Iraq. If indeed it turns out the way that people expect it to turn out, the American people will have spoken, and they will have rejected the course of action the president is on.”[13] The news media viewed the Democratic victory in both houses of the US Congress as “punishing President George W. Bush and his Republicans over ethics scandals in Washington and a failing war in Iraq.”[14] Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Democrats announce priority to be on changing Iraq policy

After her party's victory then House Speaker-elect Nancy Pelosi wrote an article entitled "Bringing the War to an End is my Highest Priority as Speaker". The article explained that after visiting wounded Iraq War veterans at the Bethesda Naval Medical Center "I left there more committed than ever to bringing the war to an end. I told my colleagues yesterday that the biggest ethical issue facing our country for the past three and a half years is the war in Iraq. ...When the House reconvenes on January 4, 2007, Democrats will take power and I will take the gavel knowing the responsibility we have to you and to the country. The new Democratic Congress will live up to the highest ethical standard... [we] are prepared to lead and ready to govern. We will honor the trust of the American people; we will not disappoint."[15] She noted the coming birth of a new grandchild and said "I want my grandchild to be born into an America where if the U.S. Central Command judges the situation in Iraq to be near chaos, with 'violence at all-time high, spreading geographically', if the top intelligence agencies tell you that the war in Iraq is inspiring the very terrorism it was purported to prevent, and if four highly respected military newspapers say of the Secretary of Defense that 'his strategy has failed, and his ability to lead is compromised...[he] must go' that you fire your Secretary of Defense and change the course."[16] Bethesda Naval Medical Center Overview The Bethesda Naval Medical Center is located in Bethesda, Maryland, a suburban community northwest of Washington, D.C. A federal institution, it conducts medical and dental research as well as provides health care for American leaders, including the president and his family. ...


Blunt leads the Republican call for "new way forward"

Following the 2006 United States midterm elections where the Republicans lost seats in the House and Senate, a Heritage Foundation conference was chaired by Republican whip Rep. Roy Blunt (R-MO) under the title "The New Way Forward: Refocusing the Conservative Agenda" on November 9, 2006 to analyze "setbacks" from the election results. Blunt bemoaned the fact Republicans had "become the defenders rather than the challengers of business as usual".[17] Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... Roy D. Blunt (born January 10, 1950) is a Republican politician from Missouri, currently representing that states 7th Congressional District in the United States House of Representatives. ...


Blunt opened his speech listing the oft voiced explanations of his party's defeat which included that the results were in part “a referendum on the war in Iraq”. He dismissed the notion that any one single reason explained the loss, saying “Different candidates lost for different reasons”. He saw a bright side in events saying “The good news is that even with these shortcomings, low presidential approval numbers, and uncertainty about Iraq, our candidates saw, even with all those things happening, their ideas taking hold in the final days of their campaigns. A shift of 78,000 votes in the entire country would have changed the outcome. Our ideas didn’t get beat; in fact, we did.” He applauded the Constitutional system saying the defeat proves “that no one party has a permanent claim to power…This means any viable political movement, such as ours, can never afford to become stagnant or complacent. We must constantly refresh our ideas, assess our performance, and make corrections when necessary. This is a great moment to do all three of those things. For a generation Reagan conservatives have consistently demonstrated an ability to do just that. Nowhere has this been more evident than in our response to the threats of Islamic totalitarianism and the fight with our terrorist enemies.” He said “While the threats of Islamic totalitarianism at times require different tactics, we are approaching those challenges with the same resolve that allowed us to defeat communism. I am convinced that in this fight we will also prevail because the American people understand the need to win. We must continue to lead the fight against Islamic totalitarianism and sustain the will to win the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. …[On the war and on domestic issues] Our plan must avoid the mistakes of the past several years. …I am confident that we will successfully move forward.”[18] Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ...


Gathering information for "the new way forward"

Iraq Study Group

On December 6, 2006 the Iraq Study Group presented their report. Co-chairman James Baker said that since "events in Iraq could overtake what we recommend...[members] believe that decisions should be made by our national leaders with some urgency."[19] Upon receiving the report Bush told the group "we will take every proposal seriously, and we will act in a timely fashion."[19] Cover of the report The Iraq Study Group (ISG), also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission,[1] was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ...


