FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
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Encyclopedia > Iranian women
17th century painting of Safavi Iranian royal court depicting woman pouring wine at Chehel Sotoon Palace, Esfahan.
17th century painting of Safavi Iranian royal court depicting woman pouring wine at Chehel Sotoon Palace, Esfahan.

Iranian women (or Persian women) in this article refers to women of, or from, traditional Persian or modern Iranian culture[1]. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Download high resolution version (548x733, 632 KB)Persian woman pouring wine. ... Download high resolution version (548x733, 632 KB)Persian woman pouring wine. ... An example of Safavid architecture Safavi is an adjective, created for the name Safi. Translated to English, Safavi would correspond roughly to Safi-ish or Safidian Safavi is the correct Persian Language reference to Safi, the name of Sheikh Safi Al-Din Ardebili. ... As opposed to rival Ottoman architecture, which focuses on scale and grandeur, Safavid architecture targets refineness in subtlety. ... Isfahan, Inner Courtyard of Medresseh-I Shah Husein Isfahan, Medresseh-I Shah Husein Mosque Entrance Isfahan or Esfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan, anciently known as Aspadana; اصفهان in Persian) (population in 2000: 2,540,000), located about 340 km south of Tehran is the... Diverse women. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...

Contents

Depictions and appearance

Women as depicted in 18th century Iranian painting.
Women as depicted in 18th century Iranian painting.

Throughout the ancient world including Persia, both men and women used make-up, wore jewellery and coloured their body parts. Moreover, their garments were both elaborate and colourful. Rather than being marked by gender, clothing styles were distinguished by class and status [2]. Women in modern Iran (post 1935 "Persia") are of various mixes and appearances, both in fashion [3] and social norm.[4] Traditionally however, the "Persian woman" had a pre-defined appearance set by social norms that were the standard for all women in society.[5] For example, the observations of a late Qajar era orientalist read: Image File history File links Hasht-Behesht_Palace_santur. ... Image File history File links Hasht-Behesht_Palace_santur. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ...

"The Persian ladies' hair is very luxuriant and never cut. It is nearly always dyed red with Henna, or with indigo to a blue-black tinge. It is naturally a glossy black. Fair hair is not esteemed. Blue eyes are not uncommon, but brown ones are the rule. A full moon face is much admired, and a dark complexion (termed Namak) is the native idea of the highest beauty. The eyebrows are widened and painted until they appear to meet, and color is used freely in painting the faces."[6]

Look up henna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

History

Pre-Islamic Iran

Archeological excavations at Shahr-i Sokhta "Burnt City," a prehistoric settlement in the Sistan-Baluchistan province of southeastern Iran, has revealed that the women of the 4th-3rd millennium BCE community maintained a high level of socio-economic status. Of the seals discovered in graves there, 90% were in the possession of women,[7] who in turn made up over 60% of the population.[8] The distribution of the seals, which as instruments of trade and government represented economic and administrative control, reveals that these women were the more powerful group in their prehistoric society.[7] Shahr-e Sokhte or Shahr-i Sokhta (Persian for burnt city) is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft civilization. ... Sistān o Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

"The position of woman in ancient Iran was apparently in nowise inferior to her standing in the Vedic times of early India. As among other oriental nations, however, submission to her lord and master is taken for granted, and the woman who is 'obedient to her husband' comes in for a special meed of praise in the Avesta and elsewhere; but it is perfectly evident, as a rule, there was not that subjection which results in loss of personality and individuality."[9] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Babylonian Marriage Market Edwin Long was a British painter who was born in Bath in 1829 and died in 1891 of pneumonia. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


The early Achaemenid-era Persepolis fortification and treasury tablets refers to women in three different terms: mutu, irti and duksis.[10] The first refers to ordinary (non-royal) women; the second to unmarried members of the royal family; and the last duksis to married women of royalty. Such differentiated terminology shows the sigificance of marital status and of a woman's relationship to the king. The tablets also reveal that women of the royal household traveled extensively and often personally administered their own estates.[10] The queen and her ladies-in-waiting are known to have played polo against the emperor and his courtiers.[11] The only limits on the extent of the authority exercised by the king's mother were set by the monarch himself.[12][Quotation from source requested on talk page to verify interpretation of source] Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Persepolis aerial view. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ...


In the tablets, "non-royals and the ordinary workers are mentioned by their rank in the specific work group or workshops they were employed. The rations they received are based on skill and the level of responsibility they assumed in the workplace. The professions are divided by gender and listed according to the amount of ration. Records indicate that some professions were undertaken by both sexes while others were restricted to either male or female workers. There are male and female supervisors at the mixed workshops as evident by the higher rations they have received with little difference in the amount of rations between the two sexes. There are also occasions where women listed in the same category as men received less rations and vice versa. Female managers have different titles presumably reflecting their level of skill and rank. The highest-ranking female workers in the texts are called arashshara (great chief). They appear repeatedly in the texts, were employed at different locations and managed large groups of women children and sometimes men working in their units. They usually receive high rations of wine and grains exceeding all the other workers in the unit including the males."[10] In addition, pregnant women also received higher rations than others. Women with new-born children also received extra rations for a period of one month.


