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Encyclopedia > Iraq War
 This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.
For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation).
Iraq War

U.S. troops pass by burning oil fields while convoying to Al Jawala, Iraq, during an operation.
Date March 18, 2003 to Present
Location Iraq
Result Conflict ongoing
Combatants
Insurgent Forces:
Ba'athist Iraq
Ba'ath Loyalists
Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Mahdi Army
Iran
Syria
Other insurgent groups and militias
Coalition Forces:
United States United States
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Australia Australia
Iraq New Iraqi Army
Kurdish forces
Multinational forces in Iraq
Commanders
Saddam Hussein
JordanAbu Musab al-Zarqawi
IraqMoqtada al-Sadr
EgyptAbu Ayyub al-Masri
IraqNouri al-Maliki
United StatesGeorge W. Bush
United StatesTommy Franks
United StatesGeorge Casey
United Kingdom Brian Burridge
United Kingdom Peter Wall
others
Strength
Iraqi
375,000+ regular forces
Sunni Insurgents
60,000~
Mahdi Army

25,000[4]
Badr Organization
4-10,000
al Qaeda/others
1,300+[5]
Coalition
315,000 invasion
162,000 current
Contractors
~48,000
Kurds
50,000 (peak)
New Iraqi Army
129,760
Iraqi Police
79-140,000
Casualties
Iraqi military dead (Saddam-era):
4,895-6,370 [6] [7] Insurgents dead:
No verifiable tally. [8] [9]
Iraqi Security Forces dead (post-Saddam era): 6,666 (Media source, low estimate) [7] [10]

Iraqi Security Forces wounded: unknown Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Iraq war may refer to: Second Gulf War (2003–present), an ongoing conflict 2003 invasion of Iraq, began on March 20 Post-invasion Iraq, 2003-present, starting 1 May 2003 and Mission Accomplished Gulf War (1990–1991) (also called the Persian Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm, or First Gulf War... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1962x1641, 825 KB) http://www4. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baath Party symbol Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Bath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1947 as a radical, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Saddam shortly after capture. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ... Following the Coalition-led invasion and war of Iraq, there has been an increased level of sectarian violence in Iraq. ... Graph from the second The Lancet survey of Iraqi mortality, showing a comparison with two other mortality surveys. ... This April 2005 does not cite its references or sources. ... Iraqis in the predominantly Sunni city of Husaybah, wait in lines to vote, during the national election, December 15. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Motto: Arabic: الله أكبر (Transliteration: Allahu Akbar) (Translation: God is Great) Anthem: Mawtini (new); Ardh Alforatain (previous) Capital Baghdad Largest city Baghdad Arabic, Kurdish, (Assyrian (Syriac) and Iraqi Turkmen ) Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Jalal Talabani  - Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki Independence    - from the Ottoman Empire October 1, 1919   - from the United Kingdom... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda in Iraq members with Shosei Koda. ... Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... The Iraqi Army is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kurdistan. ... Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) Government Parliamentary Democracy  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - President Masoud Barzani Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed March 11, 1970   - Autonomy Accord Collapses March 1974   - Gained de facto... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Wikinews has news related to: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: ‎, ) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006) was the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, a militant group in Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Muqtada al-Sadr Muqtada al-Sadr (Arabic: مقتدى الصدر, also transliterated as Moqtada Alsadr) (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Abu Ayyub al-Masri (1967? -) (possibly also identified as Abu Hamza al-Muhajer) is an Egyptian Islamic Jihad militant and member of al-Qaeda in Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Nouri al-Maliki Nouri Kamel al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated NÅ«rÄ« Kāmil al-MālikÄ«; born c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... General George Casey General George William Casey, Jr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Brian Burridge KCB CBE ADC RAF is Commander-in-Chief Strike Command (CINCSTC). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... The Badr Organization originally the Badr Brigade or Bader Corps was the armed wing of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI). ... A private military company (PMC) is a private company that provides specialized services related to or containing expertise previously associated exclusively with state defense and security. ... Peshmerga, pesh merga, peshmarga or peshmerge Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ... The Iraqi Army is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... June 2006 photo of an Iraqi policeman guarding the governors house in Samawah. ...


Coalition dead (inc. 2,907 US, 126 UK, 121 other, 647 contractors): 3,798 [11] [12]


Coalition Missing or Captured (US 2): 2


Coalition Wounded (inc. 21,678 U.S., 891+ UK, 3,963+ contractors):26,532 [13] [11] [14] [15] [16] WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ...

*Total deaths (all Iraqis) Johns Hopkins:
392,979 - 942,636 [17] [18]

War-related and criminal violence deaths (all Iraqis) Iraq Health Minister:
100,000-150,000 [19] Figure 4 from the second The Lancet survey of Iraqi mortality, showing a comparison with two other mortality surveys. ... The current government of Iraq took office on May 20, 2006 following approval by the members of the Iraqi National Assembly. ...


War-related and criminal violence deaths (civilians) Iraq Body Count-english language media only:
43,850-48,693 [20] [21]
Civilian deaths attributable to insurgent or military action in Iraq, and also to increased criminal violence. ...

*Total deaths (all Iraqis) include all excess deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poor healthcare, etc. [20] For more info, casualty estimates, and explanations for the wide variation in results, see: Casualties of the conflict in Iraq since 2003
Iraq War
Phases
Invasion – Post-invasion (InsurgencyCivil War)

Engagements
Nasiriyah – Baghdad – Debecka Pass – Peninsula Strike –Red Dawn – 1st Fallujah – 1st Ramadi – Husaybah – Najaf – 2nd Fallujah – Matador – Steel Curtain – Al-Askari Mosque – 2nd Ramadi – Together Forward Graph from the second The Lancet survey of Iraqi mortality, showing a comparison with two other mortality surveys. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom Poland Australia South Korea Romania Spain Portugal Italy others. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ... Combatants Iraqi Sunni Arabs Al-Qaeda in Iraq Jaish Ansar al-Sunna Islamic Army in Iraq Black Banner Organization Mohammads Army Baath Loyalists Shiite Arab militias Mahdi Army Badr Brigade Commanders Abu Musab al-Zarqawi† Abu Ayyub al-Masri Ishmael Jubouri Muqtada al-Sadr Hadi Al-Amiri Strength... Combatants Iraq Coalition Forces: U.S Casualties 30-1000 killed[1] 33 KIA; 150 WIA The Battle of Nasiriyah occurred during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Combatants United States, Kurdish Resistance Iraq Strength 26 U.S. Special Forces, 80 Peshmerga Troops >100 Troops, Motorized Company Casualties 17 Civilians and Kurdish Fighters 2 T-55 Tanks, 8 Armoured Personnel Carriers, 4 Troop Trucks, Unknown Number of Iraqis The Battle of Debecka Pass, sometimes known as the Battle... Operation Peninsula Strike Conflict 2003 Invasion of Iraq Date June 9 - June 13, 2003 Area of Operation Balad, Iraq Objective Capture Baath Party Officials and clear enemy forces from the Tigris River Primary Units Involved US Army, 173rd Airborne Bde. ... Saddam shortly after capture. ... Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,200[1] 3,000 - 6,000 Casualties 83 KIA , WIA 90+ (U.S) [1] 615 military and civilian KIA Operation Vigilant Resolve, sometimes referred to as the First Battle of/for Fallujah was an abortive... Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Strength 150 300 Casualties 15 KIA, 25 WIA 250 killed The Battle of Ramadi was part of the spring 2004 campaign to take the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States Iraq al-Mahdi Army Commanders unknown Muqtada al-Sadr Strength unknown 2,000+ Casualties 13 KIA, over 100 WIA (U.S.) 40 KIA, 46 WIA (Iraqi Security Forces) 159 KIA, 261 captured The Battle of Najaf was a battle that was fought between U.S. and Iraqi... Combatants United States Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi insurgents Tawhid wal Jihad Commanders Maj. ... Combatants United States Marine Corps Iraqi insurgents Commanders Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,000 Casualties 9 KIA,40 WIA 125+ military and civilian Fatalities, Unk WIA Operation Matador was a military offensive conducted by the United States Marine Corps, against insurgent positions in Iraqs northwestern Anbar province, which... Operation Steel Curtain was a military endeavor executed by coalition forces in early November 2005 to blunt the protrusion of Syrian forces crossing the border and joining the Iraqi insurgency. ... The Al Askari Mosque in Samarra before and after the February 2006 bombing. ... Combatants United States Army, New Iraqi Army Mujahideen Shura Council Strength 2,000 unknown Casualties 79 KIA, few hundred wounded (U.S.) unknown // With the sectarian fighting ongoing, and at the same time when an operation to curve the killings in Baghdad started a few days before, the Americans were... Combatants United States Army, New Iraqi Army Mujahideen Shura Council, al-Mahdi Army Commanders Gen. ...

Full list of Coalition operations
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Recent wars in the Persian Gulf
Iran-Iraq WarGulf WarIraq War

The Iraq War (2003 to the present), also known as the Second Gulf War (and by the U.S. military as Operation Iraqi Freedom and the UK military as Operation TELIC), started with the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Subsequent occupation of Saddam Hussein-led Ba'athist Iraq by a United States-led coalition has resulted in ongoing asymmetric warfare between resistance forces and coalition forces. The New Iraqi Army was created to replace the old one that was disbanded after the U.S. led invasion. In the midst of fighting between resistance, coalition, and Iraqi forces, sectarian violence between the majority Shia and minority Sunni populations continues today. [22] The causes and consequences of the war remain controversial. [23] [20][17] // This is a list of military operations of the Iraq War. ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 660,000 360,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War (1990–1991) was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of approximately 30 nations[1] led by the... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 660,000 360,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War (1990–1991) was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of approximately 30 nations[1] led by the... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom Poland Australia South Korea Romania Spain Portugal Italy others. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal strength interact and take advantage of their respective strengths and weaknesses. ... The Iraqi Army is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

Contents

Timeline of the War

Prior to invasion

No-fly zone detail
No-fly zone detail

Prior to invasion, the United States and other coalition forces involved in the 1991 Persian Gulf War had been engaged in a low-level conflict with Iraq, by enforcing the two Iraqi no-fly zones in the north and the south of the country. Iraqi air-defense installations repeatedly targeted American and British air patrols and were often engaged by the coalition aircraft shortly afterwards. Approximately nine months after the 9/11 attacks, the U.S. initiated Operation Southern Focus as a change to its response strategy, by increasing the overall number of missions and selecting targets throughout the no-fly zones in order to disrupt the military command structure in Iraq. Image File history File links Iraq_NO_FLY_ZONES.PNG edit of image. ... Image File history File links Iraq_NO_FLY_ZONES.PNG edit of image. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... No-fly zone detail The Iraqi no-fly zones (NFZs) were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect Kurds in the north and Shiite Muslims in the south. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... USS Abraham Lincoln rides out a storm in the Arabian Sea while supporting Operation Southern Watch and Operation Enduring Freedom. ...


