FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Iranian women's movement
Part of the series on
Feminism

Subtypes
Anarcha-feminism
Black feminism
Christian Feminism
Cultural feminism
Cyborg feminism
Ecofeminism
Fat feminism
Individualist feminism
Islamic feminism
Lesbian feminism
Liberal feminism
Marxist feminism
Postmodern feminism
Psychoanalytic feminism
Radical feminism
Religious feminism
Separatist feminism
Socialist feminism
Womanism
Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the liberation of women. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology that seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of women and men morally, socially, and in leadership. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Cyborg feminism is a sub-movement of feminism that uses the notion of a cyborg, machine-organism hybrid, to explore feminism. ... Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism, with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of feminism that argues overweight women are economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged due to their size. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic feminism has its roots in the early 20th century, but which expanded in the 1990s, when the term was first coined,[citation needed] in response to the growth of Islamism throughout the Islamic world. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women and states that capitalism, which gives rise to economic inequality, dependence, political confusion and ultimately unhealthy social relations between men and women, is the root of womens... Postmodern feminism is one approach to feminist theory that argues that there is no single cause for a womans subordination because sociological gender is itself constructed through language. ... Psychoanalytic feminism is based on Freud and his psychoanalytic theories. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in Christianity and Judaism, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of their religion from a feminist perspective. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Defined by feminist author Alice Walker, Womanism is a commonly used term that was coined to mean specifically African American Feminism, but it has developed into a more encompassing version of feminism that crosses lines of race and class. ...


Topics
Feminist movement
Pro-feminism
Anti-feminism
Sex-positive feminism
Theory / film theory
Feminist sexology
Women's rights
Feminist economics
The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism which is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. ... Feminist sexology is the study of sexuality from a feminist viewpoint, i. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ...


History
Women's history
Feminist history
History of feminism
Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of the feminist movement were planted during the latter portion of that century. ...


Suffrage
Women's suffrage
Suffragette
Timeline
United States
The movement for womens suffrage is a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage—the right to vote—to women. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelt suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... Womens suffrage has been granted (and been revoked) at various times in various countries throughout the world. ...


Waves of Feminism
First-wave feminism
Second-wave feminism
Third-wave feminism
First-wave feminism was the feminist movement in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, which primarily focused on gaining the right of womens suffrage. ... Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the mid- 1960s. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


By country
Indonesia
Iran
Latin America
Nicaragua
Norway
United Kingdom
United States
Feminist movements in Latin America started at the grassroots level in each of the distinct nation-states. ...


Lists
Feminists
Literature
Topics
This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... . ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States...

 v  d  e 

This article is mainly about the history of women in modern day Iran. For women in traditional Iranian/Persian culture please see Persian women. A Persian woman here as depicted during the Safavi period of Iran. ...


Iranian women's movement ( also called Persian women's movement ) involves the Iranian women's experience of modernism, through which the concept of "Modern Iranian woman" and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures have been evolving since the 19th century. Iranian women account for a remarkable fraction of intellectual circles in Iran and consequently played roles in forming Iranian identity in modern time. A Persian woman depicted during the Safavi period, from wall painting in Chehel-sotoon Palace, Isfahan. ... Dariush Shayegan. ...

Contents

Background

see main article: Iranian women A Persian woman depicted during the Safavi period, from wall painting in Chehel-sotoon Palace, Isfahan. ...



It is believed that Persian women's movement dates back to the ancient time. Cyrus the great was perhaps the first advocator of human rights and arguably paved the way for the women's movement in Persia. Purandokht, who were daughter of king Khosrau II ruled Persian empire for almost two years. Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: Kuruš,[1] modern Persian: کوروش - Kuruš; ca. ... Queen Poran, the only woman on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630 AD.State Hermitage Museum ,St. ... Egyptian woven pattern woolen curtain or trousers, which was a copy of a Sassanid silk import, which was in turn based on a fresco of Persian King Khosrau II fighting Ethiopian forces in Yemen, 5-6th century. ...


