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Encyclopedia > Iraq
جمهورية العراق
Jumhūrīyat al-`Irāq
كۆماری عێراق
Komara `Îraqê

Republic of Iraq
Flag of Iraq Coat of arms of Iraq
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
الله أكبر   (Arabic)
"Allahu Akbar"  (transliteration)
"God is Great"
Anthem
Mawtini  (new)
Ardh Alforatain  (previous)1
Capital
(and largest city)
Baghdad2
33°20′N, 44°26′E
Official languages Arabic
Government Developing parliamentary democracy, currently occupied by US
 -  President Jalal Talabani
 -  Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
Independence
 -  from the Ottoman Empire
October 1, 1919 
 -  from the United Kingdom
October 3, 1932 
Area
 -  Total 438,317 km² (58th)
169,234 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.1
Population
 -  2006 estimate 26,783,3834 (40th)
 -  Density 66 /km² (125th)
171 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $89.8 billion (not ranked)
 -  Per capita $3,600 (not ranked)
Currency Iraqi dinar (IQD)
Time zone AST (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) ADT (UTC+4)
Internet TLD .iq
Calling code +964
1 The Kurds use Ey Reqîb.
2 The capital of Iraqi Kurdistan is Arbil.
3 Arabic is the official languages of the Iraqi government. According to Article 4, Section 4 of the Iraqi Constitution, Assyrian (Syriac) (a dialect of Aramaic) and Iraqi Turkmen (a dialect of Southern Azerbaijani) languages are official in areas where the respective populations they form the majority.
4 CIA World Factbook

Iraq[1] (conventional short form: Iraq) (Arabic: العراق    transliteration: 'al-‘Irāq,Turkish: Irak, Kurdish: عيَراق), is a country in Southwest Asia spanning most of Mesopotamia as well as the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. It shares borders with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east. It has a very narrow section of coastline at Umm Qasr on the Persian Gulf. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links COA_of_Iraq. ... The flag of Iraq has had four different designs since the estalishment of Iraq in 1921. ... The Coat of arms of Iraq includes the golden Eagle of Saladin associated with 20th-century pan-Arabism, with a shield of the Iraqi flag, and holding a scroll below with the Arabic words الجمهورية العراقية (al-Jumhuriya al-`Iraqiya or The Iraqi Republic). Coat of arms of Egypt      Coats of arms... Many countries choose to include the national motto in the coat of arms. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... For other usages of the phrase Allahu Akbar, see Allahu Akbar (disambiguation). ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mawtini (My Homeland) (Arabic: موطني) is a popular poem written by famous Palestinian poet Ibrahim Touqan (Arabic: إبراهيم طوقان) around 1934 in Palestine and became the de facto national anthem of Palestine and Iraq. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Distribution of Religious and Ethnic Groups in Iraq Iraq was known in ancient times as Mesopotamia. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kingdom of Iraq (1921-1959) The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ... Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated NÅ«rÄ« Kāmil al-MālikÄ«; born c. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... ISO 4217 Code IQD User(s) Iraq Inflation rate 33% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Daylight saving time around the world  DST used  DST no longer used  DST never used Daylight saving time (DST), also summer time in British English, is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .iq is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Iraq. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Ey Reqib is sung by Kurdish nationalists as the Kurdish national anthem. ... Motto: None Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Official languages Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) [1] Government Parliamentary Democracy  - President Masoud Barzani  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - Deputy Prime Minister Omer Fattah Hussain Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: ArbÄ«l; Arabic: ‎, ArbÄ«l; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܠܐ, Arbela) is believed by many to be the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies eighty kilometres (fifty miles... The current constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Image File history File links Ar-al Gumhuriyah al Iraqiya. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The Zagros Mountains (Persian: رشته كوه زاگرس), (Kurdish: Çîyayên Zagrosê), make up Iran and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... The Syrian Desert is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in parts of the nations of Syria, Jordan, and Iraq. ... Cranes at Umm Qasr await cargo. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Iraq was home to the earliest known civilization, Sumer. Today, it is a developing nation that has gained considerable international attention because of the Iraq War. Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... It has been suggested that Underdevelopment be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Name

There are several suggested orgasim for the name Iraq. One dates to the Sumerkum city of Uruk (or Erech); another posits that Iraq comes from the Aramaic language, meaning "the land along the banks of the rivers;" another, that Iraq refers to the root of a palm tree numerous in the country. Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (sometimes known by the names Palmae or Palmaceae, although the latter name is taxonomically invalid. ...


Under the Persian Sassanid dynasty, there was a region called "Erak Arabi," referring to the part of the south western region of the Persian Empire that is now part of southern Iraq. The name Al-Iraq was used by the Arabs themselves, from the 6th century, for the land Iraq covers. The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Pronunciation of Iraq - (1) [ɪ.ˈɹɑ(ː)k], (2) [ɪ.ˈɹæk], (3) [aɪ.ˈɹæk] (1) is the preferred pronunciation in most dictionaries, and the only pronunciation listed in the Oxford English Dictionary. MQD lists (2) first. (3) is considered uneducated or unacceptable to some. It is the pronunciation which is least like the original Arabic pronunciation [ʕiˈrɑːq]. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ... The Arabic language has a standard pronunciation, which is basically the one used to recite the Quran. ...


History

Main article: History of Iraq

This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ...