Later in the day White House spokesman Tony Snow told CNN's Larry King that President Bush was comparing recommendations “by the Iraq Study Group with pending studies by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Security Council”.[19] Once the review was finished, Snow believed that the President would be able to "announce a new way forward" in Iraq by the end of the year.[19] Robert Anthony Tony Snow (born June 1, 1955) is the current White House Press Secretary for President George W. Bush. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Larry King (born Lawrence Harvey Zeiger on November 19, 1933) is an award-winning American writer, journalist and broadcaster. ... Cover of the report The Iraq Study Group (ISG), also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission,[1] was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Meeting with State Department advisers

On December 11, 2006 Bush met with Senior State Department advisers (including Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice) “on how to shape U.S. policy in Iraq as part of Bush's mission to come up with a new strategy.”[20] He reiterated his intent to communicate that strategy to the nation before Christmas 2006, and said “There is no question we've got to make sure that the State Department and the Defense Department -- the efforts and their recommendations are closely coordinated, so that when I do speak to the American people, they will know that I've listened to all aspects of government and that the way forward is the way forward to achieve our objective: to succeed in Iraq.”[20] The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


Meeting with Iraqi experts

Later on December 11, 2006 Bush met “with a group of Iraqi experts, including historians and former generals, in the Oval Office.”[20] The Washington Post reported that among the panel of experts were retired four star generals Barry McCaffrey, Wayne A. Downing, and John Keane; along with Eliot Cohen, who panned the recommendations of the Iraq Study Group.[21] The Post went on to say "The group disagreed on the key issue of whether to send more troops to Iraq, with retired Gen. John M. Keane arguing that several thousand additional soldiers could be used to improve security in Baghdad, and others expressing doubt about that proposal."[21] The group also suggested Bush change personnel in his national security team. One panel member reported that "All of us said they have failed, that you need a new team."[21] The President thanked the panel and told reporters “I appreciate the advice I got from those folks in the field. And that advice is . . . an important component of putting together a new way forward in Iraq.”[21] The Oval Office from above The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States. ... ... Gen. ... General Wayne Allan Downing, born in 1940, was raised in Peoria, Illinois. ... John Keane could be one of several notable people: John Keane was one of Irelands most outstanding hurlers. ... Eliot A. Cohen is considered to be a neo-conservative. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Meeting with the Joint Chiefs

On December 13, 2006 President Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney met with the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for “more than an hour”, discussing different military options for Iraq. While “no dramatic proposals” were put forward “a pragmatic assessment of what can and cannot be done by the military” was offered. Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ...


Call for a new focus on economics, training, and reconciliation

They did “not favor adding significant numbers of troops to Iraq” but saw “strengthening the Iraqi army as pivotal to achieving some degree of stability.” They pressed for “greater U.S. effort on economic reconstruction and political reconciliation.” They stressed the need for “employment programs, reconstruction and political reconciliation…[as] key to pulling young men from the burgeoning militias.” They said there was “no purely military solution for Iraq” and “without major progress on the political and economic fronts, the U.S. intervention is simply buying time”. They also urged “that any new strategy be sensitive to regional context, particularly the impact of political or military decisions.” They fear that throwing too much support to the Shiite majority may lead Sunni nations in the region to step up support of Sunni insurgents, and that a crackdown on Iraq's largest Shiite militia, the Mahdi army, may instigate more interference by Iran.[22]


The Chiarelli plan

Gen. George William Casey Jr., the top U.S. commander in Iraq, was reported to be “reviewing a plan to redefine the American military mission there: U.S. troops would be pulled out of Iraqi cities and consolidated at a handful of U.S. bases while day-to-day combat duty would be turned over to the Iraqi army.” It was said that he was “still considering whether to request more troops, possibly as part of an expanded training mission to help strengthen the Iraqi army.” These options were laid out by the outgoing U.S. ground commander, Lt. Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli. Under the Chiarelli plan “the military would shift about half of its 15 combat brigades away from battling insurgents and sectarian violence and into training Iraqi security forces as soon as the spring of 2007. … About 4,000 U.S. troops are now serving on 11-person military training teams embedded with Iraqi forces. The new plan would add 30 troops to each team, allowing them to provide supervision and mentoring down to the level of Iraqi army companies. … the remaining seven to eight brigades of U.S. combat forces would focus on three core missions: striking al-Qaeda, strengthening security along Iraq's borders, and protecting major highways and other routes to ensure U.S. forces freedom of movement in Iraq. …The plan would not allow for any major reduction in U.S. troops in Iraq over the next year -- nor would it call for any surge in troops”. Military spokesman Maj. Gen. William Caldwell said that “In northern and western Iraq, U.S. commanders are already moving troops out of combat missions to place them as advisers with lower-level Iraqi army units.”[22] George William Casey Jr. ...