Women in Persian constitutional revolution

Iranian women had a significant presence in Persian Constitutional Revolution. At the turn of 20th century journalism attracted educated Persian women. Danesh (1907) was the first specialized journal focusing on women issues. Later on Shokoufeh, Nameie Banovan, Alam e Nesvan, Nesvan e Vatan Khah were published in Tehran. More over , Nesvan e Shargh in Bandar Anzali, Jahan e Zanan in Mashhad, Dokhtaran e Iran in Shiraz and Peik e saadat in Rasht were the journals particularly addressing women issues throughout Persia (Iran). The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Bandar-e Anzali (in Persian: بندر انزلی), known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (بندر پهلوی) before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province of Gilan, close to Rasht. ... Mashhad (also spelt Mashad, Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia world. ... Shiraz can refer to: Shiraz, Iran Shiraz grape/wine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Rasht Rasht ( رشت in Persian, also transcribed as Resht) is the capital of Gilan province in northwestern Iran. ...


The most notable Iranian women who were influential in the revolution are: Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, Noor-ol-Hoda Mangeneh, Mohtaram Eskandari, Sediqeh Dowlatabadi and Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri. Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi was a notable Persian writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures in Iranian womens movement. ... Sediqeh Dowlatabadi (1882 , Isfahan - July 30, 1962) was a Persian scholar and one of the pioneering figures in Persian womens movement. ... Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri (1905 , Kashan - August 5, 1959 , Tehran) is Irans Lady of Persian Music, prominent vocalist and intellectual. ...


Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11 became a turning point in the lives of Iranian women. Women participated in huge numbers and gained important positions for expressing their views, including journals, schools, and associations that flourished in the following period (1911-24).[1] The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ...


But the defeat of the constitutionalists (1921-5) and the consolidation of power by Reza Shah (1925-41) had two contradictory impacts. Independent women's journals and groups were destroyed, while the state implemented social reforms such as mass education and paid employment for women. Reza Shah also initiated his controversial policy of Kashf-e-Hijab, banning the wearing of the Islamic Hijab in public. But like other sectors of the society in those years under Reza Shah's rule, women lost the right to express themselves and dissent was repressed. Reza Shah the Great, also Reza Pahlavi (Persian: ‎) (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), styled His Imperial Majesty, was Shah of Persia from December 15, 1925 until 1935 (at which time he requested that the international community refer to the country by its local name, Iran) and Shah of Iran...


Women in Iranian revolution

With the advent of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, women's rights took yet another wild swing toward religious conservatism. Despite the decree of many of Iran's top clerics such as Ayatollah Taleghani, the state, under the rule of Ayatollah Khomeini made wearing the Hijab mandatory for all women, implementing strict religious codes for women in society. However, revolution brought many low and middle class women into public sphere. For many years, breaking the barrier of confinement of the private sphere had been a major source of frustration for advocates of women's rights in Iran. The Islamic revolution broke the barrier overnight. When Khomeini called for women to attend public demonstration and ignore the night curfew, millions of women who would otherwise not have dreamt of leaving their homes without their husbands' and fathers' permission or presence, took to the streets. Khomeini's call to rise up against the Shah took away any doubt in the minds of many devoted Muslim women about the propriety of taking to the streets during the day or at night. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani was a senior Shia cleric of Iran. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Hijab or ħijāb () is the Arabic term for cover (noun), based on the root حجب meaning to veil, to cover (verb), to screen, to shelter In some Arabic-speaking countries and Western countries, the word hijab primarily refers to womens head, face, or body covering. ...

"I Turn Off the Lights" a bestseller novel by Zoya Pirzad
"I Turn Off the Lights" a bestseller novel by Zoya Pirzad

The early 1990s witnessed a marked increase of employment for women. This increase was much more than the rate prior to the revolution. Such dramatic change in the pattern of labor force participation might not have been possible if Khomeini had not broken the barriers to women entering into the public sphere. Educational attainment for women, also a product of free education and the literacy campaign, contributed to this increase. In fact, today there are more women in higher education than there are men. The Islamic Republic had adopted certain policies to expand educational levels for women in order to ensure that sexual segregation paid off. These policies were to encourage women to become skilled workers in domains exclusive to women. For example, the government set quotas for female pediatricians and gynecologists and set up barriers against women wanting to become civil engineers. Zoya Pirzad (born 1952 in Abadan) is a renowned Iranian writer and novelist. ...


