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Encyclopedia > Iranic peoples
This article is currently semi-protected to prevent sock puppets of currently blocked or banned users from editing it. Please discuss changes on the talk page, or request unprotection.
This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. For citizens of the country of Iran, see Demographics of Iran.
Iranian peoples
Zarathustra - Darius the Great - Avicenna - Rumi
Total population 152.7 - 205.2 million (estimates vary)
Regions with significant populations Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Caucasus, and also dispersed across the world due to immigration
Language Iranian languages
Religion Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Bahá'í Faith, and varius others
Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi.
Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi.

The Iranian peoples are a collection of ethnic groups defined by their usage of Iranian languages and discernable descent from ancient Iranian peoples.[1][2][3] The Iranian peoples live chiefly in the Middle East, Central Asia, the Caucasus, and parts of the Indian subcontinent, though speakers of Iranian languages were once found throughout Eurasia, from the Balkans to western China.[4][5] As Iranian peoples are not confined to the borders of the current state of Iran, the term Iranic peoples is sometimes used as an alternative in order to avoid confusion with the citizens of modern Iran. Image File history File links Padlock. ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was estimated to be 68,688,433 in July 2006, with nearly two-fifths of its people being 15 years of age or younger. ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Ibn Sina or Avicenna was a Persian (Tājīk) physician, philosopher, and scientist who was born in 980 (370 AH) [1] in Afshana near Bukhara, now in Uzbekistan (then Persia), and died June 1037 (428 AH) [1] in Hamadan, Persia (Iran). ... Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir) South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... Ancient Iranian peoples were: Persians Medes (ancient people speaking a precursor to the modern Iranian language) Parthians Parni Cimmerians (ethnicity as Iranians specifically unknown) Sigynnae (uncertain, known only by obscure reports) Scythians Sarmatians, including the Rhoxolani, Iazyges, Siraces, and some regard the Alans as a subset of the Sarmatians as... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The series of ethnic groups which comprise the Iranian peoples are traced to a branch of the ancient Indo-European Aryans known as the Iranians or Proto-Iranians. Some scant information about the way of life of these early people has been elucidated through archaeological finds in Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. The Iranian peoples have played an important role throughout history: the Achaemenid Persians established the world's first multi-national state, and the Scythian-Sarmatian nomads dominated the vast expanses of Russia and western Siberia for centuries and gave birth to the infamous Amazons. In addition, the various religions of the Iranian peoples, including Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, were important early philosophical influences on Judeo-Christianity. Early Iranian tribes were the precursors to many diverse modern peoples, including the Persians, the Kurds, the Pashtuns, and many other, smaller groups. The southern Iranian peoples survived Alexander the Great's conquests, Muslim Arab attempts at cultural dominance, and devastating assaults by the Mongols, whereas the Iranians of the north were largely assimilated by the Slavs and other European peoples. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans) and beyond. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... In Greek mythology, the Amazons () were either an ancient legendary nation of female warriors or a land dominated by women at the outer edges of their known world. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... The Kurds are an Iranian-speaking ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, Pukhtun; Pashto: پښتون Paṣtun; Persian: پختون Paxtun; Urdu: پشتون Pashtūn), or Pathan (Urdu: پٹھان; Hindi: पठान Paṭhān) or ethnic Afghans[19] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan... Alexander the Great (Greek: [1], Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of the known world before his death; he is frequently included in a... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are an ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Countries inhabited predominantly by Slavic peoples The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. ...

Contents

Etymology and usage

The term Iranian is derived from Iran (lit: "Land of the Aryans").[6][7] The old Proto-Indo-Iranian term Arya, meaning "noble", is believed to have been one of a series of self-referential terms used by the Aryans, at least in the areas populated by Aryans who migrated south from Central Asia and southern Russia. Their ancient homeland was referred to as Airyanem Vaejah and varied in its geographic range, sometimes referring to Fars (according to Eratosthenes), sometimes to the area around Herat (Pliny's view), sometimes to the entire expanse of the Iranian plateau (Strabo's designation).[8] Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ... Proto-Indo-Iranian, the Indo-European language spoken by the Indo-Iranians in the late 3rd millennium BC was a Satem language still not removed very far from the Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn only removed by a few centuries from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Eratosthenes (Ἐρατοσθένης) Eratosthenes (Greek ) (276 BC - 194 BC) was a Hellenistic mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... Court of the Friday Mosque in Herāt. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ...


From a linguistic standpoint, the term Iranian peoples is similar in its usage to the term Germanic peoples, which includes various peoples who happen to speak Germanic languages such as German, English and Dutch, or the term Slavic peoples, which includes various speakers of Slavic languages including Russians, Bosniaks, and Serbs.[9] Thus, along similar lines, the Iranian peoples include not only the Persians, or Tajiks, of Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, but also the Pashtuns, Kurds, Ossetians, Baloch, and a number of other groups. The academic usage of the term Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, is thus distinct from the state of Iran and its various citizens (who are all Iranian by nationality, and thus popularly referred to as Iranians), in the same way that Germanic peoples is distinct from Germans. Many citizens of Iran are not necessarily "Iranian peoples", by virtue of not being speakers of Iranian languages, and may not have discernable ties to ancient Iranian tribes. Thor, Germanic thunder god. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Countries inhabited predominantly by Slavic peoples The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Bosniaks (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slav people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Kosovo. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... now. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, Pukhtun; Pashto: پښتون Paá¹£tun; Persian: پختون Paxtun; Urdu: پشتون PashtÅ«n), or Pathan (Urdu: پٹھان; Hindi: पठान Paá¹­hān) or ethnic Afghans[19] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan... The Kurds are an Iranian-speaking ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... The Baloch (alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ...