Problems with readiness

The Chiefs expressed “concern about the erosion of the U.S. military's ability to deal with other crises around the world because of the heavy commitment in Iraq and the stress on troops and equipment”. They told Bush that there was “significantly increased risk to readiness in the event of a new emergency”.[22]


Bush's reaction

Speaking to reporters afterward Bush said “Our military cannot do this job alone. Our military needs a political strategy that is effective.” He also stressed his ongoing commitment to securing Iraq, saying “If we lose our nerve, if we're not steadfast in our determination to help the Iraqi government succeed, we will be handing Iraq over to an enemy that would do us harm.” When pressed for when he would announce his new way forward, he said he would not be “rushed” into a decision and was still reviewing his options.[22]


December 14 comments

On December 14, 2006, when pressed by reporters for more information on his thinking on the matter Bush said “I am listening to a lot of advice to develop a strategy to help you succeed, a lot of consultations. I will be delivering my plans after a long deliberation, after steady deliberation. I'm not going to be rushed into making a decision.” He stated that he had heard some “interesting” ideas. He also said he heard some “ideas that would lead to defeat…[and] I reject those ideas. Ideas such as leaving before the job is done. Ideas such as not helping this (Iraqi) government take the necessary and hard steps to be able to do its job.” He said he wanted the incoming Defense Secretary Robert Gates “to have time to evaluate the situation” and come up with his own suggestions. That same day Iraqi President Jalal Talabani issued a written statement saying that he had received Bush’s assurances that “he would make no decisions on his new Iraq strategy that would be ‘against your interests’…[and his pledge] to work with Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki on his efforts to implement a Baghdad security plan”. CNN reported that “Administration officials say Bush is ‘not satisfied’ with some of the information he has been getting and ‘is asking people to get him more’ information on various options in Iraq.”[23] Robert Michael Gates, Ph. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nouri al-Maliki Nouri Kamel al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated NÅ«rÄ« Kāmil al-MālikÄ«; born c. ...


Though originally scheduled for late 2006, the announcement on "the new way forward" was delayed to give the President "more time" to gather information. Press secretary Tony Snow said the administration was hoping for the president to deliver the speech before Christmas, although he said the timing was not nailed down.


American Enterprise Institute report

This American Enterprise Institute report referenced is listed as having been posted December 14, and was called the "real Iraq Study Group report" by its author. file of report The draft was presented on December 14 by Frederick Kagan, AEI, General Keane, and Kenneth Pollack, (Brookings Institution) event detail. AEI released its final report to the press on January 5, 2007, under the title "Iraq: A Turning Point (With Reports from Iraq from Senators John McCain and Joseph Lieberman)" [1]. The event description stated the following: The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... Frederick Kagan, brother to foreign policy analyst Robert Kagan, is a professor of military history at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. ... Kenneth Michael Pollack (born 1966) is a an arm-chair warmongerer who helped deceive a nation into committing itself to a catastrophic military intervention . ... The Brookings Institution is one of the oldest and best known think tanks in the United States. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a Jewish-American Democratic politician and a current U.S. senator from Connecticut. ...

"The study calls for a large and sustained surge of U.S. forces to secure and protect critical areas of Baghdad. Mr. Kagan directed the report in consultation with military and regional experts, including General Keane, former Afghanistan coalition commander Lieutenant General David Barno, and other officers involved with the successful operations of the Third Armored Cavalry Regiment in Tal Afar. An interim version of the report was released on December 14, 2006. At this event, Mr. Kagan and General Keane will present their final report, which outlines how the United States can win in Iraq and why victory is the only acceptable outcome. " Tal Afar (also Tal Afar, Tall Afar, Tell Afar, Tel Afar) (in Arabic: تل عفر, in Kurdish: Telehfer) (also تلعفر) is a city in northern Iraq, about 30 miles west of Mosul. ...

Andrew Ross of the San Francisco Chronicle [2] [3] also connects Bush's strategy to this American Enterprise Institute report, saying "In addition to the changing of the military guard and moving ahead with the 'surge' option, President Bush's Iraq strategy involves more money for reconstruction, job creation, and for 'moderate Iraqi political parties as a means of building a centrist political coalition to support Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki,' according to the Wall Street Journal. This more holistic approach — reportedly entitled 'The New Way Forward' — echoes in many ways a paper from the American Enterprise Institute, authored by Frederick Kagan, better known as the prime mover of the 'surge option.'" Andrew Ross is Professor in the American Studies program at New York University. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies...