In May 1997, a large number of women participated in presidential elections and overwhelmingly voted for Mohammad Khatami, a reformist cleric who had promised reduction of repression and toleration of civil society institutions. His election opened a period when women could voice their ideas once again, with many becoming increasingly bolder in their demands and in their criticisms. The awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian human rights and women's right activist, further emboldened Iranian women's right activists inside Iran and cemented their relationships with Iranian feminist activists abroad. Khatami may refer to either of three Iranian reformist politicians: Mohammad Khatami, President of Iran 1997-2005 Mohammad Reza Khatami, Vice Speaker of Iranian Parliament from 2001 to 2004 and brother of Mohammad Khatami, Ali Khatami, Iranian Vice President and Chief of Staff and brother of Mohammad and Mohammad Reza... Catherine Zeta Jones congratulating Shirin Ebadi at the Nobel Peace Prize concert in Oslo, December 11 2003. ...


The Sixth Parliament saw the emergence of some of Iran's strongest advocates of women's rights. Almost all of the 11 female lawmakers of the (at the time) 270-seat Majles took on the challenge of trying to change some of Iran's more conservative laws amidst a male dominated culture. However, during the elections for the Seventh Majlis, all of those representatives were banned to run for office by the all male Council of Guardians, only allowing conservative females to run for election. The new representatives, as expected, upon their arrival into office began reversing many of the laws passed by the reformist 6th Majles. مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Stub | 2004 elections | Elections in Iran ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution...


Iranian women and Contemporary Persian literature

Savushun: A Novel About Modern Iran
Savushun: A Novel About Modern Iran

See also: Persian literature Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ...


Persian literature of last two centuries enjoyed the presence of brilliant female literary figures as Simin Behbahani, Forough Farrokhzad, Parvin Etesami and Simin Daneshvar. Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Forooghs tomb is located in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Simin Daneshvar ( سیمین دانشور ;in Persian) ( 1921) was an Iranian novelist and translator . ...


Simin Daneshvar's Savushun is a novel about the Iranian experience of modernity during the 20th century. Simin Daneshvar ( سیمین دانشور ;in Persian) ( 1921) was an Iranian novelist and translator . ...


Simin Behbahani, in her artistic progress as a poet, has moved from passionate love poems towards poetry enriched by a motherly affection for all humans; and as such, has approached the narrative as an appropriate form for her poetical expression.[2]


Behbahani is currently president of The Iranian Writers' Association. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1997. Nobel Prize medal. ...


Iranian women and Persian music

See also: Iranian women and Persian music Persian music owes partly its maturity to the significant efforts made by accomplished female musicians, instrumentalists and vocalists throughout the history. ...


Perhaps Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri is the first female master of Persian music who introduced a new style of music and received reputation among masters of Persian music at her time. Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri (1905 , Kashan - August 5, 1959 , Tehran) is Irans Lady of Persian Music, prominent vocalist and intellectual. ...


Several years later, Mahmoud Karimi trained several female student who later become masters of Persian traditional music: Arfa Atrai, Soosan Matloobi, Fatemeh Vaezi, Masoomeh Mehr-Ali and Soosan Aslani. Arfa Atrai is one of Persias most renouned masters of the santour. ...


Soodabeh Salem and Sima Bina were instumental in the development of Iranian Children music and Iranian folk music respectively. Innovations made by Iranian women is not restricted to Persian music. For instance, Lily Afshar is working on a combination of Persian and Western classical music. Children Music by Sudabeh Salem Soodabeh Salem (also Sudabeh; in Persian: سودابه سالم ) is a renowned Iranian musician, piano player and conductor of the Irans Children Orchestra. ... Sima Bina (Born in 1944 Birjand) is a master of Persian classical music and Irans top researcher, singer and song-writer of Iranian Folk music. ... Iran’s local melodies are some of the richest, most beautiful and most various among the folk melodies in the world. ... Says Classical Guitar Magazine in 2002: Lily Afshar is a guitarist of the highest order. ...