History and settlement

See also: History of Central Asia, History of the Middle East, History of Iran, History of the Kurds, History of Afghanistan, History of Tajikistan, History of Uzbekistan, History of Pakistan, and History of Azerbaijan

Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region The history of Central Asia is defined primarily by the areas climate and geography. ... This article is a general overview of the history of the Middle East. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Afghanistans history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Located in the heart of Central Asia between the Amu Darya (Oxus) and Syr Darya (Jaxartes) Rivers, Uzbekistan has a long and interesting heritage. ... The nation-state of Pakistan was established in 1947 as one of the two successor states of British India, yet the land and its people possess an extensive and continuous history that can be traced back to very ancient times. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ...

Roots

The extent of the BMAC (after the EIEC).
The extent of the BMAC (after the EIEC).

Having descended from the Aryans (Proto-Indo-Iranians), the ancient Iranian peoples separated from the Indo-Aryans, Nuristanis and Dards in the early 2nd millennium BCE. The Iranian languages form a sub-branch of the Indo-Iranian sub-family, which is a branch of the family of Indo-European languages.[10] The Iranian peoples stem from early Proto-Iranians, themselves a branch of the Indo-Iranians, who are believed to have originated in either Central Asia or Afghanistan circa 1800 BCE. The Proto-Iranians are traced to the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex, a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia. The area between northern Afghanistan and the Aral Sea is hypothesized to have been the region where the Proto-Iranians first emerged, following the separation of Indo-Iranians tribes.[11] Image File history File links BMAC.png by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex ... Image File history File links BMAC.png by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatama Gandhi and a Rajasthani tribesman The Indo-Aryans are the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the Indo-Iranians. ... The Nuristani are an ethnic/religious group in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ... The Dards are an ethnic group living in Afghanistan, Pakistan and a few scattered villages in a remote region of Ladakh district, itself a remote region of Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir (Dah Hanu). ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... // Map of area around the Aral Sea. ...


By the first millennium BCE, Ancient Iranian peoples such as the Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the Iranian plateau, while Iranian peoples such as the Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans populated the steppes north of the Black Sea. The Saka and Scythian tribes remained mainly in the north, and spread as far west as the Balkans and as far east as Xinjiang. Later offshoots, related to the Scythians, included the Sarmatians, who vanished following Slavic and other invasions into southern Russia, the Ukraine, and the Balkans, presumably due to having been assimilated by other tribes.[12] Ancient Iranian peoples were: Persians Medes (ancient people speaking a precursor to the modern Iranian language) Parthians Parni Cimmerians (ethnicity as Iranians specifically unknown) Sigynnae (uncertain, known only by obscure reports) Scythians Sarmatians, including the Rhoxolani, Iazyges, Siraces, and some regard the Alans as a subset of the Sarmatians as... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... The Sakas are a peoples that lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Countries inhabited predominantly by Slavic peoples The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. ...


There are only scant references to these early Proto-Iranian invaders in the early writings of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians. Two of the early offshoots of the Proto-Iranians are known: Avestan speakers in Afghanistan, and Old Persian speakers in Fars in southeastern Iran. The Avestan texts known as the Gathas are believed to have been written by Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, while Old Persian appears to have been established in written form following the adoption of cuneiform from the Sumerians.[13] The Yaz culture (ca. 1500-1100 BC) may mark the development of Eastern Iranian and the emergence of Avestan culture. Assyrians are Aramaic-speaking Christians who consider themselves to be indigenous inhabitants of Mesopotamia, and inheritors of the ancient culture of Assyria. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the hymns of the Zoroastrian holy book, the Avesta. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... now. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ...   The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Egyptian Sangar, Bib. ... archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian expansion (after EIEC). ... Northeastern Iranian languages Southeastern Iranian languages See also: List of Iranian languages, Western Iranian languages. ... Yasna 28. ...


The first mentioning by an Iranian tribe of their "Aryan" lineage is from an early inscription known as the Behistun Inscription, recording a proclamation by Darius I of Persia that he was of Aryan ancestry and that his language was an Aryan language. The inscription thus provides a link in the Iranian languages to the usage of the term Arya in early Indo-Aryan texts.[14] These ancient Persians recognized three official languages (Elamite, Babylonian, and Old Persian), which suggests a multicultural society.[15] It is not known to what extent other Proto-Iranian tribes referred to themselves as "Aryan", or if the term has the same meaning in other Old Iranian languages. The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Darius I of Persia Darius the Great (Darayawush I) (ca. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Multiculturalism is an ideology advocating that society should consist of, or at least allow and include, distinct cultural groups, with equal status. ...