Ancient Mesopotamia

Main article: Mesopotamia
The upper part of the stela of Hammurabi's code of laws
The upper part of the stela of Hammurabi's code of laws

Iraq was historically known as Mesopotamia, which, in Greek, literally means "between the rivers". It was home to the world's first known civilization, the Sumerian culture, which was followed by the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian cultures, whose influence extended into neighboring regions as early as 5000 BC. These civilizations produced the earliest writing and some of the first sciences, mathematics, laws and philosophies of the world; hence its common epithet, the "Cradle of Civilization". Ancient Mesopotamian civilization dominated other civilizations.[specify] Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... Scribe Writing Writing, in its most common sense, is the preservation and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ...


In the sixth century BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire was conquered by Cyrus the Great and thus Mesopotamia was incorporated in the Achaemenid Persian Empire for nearly four centuries, before it was conquered again by Alexander the Great, and then remained under Hellenistic rule for nearly two centuries. A Central Asian tribe of ancient Iranian peoples known as the Parthians then annexed the region, followed by the Sassanid Persians. The region remained as a province of the Persian Empire for nine centuries, until the 7th century.
(7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Cyrus the Great conquered many... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡[1], modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (ca. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Arab Empire

Main article: Arab Empire

Beginning in the seventh century AD, Islam spread to what is now Iraq during the Islamic conquest of Persia, led by the Muslim Arab commander Khalid ibn al-Walid. Under the Rashidun Caliphate, the prophet Mohammed's cousin and son-in-law Ali moved his capital to Kufa "fi al-Iraq" when he became the fourth caliph. The Umayyad Caliphate, ruling from Damascus in the 7th century, ruled the province of Iraq. The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) - Successor of the Umayyad Caliphate Fatmide Caliphate... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592 - 642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-Allāh al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God), was one of the two renowned Arab generals (see also: Amr ibn al-Aas) during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in both Sunni and Shia Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs prophesised in the famous tradition, Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood). ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ...


The city of Baghdad was built, in Iraq, in the 8th century as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, and became the leading city of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries. Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages, peaking at a population of more than a million, and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age, until its eventual destruction during the sack of Baghdad in the 13th century. Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Multiculturalism is a philosophy that is sometimes construed as ideology advocating that modern society should at least embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal cultural and political status. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ...


Mongol Conquest

In 1257 Hulagu Khan set out for Baghdad with perhaps the largest army ever fielded by the Mongols. When they arrived at this Islamic capital, Hulagu demanded surrender but the caliph refused. This angered Hulagu, and consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance Bagdhad was decimated. Estimates of the numbers of dead range from 200,000 to a million. Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...


The Grand Library of Baghdad (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma, lit., House of Wisdom), containing countless precious historical documents was destroyed along with the Abbasid Caliphate, and the city would never again be a major center of culture and influence. The House of Wisdom (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. ... Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


Ottoman Empire

Later, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535. The Ottomans lost Baghdad to the Iranian Safavids in 1509, and took it back in 1632. Ottoman rule lasted until World War I, during which the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers. Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... This article is becoming very long. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ...


World War I

Main article: Mesopotamian campaign

During World War I the Ottomans were driven from much of the area by the United Kingdom during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The British lost 92,000 soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45,000 prisoners of war. By the end of 1918 the British had deployed 410,000 men in the area, though only 112,000 were combat troops. The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... // Balkan Wars The Ottoman army in the balkans was large and appeared on the surface to be modern. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Partitioning

During World War I the British and French divided the Middle East in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. The Treaty of Sèvres, which was ratified in the Treaty of Lausanne, led to the advent of the modern Middle East and Republic of Turkey. The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Iraq and Palestine (which then consisted of two autonomous regions: Palestine and Transjordan). Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula became parts of what are today Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the Mandate for Palestine issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ...


British Mandate of Mesopotamia

At the end of World War I, the League of Nations granted the area to the United Kingdom as a mandate. It was formed out of three former Ottoman vilayets (regions): Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra. The British Mandate of Iraq was a League of Nations Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain when the Ottoman Empire was divided in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. This award was completed on April 25, 1920, at the Sanremo conference in... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... In 1879 Mosul Vilayet (province) was separated from Baghdad Vilayet. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: , from Persian بغداد , meaning given by God) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Province. ... Basra Vilayet was a vilayet (province) of the Ottoman Empire. ...


For three out of four centuries of Ottoman rule, the vilayets of Baghdad, Mosul, and Basra were administered from Baghdad. During the British mandate, the country was ruled by British colonial administrators who used the British armed forces to put down rebellions against British rule. They selected the Hashemite king, Faisal, who had been forced out of Syria by the French, to be their client ruler. The government and ministries' officers were likewise appointed by British authorities, selected from the Sunni Arab elite in the region.[specify][2] The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The British Mandate of Iraq was a League of Nations Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain when the Ottoman Empire was divided in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. This award was completed on April 25, 1920, at the Sanremo conference in... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and air force. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ...