Iranian women and modern science

M. Mirzakhani, The award winning mathematician
M. Mirzakhani, The award winning mathematician

See also: Higher education in Iran and Science in Iran Image File history File links Maryam_Mirzakhani. ... University of Tehran College of Humanities Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi founded the first school for Persian girls in 1907. In this school, Iranian women could learn history, geography, law, calculus, religion, cooking among other subjects. Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi was a notable Persian writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures in Iranian womens movement. ... HIStory: Past, Present and Future – Book I is a two-disc album by Michael Jackson released in 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc (HIStory Begins) is a fifteen-track greatest hits (later released as Greatest Hits - HIStory Volume I), while the second disc (HIStory... Equality and the balancing of our interests under law is symbolised by a blindfold and weighing scales For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... Calculus is the name given to a group of systematic methods of calculation, computation, and analysis in mathematics which use a common and specialized algebraic notation. ... Cooking is the act of applying heat to food in order to prepare it to eat. ...


During Reza Pahlavi era, Tehran University offered possibilities for Iranian women to have academic experience which was a huge step forward for the education of Iranian women. In 1936 for the first time 12 women were admitted into Tehran University. They entered all faculties.[3] Reza Shah Pahlavi Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی) (b. ... The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ...


At the end of the 20th century, according to the research ministry of Iran, women accounted for 70% of all university students in the natural sciences and engineering, including one in five Ph. D. students.


The presence of Iranian women in international olympiads attracted observers worldwide. Maryam Mirzakhani, for instance, won gold medals both in International Mathematical Olympiad (Hong Kong 1994) and International Mathematical olympiad (Canada 1995). An alumnus of Sharif University of Technology, she is currently an assistant professor at Princeton. Mirzakhani is an example of numerous Iranian women who were raised in Iran and have found international reputation. The International Science Olympiads are a group of worldwide annual competitions in various areas of science. ... Maryam Mirzakhani (2005) Maryam Mirzakhani (Born 1977 Tehran) is an Iranian mathematician. ... Sharif University of Technology (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی شریف Dāneshgāh-e Sanati-ye Sharif), formerly named Aryamehr University of Technology (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی آریامهر Dāneshgāh-e Sanati-ye Āryāmehr) is a public university of technology, engineering and science in Iran. ...


Iranian women and modern art

see also: Modern and Contemporary Art in Iran A cursory glance at the history of art reveals the social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles. ...


Iranian women had an undisputable role in the recognition of Iranian art and particularly Iranian cinema in the world.


Following the rise of Iranian New wave of Persian cinema, there are now record numbers of film school graduates in Iran and each year more than 20 new directors make their debut films, many of them women. In the last two decades, there has been a higher percentage of women directors in Iran than in most countries in the West.[4]

Samira Makhmalbaf, cellebrated Persian filmmaker
Samira Makhmalbaf, cellebrated Persian filmmaker

The success and hard work of the pioneering Rakhshan Bani-Etemad is an example that many women directors in Iran were following much before Samira Makhmalbaf made the headlines. Internationally recognised figures in Persian women's cinema are: Tahmineh Milani, Rakhshan Bani-Etemad, Zahra Dowlatabadi, Niki Karimi, Samira Makhmalbaf, Mahin Oskouei, Pari Saberi, Hana Makhmalbaf, Pouran Rakhshandeh, Shirin Neshat, Sepideh Farsi, Maryam Keshavarz, Yassamin Maleknasr and Sara Rastegar. Rakhshaan Bani Etemaad (in Persian: رخشان بنی اعتماد), Director, Screenwriter, Born 1954 in Tehran, Iran. ... Image:Makhmalbaf-samira. ... The term womens cinema usually refers to the work of women film directors. ... Tahmineh Milani (in Persian: تهمینه میلانی), Director and Screenwriter, Born 1960, Tabriz, Iran. ... Rakhshaan Bani Etemaad (in Persian: رخشان بنی اعتماد), Director, Screenwriter, Born 1954 in Tehran, Iran. ... Niki Karimi Niki Karimi (Persian: نیکی کریمی) born on 10 November 1971, Tehran (Iran), is an internationally recognised Iranian (Persian) actress and movie director. ... Image:Makhmalbaf-samira. ... Hana Makhmalbaf is the younger sister of filmmaker Samira Makhmalbaf and daughter of filmaker and filmteacher Mohsen Makhmalbaf. ... Maryam Keshavarz(Born, New York, USA) is an internationally acclaimed Iranian filmmaker. ... Yassamin Maleknasr (Born Tehran, Iran) is an internationally acclaimed Iranian filmmaker and actress. ...