Western Iranians

Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange.
Enlarge
Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange.

The ancient Persians established themselves in the western portion of the Iranian plateau, and appear to have interacted considerably with the Elamites and Babylonians, while the Medes also intermingled with local Semitic peoples to the west. Remnants of the Median language and Old Persian show their common Proto-Iranian roots, emphasized in Strabo and Herodotus' analyses of their languages, which they believed to be very similar to the languages spoken by the Bactrians and Soghdians in the east.[16][7] Following the establishment of the Achaemenid Empire, the Persian language spread from Fars to various regions of the empire, with the modern dialects of Iran, Afghanistan (also known as Dari) and Central-Asia (known as Tajiki) descending from Old Persian. Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... task manager disable ---- please help ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical name Shem) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The word Dari refers to the language that is popularly known as Persian. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ...


The Avestans' main impact was religious and liturgical, as the early inhabitants of the Persian Empire appear to have adopted the religion of Zoroastrianism. The other prominent Iranian peoples, such as the Kurds, are surmised to stem from Iranic populations that mixed with Caucasian peoples such as the Hurrians, due to some unique qualities found in the Kurdish language that mirror those found in Caucasian languages.[17] The Baloch relate an oral tradition regarding their migration from Aleppo, Syria around the year 1000 CE, whereas linguistic evidence links Balochi to Kurdish and Zazaki.[18] Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... The languages of the Caucasus are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... The Baloch (alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎ meaning he milked, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Kurdish blogs be merged into this article or section. ... Zazaki (Zazaish) is a language spoken by Zazas in eastern Anatolia (Turkey). ...


Eastern Iranians

While the Iranian tribes of the south are better known through their modern counterparts, the tribes which remained largely in the vast Eurasian expanse are known through the references made to them by the ancient Greeks and Persians, as well as by archaeological finds. In the 5th century BCE, Herodotus made references to a nomadic people whom he identifies as the Scythians and describes as having dwelt in what is today southern Russia. Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos Halikarnasseus) was a Dorian Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC - ca. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Scythian Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. 300 BCE.
Scythian Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. 300 BCE.

It is believed that these Scythians were conquered by their eastern cousins, the Sarmatians, who are mentioned by Strabo as the dominant tribe which controlled the southern Russian steppe by the 1st millennium CE. These Sarmatians were also known to the Romans, who conquered the western tribes in the Balkans and sent Sarmatian conscripts, as part of Roman legions, as far west as Roman Britain. Some tribes of Sarmatians are also identified as the Amazons of Greek legend, warrior women believed to have lived in a matrilineal society in which both men and women took part in war, and whose existence has been supported by recently-uncovered archaeological and genetic evidence.[19] Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... In Greek mythology, the Amazons () were either an ancient legendary nation of female warriors or a land dominated by women at the outer edges of their known world. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage. ...


The Sarmatians of the east became the Alans, who also ventured far and wide, with a branch ending up in Western Europe and North Africa, as they accompanied the Germanic Vandals during their migrations. The modern Ossetians are believed to be the sole direct descendants of the Alans, as other remnants of the Alans disappeared following Germanic, Hunnic, and ultimately Slavic invasions.[20] The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila. ...


Some of the Saka-Scythian tribes in Central Asia would later move further south and invade the Iranian plateau and northwestern India (see Indo-Scythians). Another Iranian tribe related to the Saka-Scythians were the Parni in Central Asia, a tribe that pressured, and ultimately overthrew, the rule of the Greek Seleucids in Persia. The Parni replaced the Seleucids as the Parthians, a dynasty that ruled Persia during the early centuries of the 1st millennium CE and became the main rival of the Roman Empire in the east. It is surmised that many Iranian tribes, including the Khwarezmians, Massagetae and Sogdians, were assimilated and/or pushed out of Central Asia by the migrations of Turkic tribes emanating out of Siberia.[21] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... The Central Asian steppe has been the home of Iranian nomadic tribes for centuries. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm (Uzbek: Xorazm, Russian: Хорезм Khorezm, Persian: خوارزم Khwārazm, Arabic: خوارزم Khwārizm, Chinese: 花剌子模 Hualazimo) was a state centred on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores... Massagetae were an Iranian people of antiquity. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


The most dominant surviving Eastern Iranians are represented by the Pashtuns, whose origins are generally believed to be in southern Afghanistan, from which they began to spread until they reached as far west as Herat and as far east as the Indus. The Pashto language shows affinities to Bactrian, as both languages are believed to be of Middle Iranian origin. The modern Ossetians claim to be the descendants of the Alano-Sarmatians, and their claims are supported by their Northeast Iranian language, while culturally the Ossetians resemble their Caucasian neighbors, the Kabardians, Circassians and Georgians.[20] Various extinct Iranian peoples existed in the eastern Caucasus, including the Azaris, while some Iranian peoples remain in the region, including the Talysh[22] and the Tats[23] (including the Judeo-Tats,[24] who have relocated to Israel), found in Azerbaijan and as far north as the Russian republic of Dagestan. The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, Pukhtun; Pashto: پښتون Paṣtun; Persian: پختون Paxtun; Urdu: پشتون Pashtūn), or Pathan (Urdu: پٹھان; Hindi: पठान Paṭhān) or ethnic Afghans[19] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan... Court of the Friday Mosque in Herāt. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Pashto (//; پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pathan, Pakhto, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pashto پشتو and Pukhto پختو ) is the language spoken by the Pashtun people who inhabit western Pakistan, and Afghanistan. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... The term Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is a Turkic language. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... The Tat are an Iranian ethnic group from the Caucasus. ... Mountain Jews, or Juhuro, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Later developments