Hashemite monarchy

Iraq was granted independence in 1932 on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi of Iraq ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups (dictatorships), until his death in 1939. Iraq was invaded by the United Kingdom in 1941, for fear that the government of Rashid Ali might cut oil supplies to Western nations, and because of his strong idealogical leanings to Nazi Germany. A military occupation followed the restoration of the Hashemite monarchy, and the occupation ended on October 26, 1947. The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri al-Said, the autocratic prime minister, who also ruled from 1930-1932, and 'Abd al-Ilah, an advisor to the king Faisal II. Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... King Ghazi I of Iraq Ghazi (Arabic: ) (March 21, 1912 - April 4, 1939) was king of Iraq from 1933 to 1939. ... El-Gaylani Rashid Ali was the Pro-Axis leader of Iraq who fled to Iran when the Allies invaded Iraq. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Nuri al-Said (1888 – July 14, 1958) (نوري السعيد) was a prominent Iraqi politician, who served in various key cabinet positions, including fourteen times as prime minister: March 23, 1930 – October 19, 1932 October 20, 1930 – October 27, 1932... Abd al-Ilah (also written Abdul Ilah) was the cousin of and brother-in-law of King Ghazi, and was regent of Iraq for King Faisal II from April 4, 1939 to May 2, 1953, when Faisal came of age. ... Faisal II of Iraq Faisal II (May 2, 1935 - July 14, 1958) was the last king of Iraq from April 4, 1939 to 1958. ...


Republic of Iraq

The reinstated Hashemite monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown by a coup d'etat of the Iraqi Army, known as the 14 July Revolution. The coup brought Brigadier General Abdul Karim Qassim to power. He withdrew from the Baghdad Pact and established friendly relations with the Soviet Union, but his government lasted only until 1963, when it was overthrown by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif. Salam Arif died in 1966 and his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, assumed the presidency. In 1968, Rahman Arif was overthrown by the Arab Socialist Baath Party. This movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Hussein al-Majid al Tikriti, who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), then Iraq's supreme executive body, in July 1979, while killing off many of his opponents. Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The New Iraqi Army is being developed by the Coalition Military Assistance Training Team (CMATT) with the ultimate task of assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Abdul Karim Qassim (Arabic: ‎; also various other spellings; including Kassem, Quasim; popularly known as az-Za‘īm (Arabic: الزعيم) the leader) (1914 – February 9, 1963), was an Iraqi military officer involved in the 1958 military coup détat. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Abdul Salam Arif (1921, Baghdad - April 13, 1966), president of Iraq (1963-1966). ... Abdul Rahman Arif (Arabic عبد الرحمان عارف) (born 1916 or 1918) was president of Iraq from April 16, 1966 to July 16, 1968. ... Arab Socialism (ar. ... Baath Party symbol Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Bath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb al-Ba`ṯ al-`ArabÄ« al-IÅ¡tirāki) was founded in 1947 as a radical, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ...


Saddam Hussein

Main article: Saddam Hussein

Saddam's regime lasted throughout the Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988), during which Iraqi forces attacked Iranian soldiers and civilians with chemical weapons. The war ended in stalemate. This period is notorious for the Saddam regime's human rights abuses, for instance, during the Al-Anfal campaign.[3][4][5] Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders - Ruhollah Khomeini, - Abolhassan Banisadr, - Ali Shamkhani, - Mostafa Chamran† - Saddam Hussein, - Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 1,000 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 450 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 4,500 tanks... Iranian soldiers The military forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran include three regular armed forces; the Army, Navy, Air Force, and a fourth armed force, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Human rights in Iraq. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Osirak (also spelled Osiraq) was constructed by the Iraqi government at the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, 18 km (11 miles) south-east of Baghdad in 1977. It was a 40 MW light-water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR). Israeli aircraft bombed it in 1981, in order to prevent the regime from using the reactor for creation of nuclear weapons. The reactor after the Israeli raid. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Light water, in the terminology of nuclear reactors, is ordinary water. ...

Main article: Gulf War

In 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait, resulting in the Gulf War and economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations at the behest of the U.S. The economic sanctions were intended to compel Saddam to dispose weapons of mass destruction.[6] Critics estimate that more than 500,000 Iraqi children died as a result of the sanctions.[7] The U.S. and the UK declared no-fly zones over Kurdish northern and Shiite southern Iraq to oversee the Kurds and southern Shiites.[specify] Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Combatants Republic of Iraq State of Kuwait Commanders Ali Hassan al-Majid unknown Strength 100,000 [1] 16,000 [2] Casualties 37+ aircraft (est. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... A No-Fly Zone is a territory over which aircraft generally or certain unauthorized aircraft are not permitted to fly. ...


2003 invasion by US lead Coalition Forces

Main article: 2003 invasion of Iraq
Downtown Baghdad monument of Saddam Hussein vandalized by Iraqis shortly after the Occupation of Coalition Forces in April 2003.
Downtown Baghdad monument of Saddam Hussein vandalized by Iraqis shortly after the Occupation of Coalition Forces in April 2003.

Iraq was invaded in March 2003 by a United States-organized coalition, with the stated reason that Iraq had not abandoned its nuclear and chemical weapons development program according to United Nations resolution 687. When Iraq invaded Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, adopted resolution 678, authorizing armed action against Iraq. Resolution 678 contained vague language authorizing U.N. member states to use "all necessary means" to "restore international peace and security in the area." After Iraq was expelled from Kuwait the United Nations passed a cease-fire resolution 687. The agreement included provisions obligating Iraq to discontinue its nuclear weapons program. The United States asserted that because Iraq was in "material breach" of resolution 687, the armed forces authorization of resolution 678 was revived. Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixel Image in higher resolution (1369 × 972 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Downtown Baghdad monument of Saddam Hussein vandalized by Iraqis shortly after the Occupation of Coalition Forces. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixel Image in higher resolution (1369 × 972 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Downtown Baghdad monument of Saddam Hussein vandalized by Iraqis shortly after the Occupation of Coalition Forces. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ...