Iranian writer-director Rakhshan Bani-Etemad is probably Iran's best known and certainly most prolific female filmmaker. Rakhshan Bani Etemad has established herself as the elder stateswoman of Iranian cinema with documentaries and films dealing with social pathology. One of the best-known female film directors in the country today is Samira Makhmalbaf, who directed her first film The Apple at 17 years old. Samira Makhmalbaf won the 2000 Cannes Jury Prize for her following film Blackboards, about the trials of two travelling teachers in Kurdistan. Image:Makhmalbaf-samira. ... Cannes Film Festival logo. ... Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan. ...


Iranian women and Sport

Love and motherhood continue to be integral to modern Iranian culture (image from Shabahang)
Love and motherhood continue to be integral to modern Iranian culture (image from Shabahang)

Women were an integral part of the sport in ancient Persia. Polo originated in the royal courts of ancient Persia 2,500 years ago. The queen and her ladies-in-waiting would play against the emperor and his courtiers.[5] Image File history File links Mehre_madari. ... Image File history File links Mehre_madari. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Love Look up love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A celebratory cake. ... A game of polo underway. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Today, Iranian schools offer Sport for Iranian students including girls. Despite some restrictions, Iran has many female athletes talented enough to win medals in international competitions. In 2000, Atousa Pour-Kashian, became world chess champion. In 2004, Zahra Asgardoun won a silver medal in sanshu competitions of the Asian women's wushu event.


On 30 May 2005, Farkhondeh Sadegh, a graphic designer, and Laleh Keshavarz, a dentist, became the first Muslim women to make a successful ascent of Mount Everest. In December 2005, Iran wins Asian women's canoe polo crown. In 2006, Iranian wushu athletes gained five medals in the Third Grand International Wushu Festival in Warsaw, Poland. Iranian women's national team athlete, Elham Sadeqi, won three golds in Taolu events. Iran's top race car driver is Laleh Seddigh who is skilled in both circuit and rally driving. The Everest entry redirects here. ... Canoe polo (called kayak polo in some countries) is a competitive ball sport played on water, in a defined field, between two teams of 5 players, each in a kayak. ... Wushu may refer to: Chinese martial arts, or fighting systems from China. ... Laleh Seddigh (sometimes spelled Sadiq) (born 1977, Iran) is one of the only Iranian women race car drivers. ...


National teams include: Iranian women national football team, national taekwondo team, Natioanl chess team, track and field team etc.


Women's health in modern Iran

In 20th century, female social activists, health workers and NGOs took initiatives to promote the health of women by informing them about the importance of regular check-ups as Pap smear, mammography, blood test etc. The importance of vitD-ca supplementation and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been emphasized in order to prevent osteoporosis that affects Iranian women. The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... Mammography. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ...


In 2005, Iranian parliament approved abortions before four months gestation if woman's life at risk or fetus is malformed. With technical support from UNFPA, literacy and family planning initiatives were implemented by the government. The Fund's specific contributions to the Literacy Movement Organization include training of more than 7,000 teachers, development of a nine-episode television series on women's health issues (including family planning), and procurement of computers and other equipment.[6] The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ...


Women's movement in late 20th century

Women movement during Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's era, Iranian revolution and post revolution Iran continued to be very significant. Perhaps the most notable figure is Shirin Ebadi who won a Nobel Prize for her courageous efforts for democracy and human rights, especially for the rights of women and children. Ebadi in collaboration with figures like Simin Behbahani, Mehrangiz Kar, Elaheh Koulaei, Shahla Sherkat, Jila Bani Yaghoob, Mahboubeh Abbas-Gholizadeh, Azam Taleghani, Shahla Lahiji and a few others directed women's movement in Iran in late 20th century and at the turn of the new millennium. Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Catherine Zeta Jones congratulating Shirin Ebadi at the Nobel Peace Prize concert in Oslo, December 11 2003. ... Tahmineh Milani (in Persian: تهمینه میلانی), Director and Screenwriter, Born 1960, Tabriz, Iran. ... Mehrangiz Kar(Born 1944 Ahvaz Iran) is a prominent Iranian lawyer, human right activist and author. ... Elaheh Koulaei is an Iranian (persian) political scientist and a reformist intellectual. ... Farah Karimi (Born 15 november 1960 Isfahan) is a Persian-Dutch writer, human right activist and politician. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎) (October 16, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings) and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Catherine Zeta Jones congratulating Shirin Ebadi at the Nobel Peace Prize concert in Oslo, December 11 2003. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Mehrangiz Kar(Born 1944 Ahvaz Iran) is a prominent Iranian lawyer, human right activist and author. ... Elaheh Koulaei is an Iranian (persian) political scientist and a reformist intellectual. ... Shahla Sherkat (Born 1956 Isfahan Iran) is a prominent Persian feminist author, journalist and one of the pioneers of Iranian womens movement. ... Shahla Lahiji (Born 1942) is an Iranian writer-publisher, translator, and director of Roshangaran, a prominent publishing house of books on womens issues. ...