The weight of bombs dropped increased from none in March 2002 and 0.3 in April 2002 to between 8 and 14 tons per month in May-August, reaching a pre-war peak of 54.6 tons in September - prior to Congress' 11 October authorization of the invasion. In retaliation for the Iraqi's now-daily air defense attacks on coalition aircraft, the September attacks included a 5 September 100-aircraft attack on the main air defence site in western Iraq. According to an editorial by Michael Smith for the New Statesman, this was "Located at the furthest extreme of the southern no-fly zone, far away from the areas that needed to be patrolled to prevent attacks on the Shias; it was destroyed not because it was a threat to the patrols, but to allow allied special forces operating from Jordan to enter Iraq undetected." [24] U.S. military personnel stationed at Southern Watch headquarters during this time, recall that this attack, on this particular Iraqi air defense unit, was taken solely in reaction to Iraq's continued attack on coalition aircraft operating in compliance with the UN-mandated overflights of the Iraq "no-fly" zone. October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NOONE CARES Headline text The Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq (H.J.Res. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ...

Further information:

This article describes the positions of world governments prior to the actual initiation of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and not their current positions as they may have changed since then. ... The Rendon Group, a Washington, DC based public relations firm with close ties to the US government, and which has had a prominent role in promoting the Iraqi National Congress, was alleged by some journalists to be planning to support the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a careful public relations... In March 2003 the US government announced that diplomacy has failed and that it would proceed with a coalition of the willing to rid Iraq of its alleged weapons of mass destruction. The 2003 Iraq war officially started a few days later. ... // The administrations position Much of the position is summed up in the main article on the U.S. plan to invade Iraq. ... A London protest against the 2003 Iraq invasion See also Views on the 2003 invasion of Iraq and Opposition to the 2003 Iraq War A legal dispute exists over the legitimacy of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...

2003: Invasion

Main article: 2003 invasion of Iraq
see also: Military operations of the Iraq War for a list of all Coalition operations for this period

The 2003 invasion of Iraq began on March 19, under the U.S. codename "Operation Iraqi Freedom." The U.K. military's codename for their participation in the invasion was called Operation Telic. The coalition forces cooperated with Kurdish peshmerga forces in the north. Approximately forty other nations, in the U.S. dubbed "coalition of the willing, also participated by providing equipment, services and security as well as special forces. This March 19, 2003, invasion marked the beginning of what is commonly referred to as the Iraq War. Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom Poland Australia South Korea Romania Spain Portugal Italy others. ... // This is a list of military operations of the Iraq War. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Operation Telic is the codename under which all British operations of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and after are being conducted. ... Peshmerga, pesh merga, peshmarga or peshmerge Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ...


May 2003: "End of Major Combat"

Map of the Sunni Triangle
Map of the Sunni Triangle
Main article: Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–2006

On May 1, 2003, President Bush staged a dramatic visit to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln while the ship was a few miles west of San Diego. The Lincoln was on its way home to Everett, Washington from a long deployment which had included service in the Persian Gulf. The visit climaxed at sunset with his now well-known "Mission Accomplished" speech. This nationally-televised speech was delivered before the sailors and airmen on the flight deck. Bush essentially declared victory at this time due to the defeat of Iraq's conventional forces (even though Saddam Hussein was at large and significant pockets of resistance remained). Image File history File links Sunni_triangle. ... Image File history File links Sunni_triangle. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Four aircraft carriers, Principe-de-Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious carrier. ... Two United States Navy ships have borne the name Abraham Lincoln, in honor of the 16th President. ... It has been suggested that Downtown San Diego be merged into this article or section. ... Everett High School (part of Everett Public Schools) Everett Station Everett is a city located in Snohomish County, Washington. ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... President George W. Bush addresses sailors during the Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003. ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ... In general context, airman can refer to any enlisted personnel in the U.S. Air Force or Other Ranks in the Royal Air Force (in which airwoman is also seen). ... USS , a typical supercarrier, and HMS Illustrious, a light V/STOL aircraft carrier on a joint patrol Flight deck of USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74) doing a high speed turn during her acceptance trials. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


After Bush's speech in May of 2003, the coalition military noticed a gradually increasing flurry of attacks on their troops in various regions, especially the "Sunni Triangle". In the initial chaos after the fall of the Iraqi government, there was massive looting of infrastructure, including government buildings, official residences, museums, banks, and military depots. According to The Pentagon, 250,000 tons (of 650,000 tons total) of ordnance was looted, providing a significant source of ammunition for the Iraqi insurgency. The hundreds of weapons caches already created by the conventional Iraqi army and Republican Guard further strengthened these looted supplies for the insurgents. Map of the Sunni Triangle The Sunni Triangle refers to a roughly triangular area of Iraq to the northwest of Baghdad. ... The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located at 48 N. Rotary Road, Arlington, Virginia 22211 (Map). ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ...


At first the resistance stemmed from fedayeen and loyalists of Saddam Hussein or the Ba'ath Party,[citation needed] but soon religious radicals and Iraqis angered by the occupation contributed to the insurgency. The insurgents are generally known to the Coalition forces as "Anti-Iraqi Forces." Fedayeen (from Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyÄ«n فدائيون, one who is ready to sacrifice his life for the cause) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ...


The initial insurgency in Iraq was concentrated in, but not limited to, an area referred to by Western media and the occupying forces as the Sunni triangle. This location includes Baghdad. [25] The three provinces that had the highest number of attacks were Baghdad, Anbar, and Salah Ad Din. -Those 3 provinces account for 35% of the population, but are responsible for 73% of U.S. military deaths (as of December 5, 2006), and an even higher percentage of recent U.S. military deaths (about 80%) [26]. This resistance has been described as a type of guerrilla warfare. Insurgent tactics include mortars, missiles, suicide bombers, snipers (cf. Juba, the Baghdad Sniper), improvised explosive devices (IEDs), roadside bombs, car bombs, small arms fire (usually with assault rifles), and RPGs (rocket-propelled grenades), as well as sabotage against the oil, water, and electrical infrastructure. Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Explosive devices, as used by terrorists, guerrillas or commando forces, are formally known as Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army A rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing a unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ...

American soldier and an Iraqi child
Enlarge
American soldier and an Iraqi child

The post-invasion environment began after the Hussein regime had been overthrown. It centers on Coalition and U.N. efforts to establish a stable democratic state capable of defending itself[27] and holding itself together [28] and overcoming insurgent attacks and internal divisions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1294 KB) Summary From US Dept of Defense. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1294 KB) Summary From US Dept of Defense. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule) is a form of government for a nation state, or for an organization in which all the citizens have an equal vote or voice in shaping policy. ...


Coalition military forces launched several operations around Tigris River peninsula and in the Sunni Triangle. A series of similar operations were launched throughout the summer in the Sunni Triangle. Toward the end of 2003, the intensity and pace of insurgent attacks began to increase. A sharp surge in guerrilla attacks ushered in an insurgent effort that was termed the "Ramadan Offensive", as it coincided with the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Coalition forces brought to bear the use of air power for the first time since the end of the invasion. The fourth pillar of Islam which is fasting is also called Ramadan (in Arabic: رمضان, Ramadhan) – or Ramzan in several countries – and it is the ninth month of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, established in the year 638. ...


Suspected ambush sites and mortar launching positions struck from the air and with artillery fire. Surveillance of major routes, patrols, and raids on suspected insurgents were stepped up. In addition, two villages, including Saddam’s birthplace of al-Auja and the small town of Abu Hishma were wrapped in barbed wire and carefully monitored. On July 22, 2003, during a raid by the U.S. 101st Airborne Division and soldiers from Task Force 20, Saddam Hussein's sons (Uday and Qusay) and one of his grandsons were killed. July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... Task Force 20 is a temporary, top secret Task Force assigned to Iraq. ... Uday Hussein Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul) Arabic: عدي صدام حسين; also transliterated as Odai) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Hussein Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 - July 22, 2003) was the second son of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ...


December 2003: Saddam captured

In the wave of intelligence information fueling the raids on remaining Ba'ath Party members connected to insurgency, Saddam Hussein himself was captured on December 13, 2003 on a farm near Tikrit in Operation Red Dawn. The operation was conducted by the U.S. Army's 4th Infantry Division and members of Task Force 121. December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saddam shortly after capture. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... It has been suggested that U.S. 1st Brigade 4th Infantry Division be merged into this article or section. ... Task Force 121 is a classic example of the United States Joint Task Force concept of conducting Special Operations. ...


With the capture of Saddam and a drop in the number of insurgent attacks (an average of 18 a day), some concluded the multinational forces were prevailing in the fight against the insurgency. With the weather growing cooler, Coalition forces were able to operate in full armor which reduced their casualty rate. The provisional government began training a security force intended to defend critical infrastructure, and the United States promised over $20 billion in reconstruction money in the form of credit against Iraq's future oil revenues. Of this, less than half a billion dollars had been spent in 10 months after it had been promised. Oil revenues were also used for rebuilding schools and for work on the electrical and refining infrastructure.


However, the failure to restore basic services to above pre-war levels, where over a decade of sanctions, bombing, corruption, and decaying infrastructure had left major cities functioning at much-reduced levels, also contributed to local anger at the IPA government headed by an executive council. On July 2, 2003, President Bush declared that American troops would remain in Iraq in spite of the attacks, challenging the insurgents with "My answer is, bring 'em on", a line the President later expressed misgivings about having used. [29] In the summer of 2003, the multinational forces focused on hunting down the remaining leaders of the former regime, culminating in the shooting deaths of Saddam's two sons in July. In all, over 300 top leaders of the former regime were killed or captured, as well as numerous lesser functionaries and military personnel. July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shortly after the capture of Saddam, elements left out of the Coalition Provisional Authority began to agitate for elections and the formation of an Iraqi Interim Government. Most prominent among these was the Shia cleric Ali al-Sistani. The United States and the Coalition Provisional Authority it helped install opposed allowing democratic elections at this time, preferring instead to eventually hand-over power to an unelected group of Iraqis. (The Guardian, January 19, 2004, free archived version at: http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0119-08.htm, last visited Nov. 21, 2006). More insurgents stepped up their activities. The two most turbulent centers were the area around Fallujah and the poor Shia sections of cities from Baghdad to Basra in the south. The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... The Iraqi Interim matt chokes on cock Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30th, 2005. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


2004: The Insurgency expands

see also: Military operations of the Iraq War for a list of all Coalition operations for this period
US Army (USA) Soldiers assigned to 2-7 Cavalry, 2nd Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 1st Cavalry Division, rush a wounded Soldier from Apache Troop to a waiting U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter during operation in Fallujah, Iraq. Date Shot: 12 Nov 2004.
US Army (USA) Soldiers assigned to 2-7 Cavalry, 2nd Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 1st Cavalry Division, rush a wounded Soldier from Apache Troop to a waiting U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter during operation in Fallujah, Iraq. Date Shot: 12 Nov 2004.