Personnel changes prior to the speech

In addition to the January 5 AEI report press conference, the press reported on several public announcements by the Bush Administration on January 5 that they attributed to the new Iraq initiative, as follows: [4]

  • White House Counsel -- Harriet Miers is leaving, White House spokesman Tony Snow said. The counsel advises the president on legal aspects of military actions [5]

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority, direction and control of the President of the United States who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 for: Serving as the principal adviser to the President of the... John Dimitri Negroponte (born July 21, 1939 in the United Kingdom) (IPA ) is an American (of Greek origin) career diplomat. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the chief assistant to the Secretary of State who is responsible for foreign affairs. ... Vice Admiral John M. McConnell (United States Navy) was the director of the National Security Agency between May 1992 and January 1996. ... Emblem of the United States Central Command. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... William J. Fallon is an Admiral in the United States Navy and currently serves as Commander, U.S. Pacific Command. ... John Philip Abizaid (Arabic: جون أبي زيد) (born April 1, 1951) is a General in the United States Army and the Commander of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM), overseeing American military operations in a 27-country region, from the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to South and Central Asia, covering much... Emblem of the United States Central Command. ... Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I) replaced Combined Joint Task Force 7 on May 15, 2004. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a general in the United States Army and commander of Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), the four-star post that oversees all U.S. forces in the country. ... George William Casey Jr. ... Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I) replaced Combined Joint Task Force 7 on May 15, 2004. ... This is a list of United States ambassadors, or lower-ranking heads of a diplomatic mission to Iraq. ... Ryan C. Crocker, U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan C. Crocker (born on June 19, 1949 in Spokane, Washington) is current United States Ambassador to Iraq. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Dr. Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashtu/Persian: ‎ ) (born 22 March 1951) is the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Alejandro Daniel Wolff Alejandro Daniel Wolff is an American diplomat who will be the acting U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations [1][2] until such time as a replacement can be found. ... United States Ambassador to the United Nations, full title, Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations (also known as the... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States. ... Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945 in Dallas, Texas) is an American lawyer, and former White House Counsel. ...

Pre-speech expectations of the strategy change and troop surge

Bush was expected to announce a "surge" in forces that some sources say could be up to 20,000 troops. According to Reuters, "While Bush is to announce a complete overhaul of his Iraq policy, including economic and political components, the possibility of a troop increase has gained the most attention. Despite a divide on the issue, Bush in recent days has hinted toward a preference for increasing troop strength by saying he wanted to help Iraqis gain control of the security situation there. "One thing is for certain, I will want to make sure that the mission is clear and specific and can be accomplished," Bush said on Thursday when asked about a troop increase."[24] In fact, Bush's proposed increase was 21,000 US troops, 4000 of which would be Marine Corps focused on the Anbar province while the others would be embedded into Iraqi units to provide security to Baghdad. Al Anbar (Arabic: ‎ ) is a province of Iraq. ...


Prebuttals

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Sidney Blumenthal of Salon.com reported December 20 that "Bush's touted but unexplained "new way forward" (his version of the ISG's "the way forward") may be the first order of battle, complete with details of units, maps and timetables, ever posted on the Web site of a think tank. "I will not be rushed," said Bush, but apparently he quickly accepted the latest program -- "Choosing Victory: A Plan for Success in Iraq" -- and available for reading on the site of the American Enterprise Institute."[25] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Sidney Blumenthal was born in Chicago in 1948 and educated at Brandeis University(BA in Sociology in 1969). ... Salon. ... An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ...


Soon after the 110th congress convened on January 4, it announced that it would call Defense Secretary Robert Gates before the Senate Armed Services Committee "to explain, if not try to defend, the president's plan" [6] Prior to the speech, US Senator Jack Reed (D-RI), a member of the Armed Services Committee, held a press conference mp3 version with former NATO Supreme Allied Commander General Wesley Clark and Jon Soltz, Senator Chuck Schumer (D-NY), Senator Patty Murray (D-WA) and together called on President Bush "to listen to the advice of his generals and the American people and offer a new plan to change course in Iraq."[7] The 110th United States Congress will be in session from noon on January 3, 2007 until noon on January 3, 2009. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Armed Services Committee could refer to: U.S. House Committee on Armed Services U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... Jon Soltz was a Captain in the Iraq War and is now the head of VoteVets. ... Charles Ellis Chuck Schumer (born November 23, 1950) is currently the senior U.S. Senator from the state of New York, serving since 1999. ... Patricia Lynn Murray (known as Patty Murray) (born October 11, 1950) is a Democratic United States Senator from Washington. ...


January 10: Plan announcement, resistance, and fait accompli

On January 10, the day of the speech, ABC News announced three points: (1) that they had learned that "the 'surge' Bush is expected to announce in a prime time speech tonight has already begun. Ninety advance troops from the 82nd Airborne Division arrived in Baghdad Wednesday. (2) A spokeswoman for Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., who, Tuesday, urgently called for Congress to vote on — and reject — the proposed surge. (3) Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-NV, also responded to the report, calling the troops' arrival "deeply disappointing." [8] The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ...