The public justifications, given for invasion including purported Iraqi government links to Al Qaeda, claimed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction, and that they had the opportunity to remove an oppressive dictator from power, and to bring democracy to Iraq. In his State of Union Address on January 29, 2002, the American President George W. Bush declared that Iraq was a member of the "axis of evil"; and that, like North Korea and Iran, Iraq's attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction gave credentials to the claim that the Iraqi government posed a serious threat to America's national security. He added, "Iraq continues to flaunt its hostilities toward America and to support terror. The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax, and nerve gas, and nuclear weapons for over a decade... This is a regime that agreed to international inspections--then kicked out inspectors. This is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world... By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes [Iran, Iraq and North Korea] pose a grave and growing danger. They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred."[8] Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida) (Arabic: ‎ , trans. ... For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ...


Post-invasion Iraq

Main article: Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–present

The United States established the Coalition Provisional Authority to govern Iraq.[specify] Government authority was transferred to an Iraqi Interim Government in 2004 and a permanent government was elected in October 2005. More than 140,000 Coalition troops remain in Iraq. Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... The Iraqi Interim matt chokes on cock Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30th, 2005. ...


Studies have placed the number of civilians deaths as high as 655,000 (see The Lancet study), although most studies have put the number much lower: the Iraq Body Count project has a figure of less than 10% of The Lancet Study. The website of the Iraq body count however states, "Our maximum therefore refers to reported deaths - which can only be a sample of true deaths unless one assumes that every civilian death has been reported. It is likely that many if not most civilian casualties will go unreported by the media." [3]. Figure 4 from the second The Lancet survey of Iraqi mortality, showing a comparison with two other mortality surveys. ... Cumulative chart of civilian deaths resulting from the 2003 invasion of Iraq for the period between January 1, 2003 and July 20, 2006 as illustrated by data recorded by the Iraq Body Count project. ... Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilian, non-combatant persons killed or injured by direct military action. ...


After the invasion, al-Qaeda took advantaged of the insurgency to entrench itself in the country[9] concurrently with a Arab-Sunni led insurgency and sectarian violence. In 2006 Foreign Policy Magazine named Iraq as the fourth most unstable nation in the world. Sectarian violence or sectarian strife is violence inspired by sectarianism, that is, between different sects of one particular mode of thought, not necessarily religious (e. ...


On December 30, 2006, Saddam Hussein was hanged. [4] Hussein's half-brother and former intelligence chief Barzan Hassan and former chief judge of the Revolutionary Court Awad Hamed al-Bandar were likewise executed on January 15, 2007; [5] as was Taha Yassin Ramadan, Saddam's former deputy and former vice-president (originally sentenced to life in prison but later to death by hanging), on March 20, 2007. Ramadan was the fourth and last man in the al-Dujail trial to die by hanging for crimes against humanity. [6] December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti Barzan Ibrahim El-Hasan al-Tikriti (17 February 1951 - January 15, 2007 ) (sometimes: Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen) (Arabic: برزان إبراهيم التكريتي) was one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and the former leader of the Iraqi secret service, Mukhabarat. ... Chief Judge is a title that can refer to the highest-ranking judge of a court that has more than one judge. ... Awad Hamad al-Bandar (Arabic: ‎; also: Awad Hamad Bandar Alsadoon) (January 2, 1945 - January 15, 2007) was an Iraqi chief judge under Saddam Husseins presidency. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Taha Yasin Ramadan al-Jizrawi (February 22, 1938 – March 20, 2007) (Arabic: ‎) was the Vice President of Iraq from March 1991 to the fall of Saddam Hussein in April 2003. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Saddam Hussein during his first appearance before the Iraqi Special Tribunal Saddam as he is being sentenced Saddam Hussein (April 28, 1937 - December 30, 2006), the former President of Iraq, was tried by the interim Iraqi government for crimes against humanity. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


Iraqi diaspora

Main article: Iraqi diaspora

The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora. There have been many large-scale waves of emigration from Iraq, beginning early in the regime of Saddam Hussein and continuing through to 2007. The UN High Commission for Refugees has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis have fled the country in recent years, mostly to Jordan and Syria. [7] Although some expatriates returned to Iraq after the 2003 invasion, the flow had virtually stopped by 2006. [8] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Refugees of Iraq. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...


Government

Politics

Printable map of Iraq
Printable map of Iraq
Main article: Politics of Iraq

Iraq was under Baath Party rule from 1968 to 2003; in 1979 Saddam Hussein took control and remained president until 2003 after which he was unseated by a US-led invasion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2128x2032, 889 KB) Summary US Government work in the public domain from BACKGROUND NOTES: IRAQ, Author: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, OCTOBER 1987. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2128x2032, 889 KB) Summary US Government work in the public domain from BACKGROUND NOTES: IRAQ, Author: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, OCTOBER 1987. ... The politics of Iraq takes place in a framework of a more or less federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Iraq is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Baath Party symbol Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Bath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb al-Ba`ṯ al-`Arabī al-Ištirāki) was founded in 1947 as a radical, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ...