The start of 2004 was marked by a relative lull in violence. Insurgent forces reorganized during this time, studying the multinational forces' tactics and planning a renewed offensive. Guerrilla attacks were less intense. However, in late 2004 foreign fighters from around the Middle East as well as al-Qaeda in Iraq (an affiliated al-Qaeda group), led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi would help to drive the insurgency. // This is a list of military operations of the Iraq War. ... Image File history File links USwounded_fallujah2004. ... Image File history File links USwounded_fallujah2004. ... Al-Qaeda in Iraq members with Shosei Koda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Wikinews has news related to: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: ‎, ) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006) was the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, a militant group in Iraq. ...


As the insurgent activity increased, there was a distinct change in targeting from the coalition forces towards the new Iraqi Security Forces, as hundreds of Iraqi civilians and police were killed over the next few months in a series of massive bombings. One hypothesis for these increased bombings is that the relevance of Saddam Hussein and his followers was diminishing in direct proportion to the influence of radical Islamists, both foreign and Iraqi. An organized Sunni insurgency, with deep roots and both nationalist and Islamist motivations, was becoming more powerful throughout Iraq. The Mahdi Army also began launching attacks on coalition targets in an attempt to seize control from Iraqi security forces. The southern and central portions of Iraq were beginning to erupt in urban guerrilla combat as multinational forces attempted to keep control and prepared for a counteroffensive. This article is about political Islamism. ... Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ...


The coalition and the Coalition Provisional Authority decided to face the growing insurgency with a pair of assaults: one on Fallujah, the center of the "Mohammed's Army of Al-Ansar", and another on Najaf, home of an important mosque that had become the focal point for the Mahdi Army and its activities. Just before the attack on Fallujah, four private military contractors, working for Blackwater USA, were ambushed, murdered and their corpses mutilated by a large crowd, receiving a great deal of media attention. The attention elicited a violent reaction from Donald Rumsfeld who then ordered Lt. General Conway to attack Fallujah at the earliest opportunity. Fallujah skyline This article is about the city of Fallujah in Iraq. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ... Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A private military contractor (PMC) is a corporation that provides armed forces trained in combat, private military, for other corporations, organizations, individuals and state military forces. ... Blackwater USA is a United States private military contractor and security firm based in North Carolina. ... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Disfigurement. ...


April 2004: The First Battle of Fallujah

After this incident, the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force began plans to re-establish a coalition presence in Fallujah. On April 4, the multinational forces began assaults to clear Fallujah of insurgents. On April 9, the multinational force allowed more than 70,000 women, children and elderly residents to leave the besieged city, reportedly also allowing males of military age to leave. Meanwhile, insurgents were taking advantage of the lull in combat to prepare defenses for a second assault. On April 10, the military declared a unilateral truce to allow for humanitarian supplies to enter Fallujah. Troops pulled back to the outskirts of the city; local leaders reciprocated the ceasefire, although lower-level intense fighting on both sides continued. The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force is a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) of the United States Marine Corps primarily composed of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, and 1st Marine Logistics Group. ... Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,200[1] 3,000 - 6,000 Casualties 83 KIA , WIA 90+ (U.S) [1] 615 military and civilian KIA Operation Vigilant Resolve, sometimes referred to as the First Battle of/for Fallujah was an abortive...


The usage by the U.S. of white phosphorus in Fallujah attracted controversy. In the documentary "Fallujah: The Hidden Massacre", aired on the Italian state television network RAI, a former soldier testified "I saw the burned bodies of women and children. The phosphorus explodes and forms a plume. Who ever is within a 150 metre radius has no hope." [30] [31] [32] The U.S. State department first dismissed such claims, [33] but was later corrected in other reports. Lt Col Barry Venable stated to the BBC, "it is an incendiary weapon and may be used against enemy combatants." According to Protocol III of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, white phosphorus can be used, but only against enemy combatants and not civilians. [34] The Independent later reported that "there remain widespread reports of civilians suffering extensive burn injuries. While U.S. commanders insist they always strive to avoid civilian casualties, the story of the battle of Fallujah highlights the intrinsic difficulty of such an endeavour." [35] It has been suggested that White phosphorus use in Iraq be merged into this article or section. ...


When the Iraqi Governing Council protested against the U.S. assault to retake Fallujah, the U.S. military halted its efforts. In the April battle for Fallujah, Coalition troops killed about 600 insurgents and a number of civilians, while 40 Americans died and hundreds were wounded in a fierce battle. The Marines were ordered to stand-down and cordon off the city, maintaining a perimeter around Fallujah. A compromise was reached in order to ensure security within Fallujah itself by creating the local "Fallujah Brigade". While the Marines attacking had a clear advantage in ground firepower and air support, LtGen Conway decided to accept a truce and a deal which put a former Baathist general in complete charge of the town's security. The Fallujah Brigade's responsibility was to secure Fallujah and put a stop to insurgent mortar attacks on the nearby U.S. Marine bases. This compromise soon fell apart and insurgent attacks returned, causing Marine commanders to begin preparations for a second attack in the coming fall. By the end of the spring uprising, the cities of Fallujah, Samarra, Baquba, and Ramadi had been left under guerrilla control with coalition patrols in the cities at a minimum.[citation needed] Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,300[1] 20,000[2] Casualties 53 KIA 731 military and civilian KIA[3] The First Battle of Fallujah, sometimes referred to as Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an unsuccessful attempt by US troops to recapture...


Early-mid 2004 – the Shi'ite south

Meanwhile, the fighting continued in the Shiite south, and Italian and Polish forces were having increasing difficulties retaining control over Nasiriya and Najaf. United States Marines were then shifted there to put down the overt rebellion and proceeded to rout Muqtada al-Sadr's Shiite militia. In all, April, May and early June saw more fighting. Over the next three months, the multinational forces took back the southern cities. Also, various insurgent leaders entered into negotiations with the provisional government to lay down arms and enter the political process. Nāşirīyah (also transliterated as Nassiriya or Nasiriya; in Arabic ناصرية, al-Nasiriyah or an-Nasiriyah) is a city in Iraq. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ... Muqtada Al-Sadr Muqtada al-Sadr ( translit: ) (b. ...


June 2004: Sovereignty transferred

Main article: Iraqi coalition counter-insurgency operations

Toward the end of June 2004, the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred the "sovereignty" of Iraq to a caretaker government, whose first act was to begin the trial of Saddam Hussein. However, fighting continued in the form of the Iraqi insurgency. The new government began the process of moving towards open elections, though the insurgency and the lack of cohesion within the government itself, had led to delays. Militia leader Muqtada al-Sadr took control of Najaf and, after negotiations broke down, the government asked the United States for help dislodging him. Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ... Muqtada Al-Sadr Muqtada al-Sadr ( translit: ) (b. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ...


Through the months of July and August, a series of skirmishes in and around Najaf culminated with the Imam Ali Mosque itself under siege, only to have a peace deal brokered by Grand Ayatollah Sistani in late August. The new Iraq Grain Board has started to import wheat from Australia Wheat Board which had been long banned by Saddam Hussein. [36] Exterior view of Imam Ali Mosque The Imam Ali Mosque, also known as Meshed Ali or the Tomb of Ali, is a mosque located in Najaf, Iraq. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. ... His Hounarable Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani (Arabic: السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني Persian: سید علی حسینی سیستانی), born approximately August 4, 1930, is a Grand Ayatollah, a Shia marja and currently an important person in relation to the occupation of Iraq. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... AWB Limited (ASX: AWB) is the Australian company that oversees the exports of grain, particularly wheat. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


November 2004: The Second Battle of Fallujah

The First Battle of Fallujah in April 2004 created an area of extreme instability and a de facto insurgent safe zone. After several months of this situation, in November 2004 coalition forces attacked and successfully captured Fallujah in the Second Battle of Fallujah. This battle resulted in the reputed death of over 5,000 insurgent fighters. The U.S. Marines (the main coalition force in combat) also took substantial casualties with 95 dead and around 500 wounded in action. According to local sources, hundreds of civilians were also killed and much of the city was destroyed in the battle. Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,200[1] 3,000 - 6,000 Casualties 83 KIA , WIA 90+ (U.S) [1] 615 military and civilian KIA Operation Vigilant Resolve, sometimes referred to as the First Battle of/for Fallujah was an abortive... Combatants United States Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi insurgents Tawhid wal Jihad Commanders Maj. ...


2005: Iraqi elections and aftermath

An Iraqi Army unit prepares to board a Task Force Baghdad UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter for a counterinsurgency mission in Baghdad.
An Iraqi Army unit prepares to board a Task Force Baghdad UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter for a counterinsurgency mission in Baghdad.

On January 31, an election for a government to draft a permanent constitution took place. Although some violence and lack of widespread Sunni Arab participation marred the event, most of the eligible Kurd and Shia populace participated. On February 4, Paul Wolfowitz announced that 15,000 U.S. troops whose tours of duty had been extended in order to provide election security would be pulled out of Iraq by the next month. [37]February, March and April proved to be relatively peaceful months compared to the carnage of November and January, with insurgent attacks averaging 30 a day from the prior average of 70. Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x1420, 616 KB) Summary http://www4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x1420, 616 KB) Summary http://www4. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (b. ...


Hopes for a quick end to an insurgency and a withdrawal of U.S. troops were dashed at the advent of May, Iraq's bloodiest month since the invasion by U.S. forces in March and April of 2003. Suicide bombers, believed to be mainly disheartened Iraqi Sunni Arabs, Syrians and Saudis, tore through Iraq. Their targets were often Shia gatherings or civilian concentrations mainly of Shias. As a result, over 700 Iraqi civilians died in that month, as well as 79 U.S. soldiers.


During early and mid-May, the U.S. also launched Operation Matador, an assault by around 1,000 Marines in the ungoverned region of western Iraq. Its goal was the closing of suspected insurgent supply routes of volunteers and material from Syria, and with the fight they received their assumption proved correct. Fighters armed with flak jackets (unseen in the insurgency before this time) and using sophisticated tactics met the Marines, eventually inflicting 31 U.S. casualties by the operation's end, and suffering 125 casualties themselves. The Marines were unable, recapturing the whole region due to their limited numbers and the continual insurgent IED attacks and ambushes. The operation continued all the way to the Syrian border, where they were forced to stop (Syrian residents living near the border heard the American bombs very clearly during the operation). The vast majority of these armed and trained insurgents quickly dispersed before the U.S. could bring the full force of its firepower on them, as it did in Fallujah. Combatants United States Marine Corps Iraqi insurgents Commanders Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,000 Casualties 9 KIA,40 WIA 125+ military and civilian Fatalities, Unk WIA Operation Matador was a military offensive conducted by the United States Marine Corps, against insurgent positions in Iraqs northwestern Anbar province, which... A flak jacket is a MILSPEC jacket used by troops in wartime conditions. ...