In ancient times, the majority of southern Iranian peoples became adherents of Zoroastrianism, Buddhism (in parts of Afghanistan and Central Asia), Judaism and Nestorian Christianity (largely amongst the Kurds and Persians living in Iraq).[25] The Ossetians would later adopt Christianity as well, with Russian Orthodoxy becoming dominant following their annexation into the Russian Empire, while some converted to Islam due to the influence of the Ottomans. A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... now. ...

A statue of Saladin "king of Egypt" at the Damascus citadel.
A statue of Saladin "king of Egypt" at the Damascus citadel.

Starting with the reign of Omar in 634 CE, Muslim Arabs began a conquest of the Iranian plateau. The Arabs conquered the Sassanid Empire of the Persians and seized much of the Byzantine Empire populated by the Kurds and others. Ultimately, the various Iranian peoples, including the Persians, Kurds and Pashtuns, were converted to Islam. The Iranian peoples would later split along sectarian lines as the Persians (and later the Hazara) adopted the Shi'a sect, while the majority of other Iranian peoples remained adherents of Sunni Islam. As ancient tribes and identities changed, so did the Iranian peoples, many of whom assimilated foreign cultures and peoples.[26] Image File history File links Salahaddin. ... Image File history File links Salahaddin. ... Artistic representation of Saladin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Umar (name) Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation, a charitable non-governmental organisation The Omar, a fictional group of cyborgs in the computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War Omar Hindu surname from North India Uttar Pradesh. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are an ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Later, during the 2nd millennium CE, the Iranian peoples would play a prominent role during the age of Islamic expansion and empire. Saladin, a noted adversary of the Crusaders, was an ethnic Kurd, while various empires centered in Iran (including the Safavids) re-established a modern dialect of Persian as the official language spoken throughout much of what is today Iran and adjacent parts of Central Asia. Iranian influence spread to the Ottoman Empire, where Persian was often spoken at court, as well as in the Mughal Empire, which began in Afghanistan and shifted to India. All of the major Iranian peoples reasserted their use of Iranian languages following the decline of Arab rule, but would not begin to form modern national identities until the 19th and early 20th centuries (just as Germans and Italians were beginning to formulate national identities of their own). Artistic representation of Saladin. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ...


Demographics

Geographic distribution of the Iranian languages: Persian (green), Pashto (purple), and Kurdish (turquoise), as well as smaller communities of other Iranian languages
Geographic distribution of the Iranian languages: Persian (green), Pashto (purple), and Kurdish (turquoise), as well as smaller communities of other Iranian languages
See also: Iranian plateau

There are an estimated 150 million native speakers of Iranian languages. Currently, most of these Iranian peoples live in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, western-Pakistan, parts of Uzbekistan (especially Samarkand and Bukhara), the Caucasus (Ossetia and Azerbaijan), and the Kurdish areas (sometimes referred to as Kurdistan) of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria. Smaller groups of Iranian peoples can also be found in western China, India and Israel. Image File history File links Moderniranianlanguagesmap. ... Image File history File links Moderniranianlanguagesmap. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Colour photograph of a Madrasa taken in Samarkand ca. ... Bukhara (Bokhara in XIX century English, Buxoro or Бухоро in Uzbek (the Cyrillic alphabet was officially phased out for Uzbek after independence); بُخارا /Bukhârâ/ in Persian, Buhe/Puhe Tang Chinese, Бухара in Russian; also Boxara in Tatar) is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara region (Bukhoro Wiloyati). ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Map of Ossetia Ossetia is a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains, inhabited by the Ossetians, an Iranian people who speak the Ossetic language, (an Iranian Language). ... The Kurds are an Iranian-speaking ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds[1]; old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ...


Due to recent migrations, there are also Persian, Kurdish and Afghan communities in Europe and the Americas. World map showing the Americas The Americas or more precisely America is the land of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the subcontinents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Diversity

It is largely through linguistic similarities that the Iranian peoples have been linked, as many non-Iranian peoples have adopted Iranian languages and cultures. However, other common traits have been identified as well, and a stream of common historical events have often linked the southern Iranian peoples, including Hellenistic conquests, the various empires based in Persia, Arab Caliphates, and Turkic invasions. The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek peoples that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans) and beyond. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