Plan B

There is speculation as to what course the U.S. would pursue if this escalation or surge does not succeed. The current phrase of alternative strategy is Plan B. Juan Williams stated, January 15, 2007, on WNYC's Brian Lehrer Show that Plan B involved removing Maliki and replacing him with someone more amenable to the United States' objectives.[26] In April, 2006 a Council on Foreign Relations staff writer listed several possible Plan B scenarios. [9] Juan Williams is an Emmy Award-winning writer, radio, and television correspondent. ... WNYC are the call letters for two public radio stations in New York City. ... WNYC radio host Brian Lehrer. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been...


Aftermath of the strategy speech

Information released by the Bush Administration immediately following the speech

The Bush administration issued talking points and transcripts about the strategy to communicate the strategy to the pubic. Talking points are small pre-prepared arguments or phrases that political strategists issue to representatives or supporters of a party or administration to be used repeatedly in speeches, talk show appearances and debates. ...


According to the "Fact Sheet: The New Way Forward in Iraq " issued by the White House,[27] "the President's New Iraq Strategy Is Rooted In Six Fundamental Elements" as follow:

  1. Let the Iraqis lead;
  2. Help Iraqis protect the population;
  3. Isolate extremists;
  4. Create space for political progress;
  5. Diversify political and economic efforts; and
  6. Situate the strategy in a regional approach.

The fact sheet further divides the proposal into four "Elements Of The New Approach" (Security, Political, Economic, Regional) that each have subcomponent responsibilities for three categories: Iraqis only, Coalition only, and combined Iraqi and Coalition.


On January 11, Gordon Johndroe gave the press gaggle about Bush's trip to Fort Benning, saying, "The President is going to, one, thank them for their service in the global war on terror — personnel from Fort Benning have, one, a long tradition of being deployed overseas in battles for the United States, but most recently in the global war on terror in Afghanistan and in Iraq — thank them for their service; thank the family members that are here for the sacrifices they make when their loved one is overseas. And then he's going to talk about his speech last night and the mission he outlined and the way ahead in Iraq." Gordon Johndroe is Special Assistant to the President of the United States, George W. Bush and Press Secretary of the National Security Council. ... A gaggle of Canada geese A gaggle is a term that is sometimes used to describe a flock of geese that isnt in flight. ...


On January 11, the White House released a transcript of statements by Condoleezza Rice, Robert Gates, and Peter Pace with respect to the president's speech under the title of "Background Briefing by Senior Administration Officials".


Positive and negative responses to the Speech/Strategy

The substance of the debate that followed the speech reflected " widespread disagreement with the Bush administration over its proposed solution, and growing skepticism that the United States made the right decision in going to war in the first place" [10]. Some issues of contention were divisions over the advisability of committing more troops versus complete withdrawal, the 'winnability' of the Iraq War regardless of a surge, and framing of the issue. The term framing can have several possible meanings: framing (telecommunication), where it relates to synchronization framing (economics), where it relates to rational choice theory framing (World Wide Web), where it relates to the use of multiple panes within a web page framing (communication theory), where it relates to the contextual...


Comments and responses of notable politicians, military officers, and news commentators follows:


January 11 to January 18

  • Immediately after the speech, Senator Dick Durbin issued the Democratic response which called upon Iraqis to "disband the militias and death squads."
  • Congressman and Democratic Presidential candidate Dennis Kucinich also criticized the new strategy claiming that the new plan could cause a war with Iran[28]
  • New York Times opinion columnist David Brooks said that the speech was "nearly impossible to figure out". Other critics have compared Bush's new plan to "rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic."
  • Jim Manley of the Office of Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid issuing weekly press releases entitled "The Iraq Accountability Project: A Wrap-Up of This Week's Senate Oversight on Iraq" [11] with sound bites from select testimonies to the Senate Armed Services Committee and Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
  • January 16
  • January 17
    • Moveon.org released an ad that identifies the surge strategy as "McCain's idea". [13]. The NYT reports that [presidential candidate] "John Edwards has taken to referring to the administration proposal as 'the McCain Doctrine.'" “The presence of additional coalition forces would allow the Iraqi government to do what it cannot accomplish today on its own: impose its rule throughout the country,” McCain said at a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing on Jan. 12.
    • The NYT also reported that Former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney and former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, as backing Bush on the troop increase, while Sam Brownback and Nebraska Sen. Chuck Hagel reportedly oppose increasing American troop strength.
    • Xinhua News Agency reported that "whitehouse hopefuls" Sens. Hillary Clinton, D-N.Y., Barack Obama, D-Ill., Chris Dodd, D- Conn., Joe Biden, D-Del, and Sam Brownback, R-Kansas, all voiced their discontent Wednesday with the course of events in Iraq [14]