August 2005: Increasing instability and renewed fighting

On August 14, 2005 the Washington Post [38] quoted one anonymous U.S. senior official expressing that "the United States no longer expects to see a model new democracy, a self-supporting oil industry or a society in which the majority of people are free from serious security or economic challenges... 'What we expected to achieve was never realistic given the timetable or what unfolded on the ground'". On September 22, 2005, Prince Saud al-Faisal, the Saudi foreign minister, said that he had warned the Bush administration in recent days that Iraq was hurtling toward disintegration, and that the election planned for December was unlikely to make any difference. [39] U. S. officials immediately made statements rejecting this view [40]. August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


December 2005: Iraqi legislative election

Following the ratification of the Constitution of Iraq on October 15, 2005, a general election was held on 15 December to elect a permanent 275-member Iraqi National Assembly. Iraqis in the predominantly Sunni city of Husaybah, wait in lines to vote, during the national election, December 15. ... The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a referendum on whether or not to ratify the proposed Iraqi constitution of 2005. ... The current constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iraqi National Assembly is the unicameral parliament of Iraq which meets in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad. ...


2006: Sectarian violence, possible outbreak of civil war

The beginning of 2006 was marked by government creation talks, growing sectarian violence, and continuous anti-coalition attacks.


February 2006: Al-Askari shrine bombing and Sunni-Shia fighting

See Al Askari Mosque bombing
A U.S. soldier with M240 machine gun on patrol in Diwaniyah.
Enlarge
A U.S. soldier with M240 machine gun on patrol in Diwaniyah.

On February 22, 2006, at 6:55 a.m. local time (0355 UTC) two bombs were set off by five to seven men dressed as personnel of the Iraqi Special forces who entered the Al Askari Mosque during the morning. Explosions occurred at the mosque, effectively destroying its golden dome and severely damaging the mosque. Several men, one wearing a military uniform, had earlier entered the mosque, tied up the guards there and set explosives, resulting in the blast. The Al Askari Mosque bombing occurred on February 22, 2006 at approximately 6:55am local time (0355 UTC) at the Al Askari Mosque — one of the holiest sites in Shia Islam — in the Iraqi city of Samarra, some 100 km (60 miles) northwest of Baghdad. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2229x1760, 907 KB) http://www4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2229x1760, 907 KB) http://www4. ... M240B pictured Caliber: 7. ... Al Diwaniyah (Arabic: ‎ ; BGN: Ad Dīwānīyah; also spelled Diwaniya) is the capital city of Iraqs Al Qadisiyah province. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Al Askari Mosque in Samarra around 1926. ...


Shiites across Iraq expressed their anger by destroying Sunni mosques and killing dozens. Religious leaders of both sides called for calm amid fears this could erupt into a long-feared Sunni-Shia civil war in Iraq.


On March 2 the director of the Baghdad morgue fled Iraq explaining, "7,000 people have been killed by death squads in recent months." [1] The Boston Globe reported that around eight times the number of Iraqis killed by terrorist bombings during March 2006 were killed by sectarian death squads during the same period. A total of 1,313 were killed by sectarian militias while 173 were killed by suicide bombings.[2] The LA Times later reported that about 3,800 Iraqis were killed by sectarian violence in Baghdad alone during the first three months of 2006.[3] During April 2006, morgue numbers showed that 1,091 Baghdad residents were killed by sectarian executions.[4] Insurgencies, frequent terrorist attacks and sectarian violence led to harsh criticism of U.S. Iraq policy and fears of a failing state and civil war. The concerns were expressed by several U.S. think tanks [5] [6] [7] [8] as well as the U.S. ambassador to Iraq, Zalmay Khalilzad. [9] The Los Angeles Times (also L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ... This article is about the institution. ... Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad. ...


In early 2006, a handful of high-ranking retired generals began to demand United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's resignation due in part to the aforementioned chaos that resulted from his management of the war. The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is the 21st and current United States Secretary of Defense. ...


In September 2006, The Washington Post reported that the commander of the Marine forces in Iraq filed "an unusual secret report" concluding that the prospects for securing the Anbar province are dim, and that there is almost nothing the U.S. military can do to improve the political and social situation there. [41]


Iraq was listed fourth on the 2006 Failed States Index compiled by the American Foreign Policy magazine and the Fund for Peace think-tank. The list was topped by Sudan. [42] [43] A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ...


As of October 20 the U.S military announced that operation Together Forward had failed to stem the tide of violence in Baghdad, and Shiite Militants Under al-Sadr seized several southern Iraq Cities [10].


On November 8, 2006, Donald Rumsfeld tendered his resignation as United States Secretary of Defense. President George W. Bush then appointed former CIA chief Robert Gates to replace him. November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is the 21st and current United States Secretary of Defense. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) The majority of this article is about heads of states. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Robert Michael Gates, Ph. ...


November 2006: Sadr City Bombing

See 2006 Sadr City Bombing

On November 23, 2006 the deadliest attack since the beginning of the Iraq war occurred. According to The Associated Press, suspected Sunni-Arab militants used five suicide car bombs and two mortar rounds on the capital's Shiite Sadr City slum to kill at least 215 people and wound 257 on Thursday. Shiite mortar teams quickly retaliated, firing 10 shells at Sunni Islam's most important shrine in Baghdad, badly damaging the Abu Hanifa mosque and killing one person. Eight more rounds slammed down near the offices of the Association of Muslim Scholars, the top Sunni Muslim organization in Iraq, setting nearby houses on fire. Two other mortar barrages on Sunni neighborhoods in west Baghdad killed nine and wounded 21, police said late Thursday.[44] The 2006 Sadr City bombings were a series of car bombs and mortar attacks in Iraq that began on November 23 at 15:10 Baghdad time (1210 GMT) and ended at 15:55 (1255 GMT). ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also: Government of Iraq from 2006

The current government of Iraq took office on May 20, 2006 following approval by the members of the Iraqi National Assembly. ...

Troop Deployment 2003 to Current

Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ...

Armed Iraqi Groups: Insurgents and Militias

Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ... Private militias in Iraq is a phenomenon that has not been common after complete revolutions that terminate a nations constitution. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (818x451, 48 KB) Summary Author: GAO Source / URL: http://www. ...

Background

When the ruling Ba'ath party organization disintegrated after the fall of the Iraqi government, elements of the secret police and Republican Guard formed guerrilla units, since some had simply gone home rather than openly fight the multinational forces. Many of these smaller units formed the center of the initial anti-coalition insurgency, based primarily around the cities of Mosul, Tikrit and Fallujah. These guerrilla units were the precursor to the eventual formation of what came to be known as the Iraqi insurgency, or those Iraqis and foreigners who attacked coalition or government forces. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ...


More recently in late 2005 and 2006, due to increasing sectarian violence based on either tribal/ethnic distinctions or simply due to increased criminal violence, there has been the formation of various militias. Many of these militias have been formed in response to violent acts committed on the basis of the Shia/Sunni distinction, with whole neighborhoods and cities sometimes being protected or attacked by ethnic or neighborhood militias.[citation needed]


Insurgents

The insurgents and guerrilla units favored attacking unarmored vehicles and avoiding major battles. The early Iraqi insurgency was concentrated in, but not limited to, an area referred to by the Western media and the occupying forces as the Sunni triangle which includes Baghdad. The insurgents dead are numbered between 45-60,000. [45] Map of the Sunni Triangle The Sunni Triangle refers to a roughly triangular area of Iraq to the northwest of Baghdad. ...


By the fall of 2003, these insurgent groups began using typical guerrilla tactics such as ambushes, bombings, kidnappings, and improvised explosive devices. Other tactics included mortars, suicide bombers, roadside bombs, small arms fire, and RPGs, as well as sabotage against the oil, water, and electrical infrastructure. Multi-national Force-Iraq statistics (see detailed BBC graphic) show that the insurgents primarily targeted coalition forces, Iraqi security forces and infrastructure, and lastly civilians and government officials. The civilian death log reveals that a large majority of the deaths were by car bombs, booby traps, throat slitting, beheading and other techniques that are known to be associated with insurgents.[citation needed] These irregular forces favored attacking unarmored or lightly armored Humvee vehicles, the U.S. military's primary transport vehicle. In November 2003, some of these forces successfully attacked U.S. rotary aircraft with SAM-7 missiles bought on the global black market. Insurgent groups such as the al-Abud Network have even attempted to constitute their own chemical weapons programs, attempting to weaponize traditional mortar rounds with ricin and mustard toxin. [46] Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century Irregular military refers to any non-standard military. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher The 9K32 Strela-2 (Russian 9К32 стрела-2 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system similar to the US Army REDEYE, with... The al-Abud Network is a former insurgent group who was operating within Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom. ... Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced ) is a toxin from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ...

As Coalition Forces respond to a car bombing in South Baghdad, Iraq (IRQ), a second car bomb is detonated, targeting those responding to the initial incident. Date Shot: 14 Apr 2005
As Coalition Forces respond to a car bombing in South Baghdad, Iraq (IRQ), a second car bomb is detonated, targeting those responding to the initial incident. Date Shot: 14 Apr 2005

There is evidence that some guerrilla groups are organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba'ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign fighters. [47] On February 23, 2005 Al-Iraqiya TV (Iraq) aired transcripts of confessions by Syrian intelligence officer Anas Ahmad Al-Issa and Iraqi insurgent Shihab Al-Sab'awi concerning their booby-trap operations, explosions, kidnappings, assassinations, and details of beheading training in Syria. [48] The insurgents are known by the Coalition military (especially in the United States armed forces) as Anti-Iraqi Forces (AIF). [49] [50] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1632, 628 KB) Car bombing in Iraq, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1632, 628 KB) Car bombing in Iraq, 2005. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


One insurgent, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, was killed on June 7, 2006 in the town of Baquba, north of Baghdad, when U.S. warplanes dropped two 500-pound bombs on his isolated safe house. [51] Zarqawi, a Syrian, did not fit the usual profile of an Iraqi insurgent and had closer ties to the al Qaeda terrorist organization. Still, President George W. Bush said the killing was "a severe blow to al-Qaida and it is a significant victory in the war on terror" but cautioned: "We have tough days ahead of us in Iraq that will require the continuing patience of the American people."[52] Wikinews has news related to: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: ‎, ) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006) was the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, a militant group in Iraq. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... al-Qaeda or al-Qaida (, translit: ; the Law, the foundation, or the base) is an armed Sunni Islamist organization with the stated objective of eliminating foreign influence in Muslim countries, eradicating those they deem to be infidels, and reestablishing the caliphate. ...