Although most of the Iranian peoples settled in the Iranian plateau region, many expanded into the periphery, ranging from the Caucasus and Turkey to the Indus and western China. The Iranian peoples have often mingled with other populations, with the notable example being the Hazaras, who display a distinct Turkic-Mongol background that contrasts with most other Iranian peoples.[27] Similarly, the Baloch have mingled with the Dravidian-speaking Brahui (who have been strongly modified by Iranian invaders themselves), while the Ossetians have invariably mixed with Georgians and other Caucasian peoples. Moreover, the Kurds are an eclectic Iranian people who, although displaying some ethnolinguistic ties to other Iranian peoples (in particular their Iranian language, and some cultural traits), are believed to have mixed with Caucasian and Semitic peoples.[28][17] Modern Persians themselves are also a heterogeneous group of peoples descended from various ancient Iranian and indigenous peoples of the Iranian plateau, including the Elamites.[29] Thus, not unlike the aforementioned example of Germanic peoples including the English, who are both of Germanic and Celtic origin, Iranians are an ethno-linguistic group, and the Iranian peoples display varying degrees of common ancestry and cultural traits that denote their respective identities. Greater Iran. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age Vedic India. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Baloch (alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... The Brahui people or Brohi people (Urdu: بروہی) are an ethnic group of about 2. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... The English are an ethnic group or nation primarily associated with England and the English language. ... A Celtic cross. ...


Culture and assimilation

See also: Proto-Indo-European society, Indo-Iranian mythology, and Iranian philosophy
Iranian model displaying traditional attire.
Iranian model displaying traditional attire.

Many of the cultural traits of the ancient Iranians were similar to other Proto-Indo-European societies. Like other Indo-Europeans, the early Iranians practiced ritual sacrifice, had a social hierarchy consisting of warriors, clerics, and farmers, and poetic hymns and sagas to recount their deeds.[9] The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... The ancient Indo-Iranians were the founders of Persia and of Indian Vedic culture. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Persian_local_woman. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Persian_local_woman. ... Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ...


Following the Iranian split from the Indo-Iranians, the Iranians developed an increasingly distinct culture. It is surmised that the early Iranians intermarried with and assimilated local cultures over a long period of time, and thus a caste identity was never needed or created by the Iranians—in sharp contrast with the Indo-Aryans.[30] Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatama Gandhi and a Rajasthani tribesman The Indo-Aryans are the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the Indo-Iranians. ...


Various common traits can be discerned amongst the Iranian peoples. For example, the social event Norouz is an Iranian festival that is practiced by nearly all of the Iranian peoples as well as others in the region. Its origins are traced to Zoroastrianism and pre-historic times. Norouz (Persian: ‎ ​, Kurdish: Newroz, NûRoj, IPA2: Nowruz; also spelled Noe-Rooz, Nawroz, Norooz, Noruz, Novruz, Noh Ruz, Nauroz, Nav-roze, Navroz, Naw-Rúz, Nevruz or Nowrouz) is the traditional Iranian new year holiday in Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, India, Turkey, Zanzibar, Albania, various countries of Central Asia, as well... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ...


Some Iranian peoples exhibit distinct traits that are unique unto themselves. The Pashtuns adhere to a code of honor and culture known as Pashtunwali, which has a similar counterpart amongst the Baloch, called Mayar, that is more hierarchical.[31] Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Baloch (alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ...


Religion

See also: Historical Shi'a-Sunni relations
Mazari Sharif's Blue Mosque in Afghanistan is a structure of cobalt blue and turquoise minarets, attracting visitors and pilgrims from all over the world. Many such Muslim architectural monuments can be attributed to the efforts of the Iranian peoples who are predominantly followers of Islam today.
Enlarge
Mazari Sharif's Blue Mosque in Afghanistan is a structure of cobalt blue and turquoise minarets, attracting visitors and pilgrims from all over the world. Many such Muslim architectural monuments can be attributed to the efforts of the Iranian peoples who are predominantly followers of Islam today.

The early Iranian peoples may have worshipped various deities found throughout other cultures where Indo-European invaders established themselves.[12] The earliest major religion of the Iranian peoples was Zoroastrianism, which spread to nearly all of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian plateau. // Origins of the schism Shias record the start of the schism with the death of Muhammad, and in their view, a violent coup détat against Ali in his first day as caliph, which they argue was automatic without recourse to an election or a formal investiture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 132 KB) The historic blue mosque in Mazar-e Sharif Afghanistan File links The following pages link to this file: Mazar-e Sharif Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 132 KB) The historic blue mosque in Mazar-e Sharif Afghanistan File links The following pages link to this file: Mazar-e Sharif Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Mazari Sharif , also known as Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-i Sharif, Mazār-e Sharīf and Mazar-i-Sharif (locally: مزار شریف), is the fourth biggest city in Afghanistan and the capital of Balkh province. ... The Blue Mosque in Mazar-e-Sharif Rawze Sharif, also known as the Blue Mosque is the most beautiful and proportional mosque in Afghanistan, and one of the most beautiful in the world. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, is the second largest square in the world and arguably the gem of Persian architectural masterpieces. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ...