Richard Joseph Durbin (born November 21, 1944) is an American politician. ... Dennis John Kucinich (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... David Brooks, conservative commentator for the New York Times and other publications. ... Born 17 January 1934 in St Helens, Lancashire, England. ... A Senate Majority Leader is a politician within a Senate who leads the majority party, or majority coalition, of sitting senators. ... Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. ... In film and broadcasting, a soundbite is a very short piece of footage taken from a longer speech or an interview in which someone with authority says something which is considered by those who edit the speech or interview to be a most important point. ... The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... Charles Timothy Chuck Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. ... Joseph Robinette Joe Biden, Jr. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. ... Armed Services Committee could refer to: U.S. House Committee on Armed Services U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A non-binding resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body that can not progress in to a law. ... A group of MoveOn volunteers helped the get-out-the-vote drive in Cincinnati in the run-up to the 2004 U.S. presidential election. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... Johnny Reid John Edwards [1] (born June 10, 1953), is an American politician who was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in 2004 and a one-term U.S. Senator from North Carolina. ... Willard Milton Romney (born March 12, 1947, usually known as Mitt), was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... Samuel Dale Brownback (born September 12, 1956) is the senior United States senator from the U.S. state of Kansas. ... Front gate of the main building of Xinhua News Agency in Beijing The Xinhua News Agency (Simplified Chinese: 新华社; Traditional Chinese: 新華社; pinyin: ), or NCNA (New China News Agency), is the official press agency of the government of the Peoples Republic of China and the biggest center for collecting information and... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ... “Obama” redirects here. ... Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944), is an American politician. ...

January 18 to January 25

  • January 18
    • Harry Reid issues excerpts from Senate testimonies under the title "The Iraq Accountability Project: A Wrap-Up of This Week's Senate Oversight on Iraq" [15]
    • The LA times released a Bloomberg poll that said 60 percent of those polled oppose Bush's decision to deploy more soldiers to Iraq, 51 percent want Congress to try to block Bush from sending more soldiers, and 65 percent disapprove of the president's handling of the war [16] meanwhile, a Fox News Poll reported that 59 percent to 36 percent, Americans oppose sending more U.S. troops to Iraq [17]
  • January 19 --
    • During a news conference with Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, the top U.S. commander in Iraq Gen. George Casey estimated that the 21,500 additional U.S. troops sent to Iraq will only need to stay until around late summer. [18]
    • three four star generals testified to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee advising that the US pull out of Iraq [19]
      • Gen. Jack Keane said he recommended sending far more troops than the 21,500 envisaged in the president's plan and he also said he opposed allowing Iraqi military forces to take the leading role in the envisaged Baghdad operations. Giving Iraqi forces the lead role "makes no sense to me. I don't understand that," Keane said in his testimony [20]
      • Barry McCaffrey said "I personally think the surge of five U.S. Army brigades and a few Marine battalions dribbled out over five months is a fool's errand."
      • Marine Gen. Joseph Hoar, the former head of U.S. Central Command, or CENTCOM, which includes the Iraq theater of operations, urged a full pull-out of U.S. forces from Iraq, saying "In the Marines, we say, 'When you're in a hole, stop digging.'"
    • The AP reported that House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said Democrats in her chamber will back a non-binding resolution "declaring that President Bush's decision to send additional troops to Iraq is 'not in the national interest of the United States.'" The Washington Times says Pelosi "has made clear her disdain for the 'surge' proposal" since before President Bush unveiled it last week, but her latest remarks "were her first indication of the language that she will want the House to approve [21]
    • Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi announced that despite opposition to the surge, she wouldn't push for blocking congressional funding for additional troops [22]
    • It was announced that both the USS Ronald Reagan and the USS John C. Stennis [23] would deploy to the gulf region.
    • George Bush gave several promotional speeches in to Belo television and [Sinclair television] in advance of his state of the union speech, where he "suggested it should be given a chance and challenged critical lawmakers to offer an alternative." [24]

This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... John (Jack) Keane (born 1945) is a retired four-star general and former Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and a defense analyst. ... Gen. ... General Joseph P. Hoar (born December 30, 1934) is a retired U.S. Marine Corps officer, former Commander in Chief of United States Central Command. ... A non-binding resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body that can not progress in to a law. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), the ninth and penultimate Nimitz-class supercarrier, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for former President of the United States Ronald Reagan. ... USS (CVN-74) is the seventh Nimitz-class nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy, named for Senator John C. Stennis of Mississippi. ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ...