In 1992, Shahla Sherkat founded Zanan (Women) magazine, which focuses on the concerns of Iranian women and continually tests the political waters with its edgy coverage of everything from reform politics to domestic abuse to sex. Zanan has been the most important Iranian women's journal after Iranian revolution. Zanan systematically criticized the Islamic legal code. It argued gender equality was Islamic but religious literature is misread and misappropriated by misogynist interest oriented males. Mehangiz Kar, Shahla Lahiji and Shahla Sherkat the editor of Zanan lead the debate on women's rights. Reforms were demanded by all; the leadership did not respond but for the first time after revolution they could not silence the movement.[7]


In 1997, a prenuptial document to be signed at the time of marriage was approved. The object was to give women the rights they lack in Shariat. The future husband forfeits his rights to polygamy and unconditional divorce. Women can initiate divorce, divide assets and have joint custody of children and child support. The practice so far has failed and most men will not sign the contract. Few gains are made since then. Family courts are back again and divorce is referred to these courts, though the number of courts is very limited. Women can function as judges but do not have the title. Mahriyeh is indexed and linked to inflation. Women are given more grounds for initiating divorce.[8]


On August 27, 2006, a new women's rights campaign was launched in Iran. The "One Million Signatures" [9] campaign aims at ending legal discrimination against women in Iranian law by collecting a million signatures on paper. Some of these laws include the low age of legal adult responsibility for girls (9 years right now), inequality of a woman's testimony to that of a man, lower punitive damages in the case of injury or death of a woman (half of a man's), and many more. Since the mentioned discriminatory laws affect women and men from all backgrounds rather than a specific class of people, the campaign has the potential to have a wide range of supporters: traditional or modern, religious or non-religious, underprivileged or well-off. The supporters of this campaign include many Iranian women's rights activists inside Iran and also international activists including many Nobel peace prize laureates.


Women's studies in Iranian Universities

In 2001, University of Allameh Tabatabei, Tarbiat Modarres University and Azzahra University initiated "Women's studies" program at MA level. Shortly after, Tehran University organized a similar program. A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ...


Women's movements in Iranian cultural continent

From up to down: Safeeieh Ammeh Jan, Farzaneh Khojandi, Golrokhsar Safi Eva and Nusrat Bhutto
From up to down: Safeeieh Ammeh Jan, Farzaneh Khojandi, Golrokhsar Safi Eva and Nusrat Bhutto

Women of modern Iran have close contacts with the women from the Iranian cultural sphere as Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Kurdish areas in Iraq and Central Asia. Many women right activists, artists and literary figures in the region cross borders to work and assist each others. As an example, Iranian Jila Bani Yaghoub and Samira Makhmalbaf contributed to Afghanistan each in her own ways. Iranian foremost intellectual Farah Karimi wrote a book entitled "Slagveld Afghanistan" to criticise Dutch military policies in Afghanistan. In 2006, Iranian Farah Karimi was appointed as the representative of United Nations in Afghanistan affairs.[10] In 2003, Sima Bina, the voice of Khorasan, performed secular sthrenodies of Khorasan at the Théâtre du Soleil for the benefit of the "Afghanistan: one child one book" project created by the organisation Open Asia.[11] Moreover in 2004 World Bank has funded establishment of a "netwrok of Persian women" for promoting the situation of women in Persian speaking lands. The network consists of women of Iran, Tajikistan and Afghanistan.[12] Farzaneh Khojandi is a renowned Persian poet and writer. ... Golrokhsar Safi is a prominent Iranologist, Persian literary figure and Tajikistans national poet. ... Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) Government Parliamentary Democracy  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - President Masoud Barzani Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed March 11, 1970   - Autonomy Accord Collapses March 1974   - Gained de facto... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Image:Makhmalbaf-samira. ... Farah Karimi (Born 15 november 1960 Isfahan) is a Persian-Dutch writer, human right activist and politician. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Sima Bina (Born in 1944 Birjand) is a master of Persian classical music and Irans top researcher, singer and song-writer of Iranian Folk music. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means...