Modern speakers of Iranian languages mainly follow Islam. Some follow Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, with an unknown number showing no religious affiliation. Of the Muslim Iranian peoples, the majority overall are followers of the Sunni sect of Islam, while most Persians and Hazaras are Shi'a. Shi'a Islam and Sufism in Iran are both thought to be affected by Persianism. The Christian community is largely represented by the Russian Orthodox denomination, followed by Ossetians and Nestorians. Judaism is followed mainly by Persian Jews, Jews of Afghanistan, Kurdish Jews, and Mountain Jews (of the Caucasus), most of which are now found in Israel. The historical religion of the Persian Empire was Zoroastrianism and it has some followers. They are known as the Parsis in India, or Zoroastrians in Iran and Pakistan. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Jewish children in Iran in a specially designated Jewish school. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The word Persianism is used, to describe any process of forming or transforming a phenomenon into something which has Persian (Iranian) traits and pecularities. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Jewish children in Iran in a specially designated Jewish school. ... Jews have lived in Afghanistan for at least 2,000 years, but the community has been reduced greatly because of persecution and emigration. ... Kurdish Jews (יהדות כורדיסתאן Jews of Kurdistan, Standard Hebrew Yehudi Kurdistan) are the ancient Jewish communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan, roughly covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. ... Mountain Jews, or Juhuro, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. ... A Parsi (IPA: ) is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ...


Turkic influence

In matters relating to culture, the various Turkic-speaking minorities of Iran (notably the Azerbaijani people) and Afghanistan (Uzbeks and Turkmen) are often conversant in Iranian languages, in addition to their own Turkic languages, and also have Iranian culture to the extent that the term Turko-Iranian can be applied.[32] The usage applies to various circumstances that involve historic interaction, intermarriage, cultural assimilation, bilingualism, and cultural overlap or commonalities. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Azerbaijanis[15][16] are an ethnic group mainly found in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan. ...


Notable amongst this synthesis of Turko-Iranian culture are the Azeris, whose culture, religion, and significant periods of history are linked to the Persians.[33] Certain theories and genetic tests[34] suggest that the Azeris are descendants of ancient Iranian peoples who lost their Iranian language (see Ancient Azari language) following the Turkic invasions of Azerbaijan in the 11th century CE. In fact, throughout much of the expanse of Central Asia and the Middle East, Iranian and Turkic culture has merged in many cases to form various hybrid populations and cultures, as evident from various ruling dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs, and Mughals. Ancient Iranian peoples were: Persians Medes (ancient people speaking a precursor to the modern Iranian language) Parthians Parni Cimmerians (ethnicity as Iranians specifically unknown) Sigynnae (uncertain, known only by obscure reports) Scythians Sarmatians, including the Rhoxolani, Iazyges, Siraces, and some regard the Alans as a subset of the Sarmatians as... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is a Turkic language. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Iranian cultural influences have also been significant in Central Asia, where Turkic invaders are believed to have largely mixed with native Iranian peoples of which only the Tajik remain, in terms of language usage. The areas of the former Soviet Union adjacent to Iran, Afghanistan, and the Kurdish areas (such as Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan) have gone through the prism of decades of Russian and Soviet rule that has reshaped the Turko-Iranian cultures there to some degree. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... now. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem(s): The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev...


Genetics

Genetic testing of Iranian peoples has revealed many common genes for most of the Iranian peoples, but with numerous exceptions and regional variations. Genetic studies conducted by Cavalli-Sforza have revealed that Iranians cluster closely with European groups and more distantly from Near Eastern groups. Some of the common genetic markers may stem from the ancient Proto-Iranians and parallel the spread of Iranian languages, which may have also been adopted through a process of assimilation by indigenous peoples and thus account for the diversity found amongst the Iranian peoples[citation needed]. Nonetheless, preliminary genetic tests suggest common origins for most of the Iranian peoples: Categories: People stubs | 1922 births | Italian people | Population geneticists ...

Gene clusters from Cavalli-Sforza's "The History and Geography of Human Genes"
Gene clusters from Cavalli-Sforza's "The History and Geography of Human Genes"
   
Iranian peoples
Populations located west of the Indus basin, including those from Iran, Anatolia and the Caucasus, exhibit a common mtDNA lineage composition, consisting mainly of western Eurasian lineages, with a very limited contribution from South Asia and eastern Eurasia (fig. 1). Indeed, the different Iranian populations show a striking degree of homogeneity. This is revealed not only by the nonsignificant FST values and the PC plot (fig. 6) but also by the SAMOVA results, in which a significant genetic barrier separates populations west of Pakistan from those east and north of the Indus Valley (results not shown). These observations suggest either a common origin of modern Iranian populations and/or extensive levels of gene flow amongst them.[35]
   
Iranian peoples

Basically, the findings of this study reveal many common genetic markers found amongst the Iranian peoples from the Tigris to the areas west of the Indus. This correlates with the Iranian languages spoken from the Caucasus to Kurdish areas in the Zagros region and eastwards to western Pakistan and Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The extensive gene flow is perhaps an indication of the spread of Iranian-speaking peoples, whose languages are now spoken mainly upon the Iranian plateau and adjacent regions. These results relate the relationships of Iranian peoples with each other, while other comparative testing reveals some varied origins for Iranian peoples such as the Kurds, who show genetic ties to the Caucasus at considerably higher levels than any other Iranian peoples except the Ossetians, as well as links to Europe and Semitic populations that live in close proximity such as Jews and Arabs.[28][36][37][38] Image File history File links Cavallisforzageneclusters. ... Image File history File links Cavallisforzageneclusters. ... Categories: People stubs | 1922 births | Italian people | Population geneticists ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ...