February 2007

Congressional opposition to
U.S. wars and interventions
1812 North America
House Federalists’ Address
1917 World War I
Filibuster of the Armed Ship Bill
1935-1939 (General)
Neutrality Acts
1935-40 (General)
Ludlow Amendment
1970 Vietnam
McGovern-Hatfield Amendment
1970 Southeast Asia
Cooper-Church Amendment
1971 Vietnam
Repeal of Tonkin Gulf Resolution
1973 Southeast Asia
Case-Church Amendment
1973 (General)
War Powers Resolution
1974 Covert Ops (General)
Hughes-Ryan Amendment
1976 Angola
Clark Amendment
1982 Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
2007 Iraq
House Concurrent Resolution 63
This box: view  talk  edit

After three days of debate, on February 16, 2007 the House of Representatives passed House Concurrent Resolution (HCR) 63 on a vote of 246 to 182.[29] The resolution states: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Opposition to the War of 1812 was widespread in the United States, especially in New England. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... The Neutrality Acts were a series of laws passed in the United States in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that was to lead to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following its costly involvement in... Louis Ludlow was a Washington correspondent for a large number of newspapers, and then served as a Democrat in the U.S. House of Representatives for the Indianapolis, Indiana district for twenty years. ... The McGovern-Hatfield amendment (alternately, Hatfield-McGovern amendment) was a proposed amendment in 1970 during the Vietnam War that, if passed, would have required the end of United States military operations in the Republic of Vietnam by December 31, 1970 and a complete withdrawal of American forces halfway through the... The Cooper-Church amendment was introduced in the United States Senate during the Vietnam War and is known as the first amendment to limit presidential powers during war time. ... The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. ... The Case-Church Amendment was a piece of legislation that sought to rein in President Richard Nixons conduct of the Vietnam War. ... The War Powers Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-148) limits the power of the President of the United States to wage war without the approval of Congress. ... The Hughes-Ryan Act was an amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, that forces the President of the United States to report all covert Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operations to a Congressional committee within a set time limit. ... The Clark amendment was an amendment to the U.S. Arms Export Control Act of 1976, named for its sponsor, Senator Dick Clark (D-Idaho). ... The Boland Amendment was an amendment to the House Appropriations Bill of 1982, which was attached as something known as a Barnacle Bill, or provision that would not be expected to pass on its own merit, to the Defense Appropriations Act of 1983. ... “The New Way Forward” redirects here. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... In the United States a concurrent resolution is a legislative measure, designated S. Con. ...

  1. Congress and the American people will continue to support and protect the members of the United States Armed Forces who are serving or who have served bravely and honorably in Iraq; and
  2. Congress disapproves of the decision of President George W. Bush announced on January 10, 2007, to deploy more than 20,000 additional United States combat troops to Iraq.[30]

Following passage in the House, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) convened an unusual Saturday session of the Senate on February 17, 2007, to consider an identically-worded resolution. However, the measure was tabled when a cloture motion failed on a 56-34 vote (four votes short of the 60 votes needed to end debate).[31][32] February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ...


2007 State of the Union Address

On the night of Tuesday, January 23, the president had this to say on the troop increase in Iraq, outlining their purpose in supporting the Iraqi government maintain control: The 2007 State of the Union Address will be held on Tuesday, January 23, 2007 at 9pm Eastern Standard Time. ...

In order to make progress toward this goal, the Iraqi government must stop the sectarian violence in its capital. But the Iraqis are not yet ready to do this on their own. So we're deploying reinforcements of more than 20,000 additional soldiers and Marines to Iraq. The vast majority will go to Baghdad, where they will help Iraqi forces to clear and secure neighborhoods, and serve as advisers embedded in Iraqi Army units. With Iraqis in the lead, our forces will help secure the city by chasing down the terrorists, insurgents, and the roaming death squads. And in Anbar Province, where al Qaeda terrorists have gathered and local forces have begun showing a willingness to fight them, we're sending an additional 4,000 United States Marines, with orders to find the terrorists and clear them out. (Applause.) We didn't drive al Qaeda out of their safe haven in Afghanistan only to let them set up a new safe haven in a free Iraq.

This article lists neighborhoods and districts within 50km of Baghdad, Iraq. ...