On October 15, 2005, more than 63% of eligible Iraqis came out across the country to vote on whether to accept or reject the new constitution. On October 25, the vote was certified and the constitution passed with a 78% overall majority, with the percentage of support varying widely between the country's territories.[10] The new constitution had overwhelming backing among the Shia and Ķurdish communities, but was overwhelmingly rejected by Arab Sunnis. Three majority Arab Sunni provinces rejected it (Salah ad Din with 82% against, Ninawa with 55% against, and Al Anbar with 97% against). October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Ninawa (in Arabic: نینوا ,in kurdish: Neynewa ) in Assyrian: Nineve is a governorate (province) in Iraq, and the Arabic name for the biblical city of Nineveh in Assyria. ... Al Anbar (Arabic: ) is a province in the nation of Iraq. ...


Under the terms of the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections on December 15 to elect a new government. The overwhelming majority of all three major ethnic groups in Iraq voted along ethnic lines, turning this vote into more of an ethnic census than a competitive election, and setting the stage for the division of the country along ethnic lines. Iraqis in the predominantly Sunni city of Husaybah, wait in lines to vote, during the national election, December 15. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Iraqi politicians have been under significant threat by the various factions that have promoted violence as a political weapon. The ongoing violence in Iraq has been incited by an amalgam of religious extremists that believe an Islamic Caliphate should rule, old sectarian regime members that had ruled under Saddam that want back the power they had, and Iraqi nationalists that are fighting the U.S. military presence. The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ... The Military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Navy United States Marine Corps United States Air Force United States Coast Guard All branches are part of the United States Uniformed Services. ...


Minority politics

There are a number of ethnic minority groups in Iraq: Kurds, Assyrians, Mandeans, Iraqi Turkmen, Shabaks and Roma. These groups have not enjoyed equal status with the majority Arab populations throughout Iraq's eighty-five year history. Since the establishment of the "no-fly zones" following the Gulf War of 1990-1991, the situation of the Kurds has changed as they have established their own autonomous region. The remainder of these ethnic groups continue to suffer discrimination on religious or ethnic grounds. Assyrians, Mandeans, Yezidis, Turkmens (Turkomans), Gypsies, and Kurds have allegedly not enjoyed equal status throughout the eighty-five year history of Iraq. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples Assyrians are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but who have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the past century. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in northern Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Shabak people are a minority group of Iraq who live in the province of Nineveh. ... Tzigane redirects here; for the composition by Maurice Ravel, see Tzigane (Ravel). ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War... An autonomous area is an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy. ...


Governorates

Main article: Governorates of Iraq
Further information: [[Districts of Iraq]]

Iraq is divided into eighteen governorates (or provinces) (Arabic: muhafadhat, singular - muhafadhah, Kurdish: پاریزگه Pârizgah). The governorates are subdivided into qadhas (or districts). Iraq is divided into 18 governorates or provinces (muhafazah): The current set of governorates were established in 1976. ... Below the 18 governorates, Iraq is divided into 111 districts (qadaa). ... A governorate is a country subdivision. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ...

  1. Baghdad
  2. Salah ad Din
  3. Diyala
  4. Wasit
  5. Maysan
  6. Al Basrah
  7. Dhi Qar
  8. Al Muthanna
  9. Al-Qādisiyyah
  1. Babil
  2. Karbala
  3. An Najaf
  4. Al Anbar
  5. Ninawa
  6. Dahuk
  7. Arbil
  8. At Ta'mim (Kirkuk)
  9. As Sulaymaniyah
Main article: Federalism in Iraq

The new constitution of Iraq provides for regions to be created by combining one or more governorates. There is currently only one Region in existence - Iraqi Kurdistan - and there are proposals for one or more further regions to be created in the south. Baghdad Governorate (Arabic: ‎ ) in the nation of Iraq includes the city of Baghdad and the surrounding metropolitan area, including Al Mahmudiyah and the infamous Abu Ghraib. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Diyala (Arabic: ديالى) is one of the constituent governorates of the nation of Iraq. ... Wasit is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Dhi Qar (Arabic: ذي قار) is a governorate in Iraq with an area of 12,900 km². In 2003 the estimated population of the governorate was 1,454,200 people. ... Al Muthanna is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... Al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: القادسية) is one of the provinces of Iraq. ... Babil is the Arabic name of Babylon. ... Karbala province, or Al Karbala province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Najaf province, or An Najaf province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Al Anbar (Arabic: ) is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Ninawa (in Arabic: نینوا ,in kurdish: Neynewa ) in Assyrian: Nineve is a governorate (province) in Iraq, and the Arabic name for the biblical city of Nineveh in Assyria. ... Dahuk (also referred to as Dohuk) (Arabic: دهوك , Kurdish: Duhok) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... ArbÄ«l (أربيل in Arabic language, Hewlêr in Kurdish , also transliterated as Irbil or Erbil) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... At-Tamim (Kurdish Temîm, Arabic: التأمیم ) was the name of the Kirkuk governorate of the nation of Iraq under the Baath Party govenment. ... As SulaymānÄ«yah province is a province of Iraq, within the Kurdish Autonomous Region. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Constitution of Iraq that was adopted in 2005 defined Iraq for the first time as a federal country. ... The current constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. ... Motto: None Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Official languages Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) [1] Government Parliamentary Democracy  - President Masoud Barzani  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - Deputy Prime Minister Omer Fattah Hussain Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Iraq