According to a recent study, the ancestors of the Kurds were from an old Mediterranean substratum, i.e. Hurrian and Hittite groups. According to this study the Aryan ancestry of the Kurds and other Iranian-speaking populations in Anatolia is not supported by genetic analyses.[39] In linguistics, a substratum (lat. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ...


Another recent study of the genetic landscape of Iran was completed by a team of Cambridge geneticists led by Dr. Maziar Ashrafian Bonab (an Iranian Azarbaijani).[40] Bonab remarked that his group had done extensive DNA testing on different language groups, including Indo-European and non Indo-European speakers, in Iran.[34] The study found that the Azerbaijanis of Iran do not have a similar FSt and other genetic markers found in Anatolian and European Turks. However, the genetic Fst and other genetic traits like MRca and mtDNA of Iranian Azeris were identical to Persians in Iran. The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


Ultimately, genetic tests reveal that while the Iranian peoples show numerous common genetic markers overall, there are also indications of interaction with other groups, regional variations, and cases of genetic drift. In addition, indigenous populations may have survived the waves of early Aryan invasions as cultural assimilation led to large-scale language replacement (as with some Kurds, Hazaras and others). Further testing will ultimately be required and may further elucidate the relationship of the Iranian peoples with each other and various neighboring populations.


List of Iranian peoples

Speakers of Iranian languages in modern times include:

Note: Azeris are, due to historical ties with various ancient Iranians[41] and their cultural ties with Persians,[42] sometimes included as an Iranian people, although the modern Azerbaijani language is a Turkic language and the issue remains debated.[43] (See Origin of Azerbaijani people and the Iranian Theory Regarding Azeri's for more details) The origin of South Slavic Serbs, Croats, and Bulgarians is sometimes also connected with Iranian peoples (see also: Theories on the origin of Serbs). The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... The Baloch (alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Laks are an Iranian ethnic group in southwestern Iran. ... Lurs can refer to: Ancient wind instruments, see Lur An Iranian ethnic group; see: Lorestan Lurs, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, a commune of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... now. ... The Parsiwan, or simply Parsi (Persian), are found mainly in western Afghanistan and are generally distiguished from the Tajiks by their adherance to Shia Islam as opposed to the Sunni sect favored by the Tajiks. ... The Tat are an Iranian ethnic group from the Caucasus. ... Irani is a term used to denote Indian Zoroastrians whose ancestors emigrated from Iran within the last two centuries, as opposed to the longer residing Parsis. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Parasikas were an Iranian tribe close to westernHimalaya ranges so that they had limited interaction with ancient India. ... a person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Inhabitants of Wakhan. ... Zaza may refer to: The Zaza people, an ethnic group in Eastern Anatolia (Southeastern Turkey). ... The Azerbaijanis[15][16] are an ethnic group mainly found in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of Republic of Azerbaijan and the second language of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... The Azerbaijanis[15][16] are an ethnic group mainly found in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Serbs are South Slavic people, living mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