See also

United States Marine Corps Portal
Iraq War Portal
Iraq Portal

Image File history File links USMC_logo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Combatants United States Army New Iraqi Army Iraqi insurgency Commanders Abboud Qanbar David Petraeus unknown Strength ~90,000 [1] unknown Casualties 217 KIA, 650+ WIA (US)[2] 404 killed (Iraqi Security Forces) 505 killed (72 bombers)[3], ~3,000 captured (not all insurgents) 4,754 civilians killed (by July 8... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cover of the report The Iraq Study Group (ISG), also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission,[1] was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making... Iraqi militants celebrating orders that the surrounding Coalition forces were given to stand-down. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... United States Capitol (2002) // The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprised of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... The 2007 State of the Union Address will be held on Tuesday, January 23, 2007 at 9pm Eastern Standard Time. ... Strategic reset is a policy framework designed to stop counterproductive U.S. engagement in a fragmenting Iraq and to strengthen the United States stance throughout the Middle East. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.mnf-iraq.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12431&Itemid=128
  2. ^ President George W. Bush. "President's Address to the Nation", Office of the Press Secretary, January 10, 2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 13, 2007
  3. ^ "Bush shakes up war team; Dems' chiefs oppose 'surge'", USA Today, 1/5/2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  4. ^ Charles Wolfson. "The Last Big Push On Iraq", CBS, Jan. 5, 2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  5. ^ "Bush to seek billions, 20,000 more troops for Iraq", MarketWatch, Jan 5, 2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 7, 2007
  6. ^ "Bush To Seek Billions For Iraq War", FreeMarketNews, Jan. 5, 2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  7. ^ Yochi J. Dreazen and Greg Jaffe. "Bush Will Seek Aid, Jobs Funds To Bolster Iraq", Wall Street Journal.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  8. ^ Tony Snow. "Press Briefing by Tony Snow", Office of the Press Secretary, January 4, 2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  9. ^ Bob Geiger. "Pelosi Tells Bush to Justify Any Iraq Escalation", January 7, 2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  10. ^ Hop Yen. "Pelosi Hints at Denying Bush Iraq Funds", Associated Press Writer, January 7, 2007.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  11. ^ Lakoff, George (13 February 2007). Framing, Death, and Democracy. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  12. ^ Adam Nagourney and Megan Thee. "With Election Driven by Iraq, Voters Want New Approach", November 2, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  13. ^ Marc Sandalow. "Election 2006: America's referendum on war", San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday, November 5, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  14. ^ "U.S. Elections: Democrats In Control", Toronto Star as quoted by Worldpress.org, November 9, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  15. ^ Nancy Pelosi. "Bringing the War to an End is my Highest Priority as Speaker", The Huffington Poste, 11-17-06.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  16. ^ Nancy Pelosi. "100 hours", The Huffington Poste.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  17. ^ Rep. Roy Blunt (R-MO) (Nov. 9, 2006). The New Way Forward: Refocusing the Conservative Agenda. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on Jan. 22, 2007
  18. ^ Rep. Roy Blunt (R-MO) (11-9-06). Blunt Speech on GOP future. US House of Rep. website.
  19. ^ a b c d "Bush may announce 'new way forward' in Iraq", CNN, December 6, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  20. ^ a b c "Bush briefed by State Dept. officials on Iraq", CNN, December 12, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  21. ^ a b c d Michael A. Fletcher and Thomas E. Ricks. "Experts Advise Bush Not to Reduce Troops", The Washington Post, December 12, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  22. ^ a b c d Robin Wright and Ann Scott Tyson. "Joint Chiefs Advise Change In War Strategy", Washington Post, Thursday, December 14, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  23. ^ "Bush says he won't be rushed on Iraq changes", CNN, December 14, 2006.  Retrieved on Jan. 23, 2007
  24. ^ Reuters Steve Holland Bush launches overhaul of Iraq team 5 January 2007 The Scotsman. Last accessed 2007-01-13.
  25. ^ Sidney Blumenthal Behind Bush's "new way forward" December 20, 2006. Last accessed on 2007-01-13.
  26. ^ Juan Williams, interviewed on Brian Lehrer Show on WNYC-AM (of New York, NY), January 15, 2007. Podcast of program should be available by daylight hours of EST on January 16, 2007
  27. ^ Fact Sheet: The New Way Forward in Iraq whitehouse.gov. Last accessed on 2007-01-13.
  28. ^ Leader Staff Dennis Kucinich's Response To President Bush's Speech January 11, 2007 Cleveland Leader. Last accessed on 2007-01-13.
  29. ^ "US House rejects Bush Iraq plan", BBC News, 2007-02-17. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  30. ^ H. CON. RES. 63. THOMAS. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  31. ^ GOP blocks Iraq resolution in Senate. Associated Press. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  32. ^ Iraq Resolution: Senate Roll Call. Associated Press. El Paso Times. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.

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References

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