Despite Zarqawi's death Al-Qaeda in Iraq vowed to continue its "holy war", according to a statement posted on a Web site announcing: "We want to give you the joyous news of the martyrdom of the mujahed sheik Abu Musab al-Zarqawi."[52] Zarqawi's death may have had little impact on the violence since evidence of continued violence in Iraq could still be seen in the month of June with over 1,600 Iraqi deaths that month, the highest monthly total to date since the Al Askari Mosque bombing. [53] Al-Qaeda in Iraq members with Shosei Koda. ... Holy war may refer to: Religious war, a war fought for reasons of religion. ... The Al Askari Mosque in Samarra around 1926. ...


In addition to internal strife, Iran may be playing a role in the insurgency. U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Michael Barbero said, "Iran is definitely a destabilizing force in Iraq," Barbero said. "I think it's irrefutable that Iran is responsible for training, funding and equipping some of these Shia extremist groups."[citation needed]


Militias

Two of the most powerful current militias are the Mahdi Army and the Badr Organization, with both militias having substantial political support as well in the current Iraqi government. Initially, both organizations were involved in the Iraqi insurgency, most clearly seen with the Mahdi Army at the Battle of Najaf. However in recent months, there has been a split between the two groups. Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... The Badr Organization originally the Badr Brigade or Bader Corps was the armed wing of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI). ... Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... Combatants United States Iraq al-Mahdi Army Commanders unknown Muqtada al-Sadr Strength unknown 2,000+ Casualties 13 KIA, over 100 WIA (U.S.) 40 KIA, 46 WIA (Iraqi Security Forces) 159 KIA, 261 captured The Battle of Najaf was a battle that was fought between U.S. and Iraqi...


This violent break between Muqtada al-Sadr's Mahdi Army and the rival Badr Organization of Abdul Aziz al-Hakim, was seen in the fighting in the town of Amarah [11] on October 20, 2006, would severely complicate the efforts of Iraqi and American officials to quell the soaring violence in Iraq. [54] Muqtada Al-Sadr Muqtada al-Sadr ( translit: ) (b. ... Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... The Badr Organization originally the Badr Brigade or Bader Corps was the armed wing of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI). ... Abdul Aziz al-Hakim with Donald Rumsfeld Sayyed Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (Arabic: عبد العزيز الحكيم ) (born 1953) is an Iraqi theologian and politician and the leader of SCIRI, the largest political party in the Iraqi National Assembly. ... Amarah (sometimes written al-Amarah), is a city in southeastern Iraq, located next to the Tigris River waterway south of Baghdad, at 32°10N 46°03E. Predominately Shiite, it had a population of about 340,000 as of 2002. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

see also: History of Iraqi insurgency, Sectarian violence in Iraq

This is a history of the Iraqi insurgency. ... Following the Coalition-led invasion and war of Iraq, there has been an increased level of sectarian violence in Iraq. ...

Terrorism

The war in Iraq was originally justified as part of the U.S.-led War on Terrorism. Specifically, the Bush Administration argued that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda, and that his overthrow would lead to democratization in the Middle East, decreasing terrorism overall. The alleged ties between Saddam and al-Qaeda were never confirmed, however, and numerous reports of intelligence agencies investigating the matter -- including several reports of the CIA, the U.S. State Department, the FBI, and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, as well as the investigations of foreign intelligence agencies -- concluded that no evidence had been found supporting an operational connection between Saddam and al-Qaeda. The New York Times commented in September 2006 on the conclusions of the bipartisan Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, "there is no evidence that Saddam Hussein had prewar ties to Al Qaeda and one of the terror organization’s most notorious members, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi."[12][13] (See main article: Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda). Combatants Participants in Operations: United States United Kingdom Turkey South Korea Canada Israel Spain Portugal Pakistan Afghanistan Australia New Zealand Italy Netherlands Denmark France Germany Norway Slovakia Romania Philippines Poland Ukraine Georgia Jordan Saudi Arabia NATO New Iraqi Army and others Targets of Operations: al-Qaeda Taliban Baathist Iraq... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ...


However, al-Qaeda leaders have seen the Iraq war as a boon to their recruiting and operational efforts, providing both evidence to jihadists worldwide that America is at war with Islam, and the training ground for a new generation of jihadists to practice attacks on American forces. In October 2003, Osama bin Laden announced: "Be glad of the good news: America is mired in the swamps of the Tigris and Euphrates. Bush is, through Iraq and its oil, easy prey. Here is he now, thank God, in an embarrassing situation and here is America today being ruined before the eyes of the whole world."[14] Al-Qaeda commander Seif al-Adl gloated about the war in Iraq, indicating, "The Americans took the bait and fell into our trap."[15] A letter thought to be from al-Qaeda leader Atiyah Abd al-Rahman found in Iraq among the rubble where al-Zarqawi was killed and released by the U.S. military in October 2006, indicated that al-Qaeda perceived the war as beneficial to its goals: "The most important thing is that the jihad continues with steadfastness ... indeed, prolonging the war is in our interest."[16] Saif al-Adel Saif Al-Adel (or Seif Al Adel, or Seif al-Adl) (born April 11, 1960 or 1963) is believed to be a senior member of the Al-Qaeda and Egyptian Islamic Jihad. ...


In the years since the war began, a consensus has developed among intelligence experts that the Iraq war has increased terrorism. Counterterrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna frequently referred to the invasion of Iraq as a "fatal mistake"[55] that had greatly increased terrorism in the Middle East. London's conservative International Institute for Strategic Studies concluded in 2004 that the occupation of Iraq had become "a potent global recruitment pretext" for jihadists and that the invasion "galvanized" al-Qaeda and "perversely inspired insurgent violence" there.[17] The U.S. National Intelligence Council concluded in a January 2005 report that the war in Iraq had become a breeding ground for a new generation of terrorists; David B. Low, the national intelligence officer for transnational threats, indicated that the report concluded that the war in Iraq provided terrorists with "a training ground, a recruitment ground, the opportunity for enhancing technical skills... There is even, under the best scenario, over time, the likelihood that some of the jihadists who are not killed there will, in a sense, go home, wherever home is, and will therefore disperse to various other countries." The Council's Chairman Robert L. Hutchings said, "At the moment, Iraq is a magnet for international terrorist activity."[18] And the 2006 National Intelligence Estimate, which outlined the considered judgment of all 16 U.S. intelligence agencies, held that "The Iraq conflict has become the 'cause celebre' for jihadists, breeding a deep resentment of US involvement in the Muslim world and cultivating supporters for the global jihadist movement."[19] Rohan Gunaratna is a researcher based in Singapore whose field of specialisation is terrorism, particulary Islamic terrorism, and especially groups in South East Asia such as Jemaah Islamiya ( Indonesia ) and Abu Sayyaf ( Phillipines ). He is the authour of Inside Al-Qaeda as well as many other publications. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies is a British think tank based in London. ... The National Intelligence Council (NIC) is the center for midterm and long-term strategic thinking within the United States Intelligence Community (IC). ... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ...


Casualties

Coffins of American soldiers in a C-17 Globemaster III at Dover Air Force Base.
Coffins of American soldiers in a C-17 Globemaster III at Dover Air Force Base.

See the above main article for much more info, and for casualty numbers for coalition nations, contractors, non-Iraqi civilians, journalists, media helpers, aid workers, wounded, etc.. Casualty figures, especially Iraqi ones, are highly disputed. This section gives a brief overview. "There are now at least 8 independent estimates of the number or rate of deaths induced by the invasion of Iraq." [56] The merits, and even the existence, of those studies are hotly disputed. See this Iraq Body Count project page for example: [57]. For more information, see the information box at the top right of this article. Graph from the second The Lancet survey of Iraqi mortality, showing a comparison with two other mortality surveys. ... US war causalties in a C-17 Globemaster III at Dover AFB This photo and 361 others have been released by the Air Force due to a Freedom of Information Act request from The Memory Hole, and can also be found at this site. ... US war causalties in a C-17 Globemaster III at Dover AFB This photo and 361 others have been released by the Air Force due to a Freedom of Information Act request from The Memory Hole, and can also be found at this site. ... The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) C-17 Globemaster III is a strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and operated by the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. ... Dover Air Force Base (Dover AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force in the state of Delaware. ... Civilian deaths attributable to insurgent or military action in Iraq, and also to increased criminal violence. ...


Coalition

The icasualties.org [11] website reports the death toll since the invasion in March 2003 as being 2,906 American lives (as of December 6th, 2006). There have been a further 247 deaths among the troops of other coalition nations: Australia 2. Bulgaria 13. Denmark 6. El Salvador 5. Estonia 2. Hungary 1. Italy 33. Kazakhstan 1. Latvia 1. Netherlands 2. Poland 18. Romania 2. Slovakia 4. Spain 11. Thailand 2. Ukraine 18. United Kingdom 126. [58] [11]


Iraqi

Estimates of Iraqi deaths are highly disputed. In December 2005 President Bush said there were 30,000 Iraqi dead [59]. A study in The Lancet estimates 654,965 Iraqi deaths (with a range of 392,979 to 942,636) from March 2003 to July 2006, based on national surveys of mortality [17] [18]. That total number of deaths (civilian and non-civilian) includes all excess deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poor healthcare, etc.. An October 19, 2006 Washington Post article [60] says that the methodology of the Lancet study has been disputed, that "President Bush earlier this year put the number at 30,000 but gave no sources," and went on to say "Indices drawing only on the deaths reported by news organizations put the figure closer to 50,000." That figure is from the Iraq Body Count project (IBC). The IBC records civilian deaths due to insurgent/military action and increased criminal violence, as reported by English-language media. There is no verifiable tally of insurgent deaths [8] [9]. Civilian deaths attributable to insurgent or military action in Iraq, and also to increased criminal violence. ...


The Lancet study states: "Aside from Bosnia, we can find no conflict situation where passive surveillance [used by the IBC] recorded more than 20% of the deaths measured by population-based methods [used in the Lancet studies]. In several outbreaks, disease and death recorded by facility-based methods underestimated events by a factor of ten or more when compared with population-based estimates. Between 1960 and 1990, newspaper accounts of political deaths in Guatemala correctly reported over 50% of deaths in years of low violence but less than 5% in years of highest violence." [17]

See also: Iraq Body Count project and Lancet surveys of mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq

Civilian deaths attributable to insurgent or military action in Iraq, and also to increased criminal violence. ... Figure 4 from the second The Lancet survey of Iraqi mortality, showing a comparison with two other mortality surveys. ...