See also

The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... Ancient Iranian peoples were: Persians Medes (ancient people speaking a precursor to the modern Iranian language) Parthians Parni Cimmerians (ethnicity as Iranians specifically unknown) Sigynnae (uncertain, known only by obscure reports) Scythians Sarmatians, including the Rhoxolani, Iazyges, Siraces, and some regard the Alans as a subset of the Sarmatians as... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Greater Iran. ... Turko-Iranian can refer to: The Turkic speaking minorities of Iran, can also be called as Iranian Turks, e. ... Iranian immigration to the Arabian Peninsula has been continuous and very rapid since the fall of the third Persian Empire, that is from the rule of Nader Shah to the rule of the Qajar dynasty. ... The Iranian theory regarding the origin of the Azerbaijanis seeks to prove a link between present-day Azeris and their pre-Turkification Iranian past. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "The Kurds of Iraq: Recent History, Future Prospects by Carole A. O’Leary" — Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 6, No. 4 (December 2002) (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  2. ^ "Iranian peoples" — Encyclopedia of the Ukraine (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  3. ^ "Anthropology, Genealogy & Folkloric Traditions of Iranian Peoples" — The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  4. ^ "Iranian languages" — Encyclopedia Britannica (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  5. ^ "Scope of Iranian languages" — Encyclopedia Iranica (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  6. ^ "Farsi-Persian language" — Farsi.net (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  7. ^ a b "Iran" — The 1911 Encyclopedia (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  8. ^ Ibid.
  9. ^ a b In Search of the Indo-Europeans, by J.P. Mallory, p. 22-23, ISBN 0-500-27616-1 (retrieved 10 June 2006)
  10. ^ "Report for Iranian languages" — Ethnologue (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  11. ^ "The Paleolithic Indo-Europeans" — Panshin.com (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  12. ^ a b "History of Iran-Chapter 2 Indo-Europeans and Indo-Iranians" — Iranologie (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  13. ^ "The Avestan, etymology and concept by Alexander Lubotsky" — Sprache und Kultur. Akten der X. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, 22.-28. September 1996, ed. W. Meid, Innsbruck (IBS) 1998, 479-488. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  14. ^ "Old Iranian literature" — Art Arena. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  15. ^ "Darius I the Great by Prof. A. Shapur Shahbazi" — Circle of Iranian Studies. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  16. ^ "The Geography of Strabo" — University of Chicago. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  17. ^ a b "Kurdish: An Indo-European Language By Siamak Rezaei Durroei" — University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  18. ^ "The Iranian Language Family, Khodadad Rezakhani" — Iranologie. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  19. ^ "Secrets of the Dead, Amazon Warrior Women" — PBS. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  20. ^ a b A History of Russia by Nicholas Riasanovsky, pp. 11-18, Russia before the Russians, ISBN 0-19-515394-4 (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  21. ^ "Jeannine Davis-Kimball, Archaeologist" — Thirteen WNET New York. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  22. ^ "Report for Talysh" — Ethnologue. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  23. ^ "Report for Tats" — Ethnologue. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  24. ^ "Report for Judeo-Tats" — Ethnologue. (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  25. ^ The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates by Hugh Kennedy, pp. 12-13, ISBN 0-582-40525-4 (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  26. ^ Ibid. p. 135
  27. ^ "Afghanistan - Hazara" — Library of Congress Country Studies (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  28. ^ a b "MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups" — Annals of Human Genetics (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  29. ^ The Golden Age of Persia, by Richard Frye, ISBN 1-84212-011-5 (retrieved 11 June 2006)
  30. ^ Ibid.
  31. ^ "Pakistan - Baloch" — Library of Congress Country Studies (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  32. ^ Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, edited by Robert Canfield, ISBN 0-521-52291-9 (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  33. ^ "Azerbaijan-Iran Relations: Challenges and Prospects" — Harvard University, Belfer Center, Caspian Studies Program (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  34. ^ a b "Cambridge Genetic Study of Iran"ISNA (Iranian Students News Agency), 06-12-2006, news-code: 8503-06068 (retrieved 09 June 2006)
  35. ^ "Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor" — University of Chicago, American Journal of Human Genetics (retrieved 04 June 2006)
  36. ^ "Georgian and Kurd mtDNA sequence analysis shows a lack of correlation between languages and female genetic lineages" - American Journal of Physical Anthropology(retrieved 14 June 2006)
  37. ^ "Comparing DNA Patterns of Sephardi, Ashkenazi & Kurdish jews" - Society For Crypto Judaic Studies (retrieved 14 June 2006)
  38. ^ "Genes and people in the caspian littoral: A population genetic study in northern Iran" - American Journal of Physical Anthropology (retrieved 14 June 2006)
  39. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, Karin, Bendikuze, a.o. in "National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)", published in PubMed - PMID: 11380939, "HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans", 2001, (LINK)
  40. ^ "Maziar Ashrafian Bonab" — Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge (retrieved 9 June 2006)
  41. ^ The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies, Iranian Peoples: Azaris, Language of Azeri People and Pan-Turkism by Mohammad Taghi Sabokdel
  42. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia: Azerbaijan
  43. ^ The Iranian: Who are the Azeris? by Aylinah Jurabchi

2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References and further reading

  • Banuazizi, Ali and Weiner, Myron (eds.). The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East), Syracuse University Press (August, 1988). ISBN 0-8156-2448-4.
  • Canfield, Robert (ed.). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002). ISBN 0-521-52291-9.
  • Curzon, R. The Iranian Peoples of the Caucasus. ISBN 0-7007-0649-6.
  • Derakhshani, Jahanshah. Die Arier in den nahöstlichen Quellen des 3. und 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr., 2nd edition (1999). ISBN 964-90368-6-5.
  • Frye, Richard, Greater Iran, Mazda Publishers (2005). ISBN 1-56859-177-2.
  • Frye, Richard. Persia, Schocken Books, Zurich (1963). ASIN B0006BYXHY.
  • Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates, Longman, New York, NY (2004). ISBN 0-582-40525-4.
  • Khoury, Philip S. & Kostiner, Joseph. Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East, University of California Press (1991). ISBN 0-520-07080-1.
  • Littleton, C. & Malcor, L. From Scythia to Camelot, Garland Publishing, New York, NY, (2000). ISBN 0-8153-3566-0.
  • Mallory, J.P. In Search of the Indo-Europeans, Thames and Hudson, London (1991). ISBN 0-500-27616-1.
  • McDowall, David. A Modern History of the Kurds, I.B. Tauris, 3rd Rev edition (2004). ISBN 1-85043-416-6.
  • Nassim, J. Afghanistan: A Nation of Minorities, Minority Rights Group, London (1992). ISBN 0-946690-76-6.
  • Riasanovsky, Nicholas. A History of Russia, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2004). ISBN 0-19-515394-4.
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. Indo-Iranian Languages and Peoples, British Academy (2003). ISBN 0-19-726285-6.

Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...

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