At 168,743 sq.mi (437,072 km²), Iraq is the 58th-largest country in the world, after Morocco. It is comparable in size to the US state of California, and somewhat larger than Paraguay. This article or section needs to be updated. ... Official language(s) English Capital  Sacramento Largest city  Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Large parts of Iraq consist of desert, but the area between the two major rivers (Euphrates and Tigris) is fertile, with the rivers carrying about 60 million cubic metres (78 million cu. yd) of silt annually to the delta. The north of the country is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 metres (11,847 ft) point, unnamed on the map opposite, but known locally as Cheekah Dar (black tent). Iraq has a small coastline with the Persian Gulf. Close to the coast and along the Shatt al-Arab (known as arvandrūd: اروندرود among Iranians) there used to be marshlands, but many of these were drained in the 1990s. This article is about arid terrain. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... The cubic yard (symbols yd³, cu. ... Silt is soil or rock derived granular material of a specific grain size. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Cheekah Dar (Black Tent) is the highest point in Southern Kurdistan at 3,611 m (11,847 ft). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al...


The local climate is mostly desert with mild to cool winters and dry, hot, cloudless summers. The northern mountainous regions experience cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding. The capital of Baghdad is situated in the centre of the country, on the banks of the Tigris. Other major cities include Basra in the south and Mosul in the north. This article is about arid terrain. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Al Başrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 2,600,000 (2003). ... Tigris River and bridge in Mosul Mosul (Arabic: ‎ , Kurdish: Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of Ninawa Governorate. ...


While its proven oil reserves of 112 billion barrels ranks Iraq second in the world behind Saudi Arabia, the United States Department of Energy estimates that up to 90 percent of the country remains unexplored. Unexplored regions of Iraq could yield an additional 100 billion barrels. Iraq's oil production costs are among the lowest in the world. However, only about 2,000 oil wells have been drilled in Iraq, compared to about 1 million wells in Texas alone.[11] The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... An oil well is a term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Iraq
An old 50 dinar bill
An old 50 dinar bill

Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95 percent of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments. Iraq suffered economic losses from the war of at least US$100 billion. After hostilities ended in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. A combination of low oil prices, repayment of war debts (estimated at around US$3 billion a year) and the costs of reconstruction resulted in a serious financial crisis which was the main short term motivation for the invasion of Kuwait. Iraqs economy is dominated by the petroleum sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. ... Image File history File links Iraq_50_dinars_Rewers. ... Image File history File links Iraq_50_dinars_Rewers. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders - Ruhollah Khomeini, - Abolhassan Banisadr, - Ali Shamkhani, - Mostafa Chamran† - Saddam Hussein, - Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 1,000 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 450 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 4,500 tanks... Austerity is a term from economics that describes a policy where nations reduce living standards, curtail development projects, and generally shift the revenue stream out of the physical economy, in order to satisfy the demands of creditors. ... External debt (or foreign debt) is that part of the government debt of a country which is owed to creditors outside the country. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... War debt often refers to war reparations, or monetary compensation intended to cover damage or injury during a war, generally paid by the losing side to the victor as part of the terms of a peace treaty. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War...

A Rendering of Tahrir Square, the first phase of the Baghdad Renaissance Plan, a private investment reconstruction effort.
A Rendering of Tahrir Square, the first phase of the Baghdad Renaissance Plan, a private investment reconstruction effort.

On November 20, 2004, the Paris Club of creditor nations agreed to write off 80% ($33 billion) of Iraq's $42 billion debt to Club members. Iraq's total external debt was around $120 billion at the time of the 2003 invasion, and had grown by $5 billion by 2004. The debt relief will be implemented in three stages: two of 30% each and one of 20%.[12] Image File history File links Tahrir_Sq-3D1. ... Image File history File links Tahrir_Sq-3D1. ... A Rendering of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the worlds richest countries, which provides financial services such as debt restructuring, debt relief, and debt cancellation to indebted countries and their creditors. ... Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations. ...


At the end of 2005, and in the first half of 2006, Iraq implemented a restructuring of about $20 billion of commercial debt claims on terms comparable to that of its November 2004 Paris Club agreement (i.e. with an 80% writeoff). Iraq offered to its larger claimants a U.S. dollar denominated bond maturing in 2028. Smaller commercial claimants received a cash settlement of comparable value.


Reconstruction

Reconstruction of Iraq has been difficult mainly due to the amount of damage done to Iraq's basic infrastructure, the influx of the US invasion and strife among factions within the native populace. Large-scale reconstruction efforts have had, at best, limited success. A Rendering of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Iraq

A July 2006 estimate of the total Iraqi population is 26,783,383. Distribution of Religious and Ethnic Groups in Iraq Iraq was known in ancient times as Mesopotamia. ...


Seventy-four percent of Iraq's population are Arabs; the other major ethnic groups are the Kurds at 22-24%, Assyrians, Iraqi Turkmen and others (5%), who mostly live in the north and northeast of the country. Other distinct groups are Persians and Armenians (possible descendants of the ancient Mesopotamian culture). About 25,000–60,000 Marsh Arabs live in southern Iraq. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in northern Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ...