Iraqi Healthcare deterioration

A November 11, 2006 Los Angeles Times article reports: [61]

The [Iraq] nation's health has deteriorated to a level not seen since the 1950s, said Joseph Chamie, former director of the U.N. Population Division and an Iraq specialist. "They were at the forefront", he said, referring to healthcare just before the 1991 Persian Gulf War. "Now they're looking more and more like a country in sub-Saharan Africa."

A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not considered part of North Africa. ...

Iraqi Refugees

As of November 4, 2006, the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees estimated that 1.8 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 1.6 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month. [62]


Financial costs

Dollar figures

As of September 29, 2006, over $379 billion has been allocated by the U.S. Congress for the Iraq war. [63] The direct costs of the war and occupation have not been included in the regular defense spending request (with the exception of FY 2007); instead, President Bush has submitted emergency spending bills to Congress to cover those costs. [64] The current rate of U.S. expenditure in Iraq is approximately $6.4 billion a month. [65] September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ...


As of March 2006, approximately £4.5 billion had been spent by the United Kingdom in Iraq. All of this money has come from a government fund called the "Special Reserve" which has a current allocation of £6.44 billion. [66]


It is not known how much more money has been spent by other members of the coalition; however, the US's share of the cost is by far the largest.


Joseph Stiglitz, former chief economist of the World Bank and Nobel Prize in Economics, has suggested the total costs of the Iraq War on the US economy will be $1 trillion in a conservative scenario and could top $2 trillion in a moderate one.[67] The Congressional Research Service recently estimated weekly spending at almost $2 billion per week, and that total expenditures have now topped half a trillion dollars.[68] Additionally, the extended combat and equipment loss have placed a severe financial strain on the U.S Army, causing the elimination of non-essential expenses such as travel and civilian hiring.[69] [70] Joseph Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist, author and winner of Nobel Prize for economics ( 2001). ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[1] (Swedish: Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, or more acurately the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual... The numeral trillion refers to one of two number values, depending on the context of where and how it is being used. ...


Data from the Office of Management and Budget shows that the discretionary defense spending is 20% of government outlays,[71] and the CIA World Factbook lists a 2005 estimate of U.S. military expenditure as 4.06% of GDP (the 26th position in a listing of 167 countries). Other figures, however, show that the total defense expenditures (Department of Defense, Homeland Security and War on Terror) amount to $563 billion, which represents 56% of the nation's discretionary budget [72] and 47% of the world military spending.[73] The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ...


U.S. equipment losses

In addition to the human casualties suffered in the war, the U.S. has also lost a number of pieces of military equipment. This total includes those vehicles lost in non-combat related accidents - numbers are an approximation. Recently, the Army has said that the cost of replacing its depleted equipment has tripled from that of 2005. [74] On December 5 2006 The military stated that nearly 40% of the army’s total equipment has been lost in Iraq, with an estimated yearly replacement cost of 17 billion U.S dollars. Furthermore the military states that the replacement cost has increased by a factor of ten compared to that of the prewar state. [75]


Combat losses: Land equipment[76]

Combat losses: Air equipment[76] The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... The M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and M3 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle) are American infantry fighting vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, (formerly United Defense, originally FMC). ... For the manufacturer of medical and orthopedic products, see Stryker Corporation. ... The M113 is an armored personnel carrier family of vehicles in use with the US military and many other nations. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors The M998 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or Humvee) is a military motor vehicle. ... The Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV)—official designation AAV-7A1 (formerly known as LVT-7) is the current amphibious troop transport of the United States Marine Corps and is also operated by other forces. ...

The UH-60 Black Hawk that crashed on September 21, 2004
Enlarge
The UH-60 Black Hawk that crashed on September 21, 2004
  • 27 Apache attack helicopters
  • 21 Blackhawk utility helicopters
  • 14 Chinook cargo helicopters
  • 23 Kiowa surveillance helicopters
  • 4 CH-46E Sea Knight cargo helicopters [79]
  • 1 A-10 Thunderbolt II ground attack aircraft
  • 1 F-15E Strike Eagle fighter aircraft [80]
  • 2 UH-1N Huey utility helicopters
  • 8 AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters
  • 5 CH-53E Super Stallion or MH-53 Pave Low helicopters
  • 2 H-3 Sea King helicopters
  • 25+ RQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicles
  • 3 F/A-18 Hornet fighter aircraft
  • 2 C-130 Hercules aircraft
  • 1 F-16 Fighting FalconCG (90-0776)
See also: List of Coalition aircraft crashes in Iraq

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 514 KB) Summary TALLIL AIR BASE, Iraq -- Local safety officials inspect the wreckage of a Sept. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 514 KB) Summary TALLIL AIR BASE, Iraq -- Local safety officials inspect the wreckage of a Sept. ... The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a twin-turbine engine, single rotor, semi-monocoque fuselage, rotary wing helicopter. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing AH-64 Apache is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a twin-turbine engine, single rotor, semi-monocoque fuselage, rotary wing helicopter. ... The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is a versatile, twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. ... OH-58 Kiowa OH-58D Kiowa Warrior The OH-58 Kiowa scout is a helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter Textron. ... Marines board a CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter on USS Saipan, during beach-landing training. ... Primary user United States Air Force Number built 715 Unit cost US$9. ... The F-15E Strike Eagle is a modern United States all-weather strike fighter, designed for long-range interdiction of enemy ground targets deep behind enemy lines. ... The Bell UH-1 Iroquois, commonly known as the Huey, was a multipurpose military helicopter, famous for its use in the Vietnam war. ... The Bell AH-1 Cobra, called the Huey Cobra, Cobra, Sea Cobra, Super Cobra, or Snake (depending on the model), is an attack helicopter, designed by Bell Helicopter Textron. ... A CH-53E Super Stallion taking off from the deck of the USS Saipan Designated S-80E internally by the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, the Marine Corps CH-53E Super Stallion, and the Navy MH-53E Sea Dragon are the largest and heaviest helicopters in the United States military. ... A MH-53J Pave Low IIIE of the 551st Special Operations Squadron, 58th Special Operations Wing, flying a training mission. ... US Navy Sea King Several UH-3 Sea Kings taking off The Sikorsky UH-3 Sea King (also known as Sikorsky S-61) is a twin-engined multi-purpose helicopter. ... Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flies on a simulated Navy aerial reconnaissance flight off southern California in December 1995. ... It has been suggested that F-18 Hornet be merged into this article or section. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for military forces worldwide. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multi-role jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics in the United States. ... The UH-60 Black Hawk that crashed on September 21, 2004 Below is a list of Coalition aircraft that have crashed in Iraq. ...

Criticism

This article is about opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Iraq War from outside Iraq. ...

Criticism of military strategy

U.S. military strategy in Iraq has drawn criticism from a number of different circles. Military historian Martin van Creveld, a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has called the Iraq war "the most foolish war since Emperor Augustus in 9 BC sent his legions into Germany and lost them."[20] Martin van Creveld (1946- ) is an Israeli military historian and theorist. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC Events...


Withdraw from Iraq

A growing number of citizens in coalition nations have urged their governments to withdraw from Iraq. Supporters of withdrawal argue that the Iraq war is unwinnable, that it has no purpose, or that it has become another Vietnam war. [81] [82] Those who oppose the war also argue that the huge financial cost, as well as the loss of innocent human life, will be ended by a withdrawal of troops. Another consideration is the destabilization to the Middle East region that may occur as a consequence of the sudden departure of the United States military. Given the strained relations between the United States and Iraq's neighbor, Iran, and considering the powerful influence of Iran among Iraq's Shi'a Muslim community, some people fear that Iraq is going to convert into a fundamentalist-lead client state of Iran. The civil strife between the Sunni and Shi'a communities, as well as Kurdish hopes of establishing an independent state of Kurdistan in northern Iraq, could lead to a full-scale civil war. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Stay in Iraq

In addition to the criticism of the war itself, there is also a large amount of criticism from people that support the war but criticize the current military strategy, believing that the current strategy causes unnecessary deaths and injuries of coalition and Iraqi troops, as well as civilian contractors, and does not adequately meet the insurgent threat. Included within this is the criticism that, if the military strategy were much more effective, then there would be much more support for the war among the people of the coalition countries, especially the United States, except in the case of the strict pacifists and isolationists, who are always opposed to foreign wars regardless of the efficacy of the strategy. In a classified memo to the current administration, former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld recently revealed that he believed the current stategy in Iraq was not working and was in need of change.[83]


Many specific strategic criticisms have been made by various individuals and publications. Some major criticisms include:

  • Prisoners in Iraq detained by U.S. troops are treated badly, and it is estimated that about 1/4th of them are innocent, and many prisoners are subsequently released. The bad treatment of those prisoners angers the civilian population and turns them against the United States. These critics say that prisoners should be treated humanely. (this criticism was made on Nightline [84], among other places)
  • There is a very large number of explosion-induced injuries to soldiers' arms, legs, and faces, including many losses of limbs. Such injuries could be greatly reduced if the soldiers wore light-weight, ventilated, heat-resistant polymer (such as aramid) over their arms and legs, and transparent polycarbonate face masks, which not strong enough to stop a bullet, can prevent much of the damage from the hot particles of explosives.[citation needed] This also applies to the Iraqi police, who are severely under-equipped [85], and who suffer far more deaths and injuries than coalition troops [86], and are the permanent stabilizing force that, if strong enough, may allow the coalition troops to withdraw. (This criticism was made in Discover Magazine [87], among other places.)
  • Most injuries and deaths to coalition troops and Iraqi police are due to covertly-placed roadside bombs (often calledIEDs (improvised explosive devices)) and car bombs. The casualties of coalition troops and Iraqi police depend on the fact that such troops are clearly marked by their uniforms. That not only provides the insurgents with targets, but it also shows them who to avoid when conducting covert activities such as bomb placement. If the coalition troops and Iraqi police used more covert tactics, including the use of plain-clothes Iraqi police posing as militia men (it would not work for coalition members, due to the conspicuousness of both their race and their language), the use of hidden cameras with nightvision capability, and constant aerial surveillance of roads (such as by predator drones), then coalition and Iraqi forces would be able to prevent insurgents planting bombs. It is only by watching such insurgents when they think that they are not being watched, that they can be seen and killed. Covert surveillance and plainclothes Iraqi troops in a perimeter around overt coalition and Iraqi troop positions would also be effective in sniper attacks and gun battles.
  • Many civilian contractors in Iraq, who are involved in rebuilding Iraq, are killed by insurgents [88], and the improvements that they build are often destroyed soon after they are made.[citation needed] Such contractors and their projects are often not protected. Protecting the contractors and their projects, especially with plainclothes Iraqi troops, would both reduce contractor deaths and injuries, and kill insurgents. Another option is to pull out the contractors except for those that are working on military and security projects, until most of the insurgents are dead and it is much safer.
  • The Pentagon has refused to tabulate the number of insurgents killed [89]. That gives the impression to many people that no progress is being made[citation needed], which in turn reduces support for the war. It also gives both the government and the people much less to go on when determining the efficacy of their strategy, such that they can not determine the all-important kill ratio, and what that kill ratio is in different situations and different areas of Iraq, such that they can not adjust their strategy accordingly, nor can the public pressure them to do so.
  • Geraldo Rivera is one of the major critics of the military strategy in Iraq. Geraldo advised, among other things, that U.S. troops should only use roads that are monitored 24-7, so as to avoid roadside bombs, and that civilian contractors, except for those working on military and security projects, should pull out until most insurgents are dead and it is safe to build. [90]

Nightline is a late-night hard news program broadcast by ABC in the United States, and has a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world. ... Discover Magazine is a science magazine that publishes articles about science. ... The MQ-1 Predator is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) which the U.S. Air Force describes as a MALE (medium-altitude, long-endurance) UAV system. ... Geraldo Rivera Gerald Michael Rivera (born July 4, 1943 in New York City), known to TV audiences as “Geraldo Rivera” or simply “Geraldo”, is an American television journalist and former talk show host. ...