  • Afghanistan: Here are some influential figures of women's movements in this area:
    • Sima Samar, the first Deputy Chair and Minister of Women’s Affairs.
    • Safeeieh Ammeh Jan, prominent Tajik-Afghanistani women right activist.
  • Tajikistan:

Tajik women founded more than 100 NGOs during last decades to defend their rights and improve their quality of life. Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi, acted as a role model for new generation of Tajik women. Many Tajik bussiness women have economic ties with Iran. [13] In 2005, a conference on Poverty of women was organized in Iran and a group of Tajik journalists, activists, University lecturers and athletes were invited to Iran for exchanging experiences. [14] Dr. Sima Samar Dr. Sima Samar (born February 4, 1957) is the Chairperson of the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) and United Nations special envoy to Darfur Sudan. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... Languages of Afghanistan (1985)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1985)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ... Catherine Zeta Jones congratulating Shirin Ebadi at the Nobel Peace Prize concert in Oslo, December 11 2003. ...


References and further readings

  • Edward G. Browne, The Persian Revolution of 1905-1909. Mage Publishers (July 1995). ISBN 0-934211-45-0
  • Farideh Farhi, Religious Intellectuals, the “Woman Question,” and the Struggle for the Creation of a Democratic Public Sphere in Iran, International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, Vol. 15, No.2, Winter 2001.
  • Ziba Mir-Hosseini, Religious Modernists and the “Woman Question”: Challenges and Complicities, Twenty Years of Islamic Revolution: Political and Social Transition in Iran since 1979, Syracuse University Press, 2002, pp 74-95.
  • Shirin Ebadi, Iran Awakening: A Memoir of Revolution and Hope, Random House (May 2, 2006), ISBN 1-4000-6470-8

Notes

Modern Tajiki women preserve their traditional dress
Modern Tajiki women preserve their traditional dress
  1. ^ J. Afary, The Iranian constitutional revolution, 1906-11. Grassroots democracy, social democracy, and the origins of feminism, New York 1996.
  2. ^ The international symposium on Simin Behbahani
  3. ^ History of Medicine in Iran
  4. ^ Haus der Kulturen der Welt
  5. ^ Polo comes back home to Iran
  6. ^ Adult Education Offers Options to Iranian Women
  7. ^ Women's movement: Zanan magazine
  8. ^ Women's movement: A brief history 1850-2000
  9. ^ About "One Million Signatures Demanding Changes to Discriminatory Laws"
  10. ^ Farah Karimi: a fight for freedom
  11. ^ Sima Bina: "Afghanistan, one child one book" project
  12. ^ Network of women in Persian speaking countries
  13. ^ Tajik Women and Iran
  14. ^ Campaign against Women's Poverty: Iran-Tajikistan joint project

Image File history File linksMetadata Tajiki_Persian_girls. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tajiki_Persian_girls. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

See also

Dariush Shayegan. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The Feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination and sexual violence. ...

External links

Articles:

  • Portrayal of Women in Iranian Cinema: An historical overview by: Shahla Lahiji
  • Manifestation of Feeling: A Selection of Paintings by Iranian Female Artists
  • A Holistic Approach Underpins the Iran's Success in Family Planning (UNFPA)
  • One Million Signatures Campaign (we-change.org)
  • The Iranian Camila Batmanghelidjh has won the UK's Women of the Year 2006 award. (BBC)
  • Iran's Women's Rights Movement and the One Million Signatures Campaign
  • The Iranian Women’s Movement: A Century Long Struggle

Websites and forums: The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ...

  • Zan (in Persian)
  • Iran-Dokht (in Persian)
  • Iran Women's Study Foundation
  • Iranian Feminist Tribune (in Persian)
  • Focus of Iranian Women (in Persian)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Center for Affairs of Women's Participation

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m