Arabic and Kurdish are official languages. Assyrian and Turkmen are official languages in areas where the Assyrians and Iraqi Turkmen are located respectively. Armenian and Persian are also spoken but to a lesser extent. English is the most commonly spoken Western language. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Ethnic Composition:

  • Ethnic groups: Arab, 70–74%; Kurdish, 22-24%; Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%.
  • Religions: Muslim, 97%; Christian or other, 3%.

Proportions: There are no official figures available, mainly due to the highly politically charged nature of the subject. Source: Britannica: Shi'a 60%, Sunni 40% Source: CIA World Fact Book: Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37% Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ... The World Factbook is an annual publication by the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...

According to most western sources the majority of Iraqis are Shi'ite Arab Muslims (around 60%), and Sunnis represent about 40% of the population made up of Arabs, Kurds and Turkmen. Sunnis hotly dispute these figures, including an ex-Iraqi Ambassador,[13] referring to American sources.[14] They claim that many reports or sources only include Arab Sunnis as 'Sunni', missing out the Kurdish and Turkmen Sunnis. Some argue that the 2003 Iraq Census shows that Sunnis were a slight majority.[15] Ethnic Assyrians (most of whom are adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East) account for most of Iraq's sizable Christian population, along with Armenians. Bahá'ís, Mandaeans, Shabaks, and Yezidis also exist. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims, although the Faili (Feyli) Kurds are largely Shi'a. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... // The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Chaldean Catholic Church aka the Chaldean Church of Babylon (Arabic: ‎, ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris (autonomous) particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ... Shabaks comprise a religious group in Iraq that has been recorded separately in censuses since the days of the British mandate. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Iraq
An Iraqi girl living next to Al Daura Oil Refinery.
An Iraqi girl living next to Al Daura Oil Refinery.

In the most recent millennium, what is now Iraq has been made up of five cultural areas: Kurdish in the north centered on Arbil, Sunni Islamic Arabs in the center around Baghdad, Shi'a Islamic Arabs in the south centered on Basra, the Assyrians, a Christian people, living in various cities in the north, and the Marsh Arabs, a nomadic people, who live on the marshlands of the central river. Markets and bartering are the common form of trade. Iraq has one of the worlds oldest cultural histories. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1239 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1239 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Arabic: ‎, Arbīl; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܠܐ, Arbela) is believed by many to be the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies eighty kilometres (fifty miles... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Music

Iraq is known primarily for an instrument called the oud (similar to a lute) and a rebab (similar to a fiddle); its stars include Ahmed Mukhtar and the Assyrian Munir Bashir. Until the fall of Saddam Hussein, the most popular radio station was the Voice of Youth. It played a mix of western rock, hip hop and pop music, all of which had to be imported via Jordan due to international economic sanctions. Iraq has also produced a major pan-Arab pop star-in-exile in Kazem al Saher, whose songs include Ladghat E-Hayya, which was banned for its racy lyrics. Iraq is known primarily for an instrument called the oud (similar to a lute) and a rebab (similar to a fiddle); its stars include Ahmed Mukhtar and the Assyrian Munir Bashir. ... Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) referes to music performed in Kurdish language. ... Assyrian music is divided into three main sections or periods, The Ancient Period that is of (Ur, Babylon and Nineveh), The middle period or Tribal and Folkloric period, and the Modern Period. ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... A medieval era lute. ... The rebab (also rebap, rabab, rababah, al-rababa) is a bowed string instrument which originated in Afghanistan, no later than the 8th century, and was spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East. ... The term fiddle refers to a violin when used in folk music. ... Ahmed Mukhtar (b. ... Munir Bashir (Arabic: ‎, Syriac: ܡܢܝܪ ܒܫܝܪ) He created different styles of the Arabian short scaled lute, the oud. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rock and roll. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... For popular music (music produced commercially rather than art or folk music), see Popular music. ... Kazem Al Saher (Arabic:كاظم الساهر) (born on September 12, 1961 in the city of Mosul in northern Iraq) has established himself as the biggest singer in the Arab World, having sold more than 30 million albums since the start of his career. ...


Gallery

See also

A Rendering of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ... A Rendering of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ... The Iraq Stock Exchange (ISX) is a stock exchange in Baghdad, Iraq. ... ISO 4217 Code IQD User(s) Iraq Inflation rate 33% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... Iraqs economy is dominated by the petroleum sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... The Iraq resistance movement is the armed and peaceful resistance by diverse groups to the coalition occupation of Iraq. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This is a list of places in Iraq. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 675,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: NA Telephone system: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been rebuilt domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic... // Railways total: 2,032 km standard gauge: 2,032 km 1. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Most Iraqis identify strongly with a tribe (ashira), and nearly half of Iraqis are more loyal to their clans or tribes than to the national government. ... A Maslawi is a person who is from the city of Mosul, Iraq. ... The politics of Iraq takes place in a framework of a more or less federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Iraq is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Iraq and Democracy focuses on the history of democracy in Iraq. ... The Iraqi Army is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The human rights situation in Iraq is the subject of three separate articles: The human rights in pre-Saddam Iraq The human rights in Saddams Iraq The human rights in post-Saddam Iraq This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... The Iraq resistance movement is the armed and peaceful resistance by diverse groups to the coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Combatants Iraqi Sunni insurgents and foreign fighters Al-Qaeda in Iraq Alleged: Jaish Ansar al-Sunna Islamic Army in Iraq Black Banner Organization Mohammads Army former Baath Loyalists Jaish al-Rashideen Iraqi Shiite militias Alleged: Mahdi Army Badr Organization Commanders Abu Musab al-Zarqawi† Abu Ayyub al-Masri... After World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the province of Iraq came under the control of the United Kingdom. ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state and chief of government. ... List of Prime Ministers of Iraq The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ... The British Mandate of Iraq was a League of Nations Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain when the Ottoman Empire was divided in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. This award was completed on April 25, 1920, at the San Remo conference... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders - Ruhollah Khomeini, - Abolhassan Banisadr, - Ali Shamkhani, - Mostafa Chamran† - Saddam Hussein, - Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 1,000 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 450 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 4,500 tanks... The history of astrology encompasses a great span of human history and many cultures. ... The Fertile Crescent is a historical crescent-shape region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Iraq. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence The Republic of Iraq had a policy of treating homosexuality as a criminal offense under the leadership of Saddam Hussein and the legal status of homosexuality remains something in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Mass graves in Iraq have become well known since the US led invasion of Iraq toppled Saddam Hussein. ...