Criticisms of U.S. media coverage

A sniper loyal to Shiite cleric Moqtada al Sadr fires a Dragunov sniper rifle at U.S. positions in the cemetery in Najaf. When The New York Times published this photo, it was severely criticized as being unpatriotic.
A sniper loyal to Shiite cleric Moqtada al Sadr fires a Dragunov sniper rifle at U.S. positions in the cemetery in Najaf. When The New York Times published this photo, it was severely criticized as being unpatriotic.

Concerns have been raised of insufficiently critical coverage of the activities of U.S. forces in Iraq. It has been suggested that the U.S. news media is reluctant to criticize the conduct of American soldiers, for fear of upsetting their viewers and losing market share.[citation needed] Concerns have also been raised that some U.S. media outlets are not supportive enough of the American military and have published articles or images harmful to the overall U.S. military effort. Media are the means through which information is transmitted to a large audience. ... Image File history File links Iraqi_Sniper. ... Image File history File links Iraqi_Sniper. ... Looking through a USMC sniper rifle’s scope at a practice range at Camp Hansen The same USMC sniper team, with a M40 Sniper Rifle (2004) French Special Forces Sniping Team. ... Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... Muqtada al-Sadr Muqtada al-Sadr (Arabic: مقتدى الصدر, also transliterated as Moqtada Alsadr) (b. ... Pair of Dragunovs imported to US as Tigers. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Accusations of overly sympathetic coverage

It has been reported in European media, including countries involved in operations in Iraq, that a minority of American soldiers and marines in Iraq have behaved irresponsibly in Iraq, causing unnecessary deaths of civilians. At the same time, many believe that U.S. forces have come under little U.S. media scrutiny.[citation needed] Even in the most extreme cases, such as the Haditha massacre, U.S. media coverage has been considerably less than in European countries such as the United Kingdom.[citation needed] The Haditha massacre is a massacre of civilians reportedly committed by United States Marines on November 19, 2005 in the town of Haditha in Iraq. ...


The killing of Nicola Calipari by an American soldier, which Italian prosecutors are now classifying as murder, received U.S. media coverage because the victim was an Italian Major-General. This incident fits a pattern, suggested by most of the mainstream European media (especially in the British Guardian newspaper and the French Le Monde newspaper), of widespread unprovoked fatal incidents. [citation needed] Another cited example is the killing of British reporter Terry Lloyd, who was found by the coroner to have been unlawfully killed by U.S. marines in Iraq [[21]]. The Independent on Sunday (15 October 2006) suggested that this death was the result of U.S. soldiers' hostility to his decision to report independently rather than being "embedded "with coalition forces." Nicola Calipari Nicola Calipari (June 23, 1953, Reggio Calabria - March 4, 2005, Iraq) was an Italian military intelligence officer with the rank of Major General. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Le Monde is a French daily evening newspaper with a circulation in 2002 of 389,200. ... Terry Lloyd, born Terence Ellis Lloyd (born November 21, 1952 London – died March 22, 2003 Iraq), was a British television journalist well-known for his reporting from the Middle East. ... The Independents old (pre-compact) masthead. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Accusations of overly unsympathetic coverage

However, in the U.S. the argument has also been made that coverage has been unfair to U.S. efforts to establish peace and stability in Iraq. They have argued that the media has become fixated on the senseless violence committed by insurgents and terrorists and given relatively little attention to the progress made. This, they argue, has had, and continues to have, the effect of enhancing the perception of chaos, emboldening the insurgents and terrorists, and undermining the moral of US and Iraqi troops. Critics have long questioned the reliance by the major media outlets of Iraqi "stringers" with suspected ties to insurgent groups and terrorists as the sole source of information -- sometimes ignoring the official version of events as explained by the military and the official Iraqi government. For example, on November 24, 2006, the AP distributed a horrific story of four mosques burned to the ground and six Sunni worshippers dragged out of one mosque doused in kerosene and burnt alive. The source of the story was described as an Iraqi police chief Jamil Hussein. There is no evidence that 4 mosques were burned (only one showed signs of some burn damage), the military and the Iraqi interior ministry has stated in no uncertain terms that they do not know who Jamil Hussein is and no one by that name works for the Iraqi government, and no other news outlet has been able to verify Mr. Hussein’s story. Incredibly, the AP stands by this story because they have used this mysterious Jamil Hussein as a source for over two years. However, the AP stories where he is used as the source are invariable stories of atrocities committed by Shiites against Sunnis. The constant drumbeat of unsubstantiated stories of atrocities like this one, critics argue, amount to media outlets being used to disseminate enemy propaganda. CNN was also criticized for broadcasting a propaganda tape provided to CNN by terrorists of snipers killing US soldiers from long range.


Human rights abuses

Spc. Charles Graner poses over Manadel al-Jamadi's corpse.
Spc. Charles Graner poses over Manadel al-Jamadi's corpse.
Main article: Human rights in post-Saddam Iraq

Throughout the entire Iraq war there have been numerous human rights abuses on all sides of the conflict. This image is in the public domain because it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image is in the public domain because it is ineligible for copyright. ... Graner poses with Pvt. ... Harman, al-Jamadi Graner, al-Jamadi Manadel al-Jamadi was an Iraqi who was tortured to death during interrogation at Abu Ghraib prison. ... The Bush administration and many parties have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Iraq after the 2003 occupation of Iraq. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


U.S. Armed Forces

WARNING: These links have graphic content depicting a decapitation; some of the most publicized abuses include:

Satar Jabar standing on a box with wires connected to his body Prisoners Ordered to Form Human Pyramid Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse images Beginning in 2003, numerous accounts of abuse and torture of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known... The Haditha killings (also called the Haditha massacre or the Haditha incident) occurred on November 19, 2005 in the town of Haditha, Iraq. ... The Ishaqi incident refers to the reported mass murder of Iraqi civilians allegedly committed by the United states forces in the town of Ishaqi in March, 2006. ... The Hamadiya, Hamandiyah, or Hamdania incident refers to the shooting death of an Iraqi man, Hashim Ibrahim Awad, but US Marines on April 26, 2006 in Al Hamdania, west of Baghdad. ... Hashim Ibrahim Awad was an Iraqi citizen, was kidnapped, beaten, and killed in by US soldiers on April 26, 2006, an event referred to as the Hamdania incident. ... The Al-Mahmudiyah incident occurred on March 12, 2006 in the town of Al-Mahmudiyah, south of Baghdad, Iraq. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...

Private military contractors

There have been reported human rights abuses by some of the thousands of private military contractors working in Iraq. The most famous incident involving contractors was the Abu Ghraib incident. L. Paul Bremer flanked by private military contractors Private military contractors or private military companies (PMCs) are companies that provide logistics, manpower, and other expenditures for a military force. ... Satar Jabar standing on a box with wires connected to his body Prisoners Ordered to Form Human Pyramid Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse images Beginning in 2003, numerous accounts of abuse and torture of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known...


Insurgent forces

A 2005 Human Rights Watch report analysed the insurgency in Iraq and highlighted, "The groups that are most responsible for the abuse, namely al-Qaeda in Iraq, Ansar al-Sunna and the Islamic Army in Iraq, have all targeted civilians for abductions and executions. The first two groups have repeatedly boasted about massive car bombs and suicide bombs in mosques, markets, bus stations and other civilian areas. Such acts are war crimes and in some cases may constitute crimes against humanity, which are defined as serious crimes committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack against a civilian population."[92] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Al-Qaeda in Iraq members with Shosei Koda. ...


The regular Iraqi insurgents and other groups such as the Sunni Islamic militant groups Al-Qaeda in Iraq and Ansar al-Islam are responsible for numerous abuses and killings, including: Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Al-Qaeda in Iraq members with Shosei Koda. ... Ansar al-Islam (Arabic: انصار الاسلام, Supporters or Partisans of Islam) is a Kurdish Sunni Islamist group, promoting a radical interpretation of Islam and holy war. ...

  • Killing over 12,000 Iraqis over the period of January 2005 - June 2006, according to Iraqi Interior Minister Bayan Jabr, giving the first official count for the largest category of victims of bombings, ambushes and other increasingly deadly attacks. [93] The insurgents have also conducted numerous suicide attacks on the Iraqi civilian population, mostly targeting the majority Shia community, such as the Attack on the Shia district of Sadr City, Baghdad, on 02/07/2006 which claimed at least 66 lives. [94] [95] An October 2005 report from Human Rights Watch examines the range of civilian attacks and their purported justification.[92]
  • The bombing of the U.N. headquarters in Baghdad in August 2003 which killed the top U.N. representative in Iraq and 21 other UN staff members. [96]
  • The February 2006 bombing of the al-Askari Mosque, destroying one of the holiest Shiite shrines, killing over 165 worshipers and igniting sectarian strife and reprisal killings. [97]
  • Beheading several diplomats: two Algerian diplomatic envoys Ali Belaroussi and Azzedine Belkadi, [98] Egyptian diplomatic envoy al-Sherif, [99] and four Russian diplomats. [100]
  • The publicized murders of several non-military persons including; construction contractor Eugene Armstrong, supply contractor Jack Hensley, translator Kim Sun-il, supply contractor Kenneth Bigley, Bulgarian truck drivers Ivaylo Kepov and Georgi Lazov [101], Shosei Koda, Italian Fabrizio Quattrocchi, charity worker Margaret Hassan, reconstruction engineer Nick Berg, Italian photographer, 52 year old Salvatore Santoro [102] and Iraqi supply worker Seif Adnan Kanaan. Most of these civilians were subjected to brutal torture and/or beheading.
  • Torture or murder of members of the New Iraqi Army, [103] and assassination of civilians associated with the Coalition Provisional Authority, such as Fern Holland, or the Iraqi Governing Council, such as Aqila al-Hashimi and Ezzedine Salim, or other foreign civilians, such as those from Kenya. [104]