References

  1. ^ Conventional long form: Republic of Iraq - conventional short form: kum - local long form: Ald jkddjjdjdg Iraqiyah - local short form: Al Iraq (source:CIA World Factbooc)
  2. ^ Tripp, Charles:A History of Iraq,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2000
  3. ^ Black, George [July 1993]. Genocide in Iraq : the Anfal campaign against the Kurds / Middle East Watch.. New York • Washington • Los Angeles • London: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-108-8. Retrieved on 2007-02-10. 
  4. ^ Hiltermann, Joost R. [February 1994]. Bureaucracy of repression : the Iraqi government in its own words / Middle East Watch.. New York • Washington • Los Angeles • London: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1564321274. Retrieved on 2007-02-10. 
  5. ^ "Charges against Saddam dropped as genocide trial resumes", AFP, 2007
  6. ^ (April 8, 1991), "UN Security Council Resolution 687", MidEast Web, Accessed Sep 17 2006
  7. ^ Hay Brown jr, Matthew, (October 23, 2000), "Iraqi Sanctions: Without Medicine And Supplies, The Children Die", Common Dreams News Centre, Accessed Sep 17 2006
  8. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020129-11.html,The President State of Union Address, January 29,2002,Washington, D.C.
  9. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/5329350.stm
  10. ^ Wagner, Thomas, (October 25, 2005), "Iraq's Constitution Adopted by Voters", ABC News, Accessed Sep 17 2006
  11. ^ US Department of Energy Information
  12. ^ Bohsem, Guido & Somerville, Glen, (November 20, 2004), "G7, Paris Club Agree on Iraq Debt Relief", Reuters, Accessed Sep 17 2006
  13. ^ "Iraqis By the Numbers" by FARUQ ZIADA [1]
  14. ^ Map on the distribution of religious groups, from the Baker--Hamilton Committee report, page 102
  15. ^ "Iraq 2003 Census: Sunnis 59% , Shiites 40%"; by Mohammed Alomari (faair.org) [2]

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...

Further reading

  • Interview with Refugees International's Sean Garcia on the plight of hundreds of thousands of Iraqi refugees [9]
  • Shadid, Anthony 2005. Night Draws Near. Henry Holt and Co., NY, USA. ISBN 0-8050-7602-6
  • Hanna Batatu, "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978
  • Iraq was one of the major settings for the John J. Rust science fiction novel "Epsilon"
  • A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921. (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
  • By Desert Ways to Baghdad, by Louisa Jebb (Mrs. Roland Wilkins) With illustrations and a map, 1908 (1909 ed). (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)

NY redirects here. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... DjVu (pronounced déjà vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ... DjVu (pronounced déjà vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ...

External links

Find more information on Iraq by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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 Learning resources from Wikiversity

Government Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Overviews

News Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ...


Other Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...

  • Juan Cole, a leading scholar and public intellectual
  • The Ground Truth Project -- A series of exclusive interviews and other resources capturing the voices of Iraqis, aid workers, military personnel and others who have spent significant time on-the-ground in Iraq.
  • Iraq travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Education for Peace in Iraq Center (EPIC) -- A Washington DC-based nonprofit organization promoting a free and secure Iraq
  • Amnesty International Report on Iraq
  • Coalition Provisional Authority Now-defunct occupation authority; site is archived
  • Iraq Law from the University of Pittsburgh’s Jurist project
  • 1900 - 2000 a history of Iraq
  • US Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq
  • Iraqi Familiarization Guide - (546 kilobyte PDF file)
Geographic locale
International membership

14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Palestinian_flag. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Sahara. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... The Northwest Semitic languages form a medium-level division of the Semitic language family. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... South Semitic is one of the three macro-classifications in Semitic linguistics, the other two being North Semitic (e. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iraq - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3168 words)
Iraq was invaded by the United Kingdom in 1941, for fears that the government of Rashid Ali might cut oil supplies to Western nations and because of his strong leanings to Nazi Germany.
Iraq was invaded in March 2003 by the United States and allies with the stated reasons that Iraq had not abandoned its nuclear and chemical weapons development program according to United Nations resolutions, that it had links to Al Qaeda, and that it had known, effective Weapons of Mass Destruction.
Iraq is known primarily for an instrument called the oud (similar to a lute) and a rebab (similar to a fiddle); its stars include Ahmed Mukhtar and the Assyrian Munir Bashir.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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