A suicide attack is an attack in which the attacker or attackers intend to kill others and intend to die in the process (see suicide). ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Eugene Armstrong, in orange, seated, before his decapitation by the five men standing over him. ... Jack Hensley, seated in orange, before his beheading by the five men standing over him Jack Hensley (September 22, 1955 – September 21, 2004) was an American engineer from Marietta, Cobb County, Georgia, near Atlanta. ... Kim Sun-il (September 13, 1970 – June 22, 2004) was a South Korean translator working in Iraq for Gana General Trading Company, a South Korean company under contract to the U.S. military. ... Kenneth Bigley and his wife Sombat at their wedding in 1998 Kenneth John Bigley (1942 – October 7, 2004), was a civil engineer from Liverpool, England, who was kidnapped in the al-Mansour district of Baghdad, Iraq on September 16, 2004, along with Jack Hensley and Eugene Armstrong, both U.S... Shosei Koda Shosei Koda (香田証生 Kōda Shōsei, November 29, 1979–November 3, 2004?) was a Japanese citizen who was kidnapped and later beheaded in Iraq of November 3, 2004 while touring the country. ... Fabrizio Quattrocchi during his captivity Fabrizio Quattrocchi was a 36-year-old Italian security guard taken hostage by Islamist militants in Iraq and murdered there on April 15, 2004. ... Margaret Hassan Margaret Hassan (also known as Madam Margaret) (April 18, 1945 – November 16, 2004) was an aid worker who worked in Iraq for many years and was kidnapped and murdered there at the age of 59 by Islamic militants. ... Nick Berg in October 2003 Nicholas Nick Evan Berg (April 2, 1978 – May 7, 2004) was an American businessman seeking telecommunications work in Iraq during the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Iraqi Army is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... Fern Holland was an american lawyer who was killed in the Iraq conflict that began in 2003. ... The Iraqi Governing Council. ... Aqila al-Hashimi (Arabic عقيلة الهاشمي cAqīla al-Hāshimī;  ; d. ... Ezzedine Salim, Arabic عزالدين سليم, also known as Abdelzahra Othman Mohammed (1943 - 17 May 2004), was an Iraqi politician. ...

Iraqi government

Other abuses have been blamed on the new Iraqi government, including:

  • The widespread use of torture by Iraqi security forces. [105]
  • Shiite-run death squads run out of the Interior Ministry that are accused of committing numerous massacres of Sunni Arabs [106] and the police collusion with militias in Iraq have compounded the problems.

Police collusion with militias in Iraq has been a key element that had led to the proliferation of death squads. ...

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February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... MediaLens is a media analysis website based in the United Kingdom. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

External articles

Overview
  • Journalists in Iraq: Video of Panel Discussion
  • The Brookings Institution Iraq Index
  • ProCon's Extensive Iraq War Examination
Maps of Iraq
  • High resolution maps of iraq.
Road to War
  • White House Meeting Memo; Details of 31 January 2003 private meeting between George W. Bush and Tony Blair where they discussed using U.S. spyplanes in UN colours to lure Saddam Hussein into war.
  • UK Attorney-General leak; Legal advice given to the British Prime Minister Tony Blair weeks before the 2003 invasion.
  • Presidential address given by George W. Bush on the evening of March 19, 2003, announcing war.
Iraqi sources
  • Iraq Diaries -- Iraqis writing about their experiences of war.
  • The Ground Truth Project -- A series of exclusive, in-depth interviews with Iraqis, aid workers, military personnel and others who have spent significant time on-the-ground in Iraq.
  • What Iraqis Think -- A compilation of the latest polls and blogs coming out of Iraq.
  • Iraq documents on Weapons of Mass Destruction This is a U.S. military site containing approximately 1 million files captured from the Iraqi military in the aftermath of the invasion.
Opinions and polls
  • Sean Rayment, "Secret MoD poll: Iraqis support attacks on British troops"; a poll conducted among Iraqis reveals strong opposition toward Allied presence in Iraq. The Daily Telegraph, 23 October 2005.
  • Extraordinary renditions: the playwright and the president; Jeff Sommers, Khaled Diab and Charles Woolfson explore the dynamics between playwright and president as America's 'war on terror' stands in the dock. January 2006, published in Al Ahram Weekly
  • Caspar Henderson, "Three polls: attitudes across frontiers". 12 December 2002.
  • Karl Zinsmeister, "What Iraqis Really Think". Wall Street Journal, September 10, 2003.
  • "1st Major Survey of Iraq". Zogby International, September 10, 2003.
  • Carl Conetta, "What do Iraqis want? Iraqi attitudes on occupation, U.S. withdrawal, governments, and quality of life". Project on Defense Alternatives, 01 February 2005.
  • "Iraq". Polling Report.com. (ed. Chronological polls of Americans 18 & older)
Casualties

(additional links not found in reference links section) January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament for the constituency of Sedgefield in North East England. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Karl Zinsmeister was appointed in May 2006 to serve as Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and Director of the Domestic Policy Council, for U.S. President George W. Bush. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • "The Civilian Casualty Fable; Analysis of Civilian Casualties in the first two years of the Iraq War". Logic Times, 26 October 2005.
  • "[22]; Iraqi Civilian Deaths Increase Dramatically After Invasion" Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, October 28, 2004.
  • Military Casualties and non-military deaths.
  • "One-Day Toll in Iraq Combat Is Highest for U.S. in Months", Washington Post, October 19, 2006.
  • U.S. Military Personnel Wounded in Iraq & Afghanistan: A Running Log.
Combat operations related
  • "Aerial Propaganda Leaflet Database". Psywar.org, 06 November 2005. (ed. Iraq War PSYOP leaflets and posters)
News
  • Electronic Iraq: Daily news and analysis from Iraq with a special focus on the Iraqi experience of war.
  • News from Iraq: Aggregated news on the war, including politics and economics.
  • The Struggle for Iraq: BBC Best Link: All the latest news, analysis and images from Iraq.
  • War in Iraq: CNN Special Report: This page was archived in May 2003 when President Bush declared an end to major combat. However, the coalition casualties' list continues to be updated.
  • Iraq: Transition of Power: CNN Special Report: Three years later, debate rages.
Anti-war activists and war critics
  • David Shuster, "Road to war; How the Bush administration sold the Iraq War to American people". MSNBC, 8 November 2005
  • Antiwar news and viewpoints [23]
  • Charlie and Katrina, "Mourning the Vote". (ed. Students (Boston University and Oglethorpe University) site presenting their opinion about the Iraq War)
  • OnlyOneWorld.NET Contains information, news, and opinion on the Iraq War.
  • What Barry Says Written by Barry McNamara in 2003, Winner of the Best Animation award at the Brooklyn International Film Festival and Portobello Film Festival in 2004.
  • [24] Dahr Jamail's Iraq Dispatches. Independent journalist in Iraq. Many despatches, reports and photos.
  • [25] Tales of Iraq War. Anti-war webcomics by cartoonist Latuff.
  • The U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq Socialist Worker Online’s ongoing coverage and analysis
  • FixIraq.com 15 minute updated news, Discussion, Auto-Updating U.S. Deaths counter that can be shown on any website.
  • "Unlike Vietnam, There is No End in Sight" iShotTheDeputy.com article criticising comparisons with Vietnam.
  • Liam Anderson and Gareth Stansfield, The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy or Division?, 2004, Palgrave Macmillian ISBN 1-4039-6354-1
  • Juan Cole, [Iraq] Three-State Solution? The Nation review, March 29, 2004
  • Iraq Exit Strategy Watch
Independent analysis
  • "The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq" by Ray Salvatore Jennings May 2003 Peceworks No. 49 United States Institute of Peace
  • "A New American Century? - Iraq and the Hidden Euro-Dollar wars " by William Engdahl
  • Oil and Empire - the backstory to the invasion of Iraq
  • The Neocons, Peak Oil and the Invasion of Iraq
  • "An ethical blank cheque" British and U.S. mythology about the second world war ignores our own crimes and legitimises Anglo-American war making, Richard Drayton, Tuesday May 10, 2005 The Guardian
War supporters and operation proponents
Economics
  • Scott Wallsten and Katrina Kosec, "The Economic Costs of the War in Iraq". AEI-Brookings Joint Center Working Paper 05-19. September 2005.
  • Online cost estimator allows users to change assumptions for predicting expected future cost of the Iraq war.
  • "Dollar cost of war". (ed. Reportedly actual total of the U.S. taxpayer cost of the Iraq War.)
  • "Iraq war costs could top $2 trillion". Christian Science Monitor, 10 January 2006 based on "The Economic Costs of the Iraq War" by Linda Bilmes, Harvard University, and Joseph E. Stiglitz, laureate of the Nobel Prize of Economics in 2001.
  • "The Dollar System and U.S. Economic Reality post-Iraq War" by William Engdahl
Photos
  • 650+ pictures from a soldier posted to Iraq
Media Echo
  • Eliot Weinberger: What I Heard About Iraq in 2005, and What I Heard about Iraq (a collage of various statements concerning the war) dead link; these links active as of Oct 01 2006 link1 and link2
  • Tatham, Steve (2006), 'Losing Arab Hearts & Minds: The Coalition, Al-Jazeera & Muslim Public Opinion' Hurst & Co (London) Published 1 January 2006

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iraq War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6953 words)
After the 1991 Gulf War, UN Resolutions were passed to impose sanctions on the regime of Saddam Hussein until it was verified that their Weapons of Mass Destruction were destroyed.
Conflict between Iraq and the UN developed during 1998, however, which led to the withdrawal of the UN and the authorization of a bombing campaign by the Clinton administration to "degrade Saddam's capacity to develop and deliver weapons of mass destruction, and to degrade his ability to threaten his neighbors".
The first calls for war on Iraq came from the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), and the American Enterprise Institute, with arguments based largely on the alleged threat that Saddam posed to American interests in the region, and the project of American influence into the next century.
2003 invasion of Iraq - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8805 words)
UN inspection teams were searching Iraq for these alleged weapons for nearly four months prior to the invasion and were willing to continue, but were forced out by the onset of war in spite of their requests for more time.
Iraq was subsequently marked by violent conflict between U.S.-led occupation of Iraq soldiers and forces described by the occupiers as insurgents.
Critics of the war, especially those on the political left argued that media organizations should attempt to be objective or neutral in presenting the facts of the invasion, and should not be deferential to claims made by the politicians or the military leaders of their country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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