Some experts argue that it was Cyrus the Great who twelve centuries before Islam, established the custom of covering women to protect their chastity. According to their theory, the veil passed from the Achaemenids to the Hellenistic Seleucids. They, in turn, handed it to the Byzantines, from whom the Arab conquerors inherited it, transmitting it over the vast reaches of the Arab world.[13] “Cyrus” redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ...


The Sassanid princess Purandokht, daughter of Khosrau II, ruled the Persian empire for almost two years before resigning. Also, during the Sassanian dynasty many of the Iranian soldiers captured by Romans were women who were fighting along with the men.[14] Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Queen Poran, the only woman on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630 AD.State Hermitage Museum ,St. ... Gold coin of Khosrau II. Silver coin of Khosrau II, dating to ca. ...

Female Iranian PhDs in front of Tehran University's reactor, 1968. Text: "A quarter of Iran's Nuclear Energy scientists are women!"
Female Iranian PhDs in front of Tehran University's reactor, 1968. Text: "A quarter of Iran's Nuclear Energy scientists are women!"

Persian women are depicted in many masterpieces of Persian paintings and miniatures.[15] These are often used as sources to "trace through the sequence of women's fashion from earlier periods".[16] Drawing a Persian girl dressed in colors with Persian wine at hand has been a favorite style for portraying love[citation needed]. Image File history File links Atomic_women_Iran. ... Image File history File links Atomic_women_Iran. ... The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... Safavid era Miniature painting kept at Shah Abbas Hotel in Isfahan. ... Persian wine also called Mei and Badeh was a cultural symbol and tradition in Persia, and had a significant presence in Persian mythology, Persian poetry and Persian miniature. ...


After the Islamic Conquest

The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...

Under the Shah

Under the Islamic Republic of Iran

A young Iranian woman is warned about her immodest dress. In April 2007, thousands of Iranian women were warned by the police in a crackdown on "bad hijab."[17]
See also: Human_rights_in_Iran#Gender_issues and Persian women's movement

Iran has been, since 1979, an Islamic Republic. The impact of women on the Islamic revolution of Iran has been particularly mixed. One of the striking features of the revolution was the large scale participation of women from traditional backgrounds in demonstrations.[18] Some of this liberating effect has continued on for example, with large numbers of women in civil service and higher education,[19] and with fourteen women being elected to the Islamic Consultative Assembly in 1996. Also there are women in the Iranian police who deal with crimes committed by women.[20][21] Women, make up 27% of the Iranian labor force and the percentage of all Iranian women who are economically active has more than doubled from 6.1% in 1986 to 13.7% in 2000.[22] On the other hand, the Islamic revolution is ideologically predisposed to inequality for women in inheritance and other areas of the the civil code; and especially to segregation of the sexes. Everything from "schoolrooms to ski slopes to public buses" is strictly segregated. In the first years after the revolution, females who didn't cover all parts of their body, except hands and face, were subject to punishment of up to seventy lashes or sixty days imprisonment.[23] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... “Higab” redirects here. ... Human rights in Iran face the issues of governmental impunity, restricted freedom of speech, torture, and other excesses. ... This article is mainly about the womens movement in modern day Iran. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament The Majlis (مجلس), which means parliament or assembly in the Arabic language, was... Human rights in Iran face the issues of governmental impunity, restricted freedom of speech, torture, and other excesses. ...


Politics

Women in Iran were granted right to vote in 1963 [24]. They were first admitted to Iranian universities in 1937.[25] Since then, several women have held high-ranking posts in the government or parliament. Some, such as Tahereh Saffarzadeh, Masumeh Ebtekar, Fatemeh Haghighatjou, Elaheh Koulaei, Fatemeh Javadi, Marzieh Dabbaq and Zahra Rahnavard came after the revolution. Some, such as Goli Ameri and Farah Karimi hold positions in western countries. Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tahere Saffarzadeh is an Iranian Muslim poet, writer, translator and prominent university professor. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Fatemeh Haghighatjou (فاطمه حقیقت‌جو in Persian) was a member of the Iranian Parliament. ... Elaheh Koulaei is an Iranian (persian) political scientist and a reformist intellectual. ... Fatemeh Javadi is an Iranian paleontologist and Vice-President. ... Marzieh Dabbaq (Hadidchi) (Persian: ) is an Iranian politician. ... Zahra Rahnavard (Persian: زهرا رهنورد) is the chancellor of Al-zahra University in Tehran, Iran, since September 23, 1998, and a Political Adviser to the Iranian President Mohammad Khatami. ... Goli Ameri Goli Ameri (in Persian:Ú¯Ù„ÛŒ عامری) (nee Goli Yazdi) is a Republican Iranian-American businesswoman who ran for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives from Oregon. ... Farah Karimi (Born 15 november 1960 Isfahan) is a Persian-Dutch writer, human right activist and politician. ...


Notable Iranian women

Over recent years, women in Iran, whether Nobel laureates like Shirin Ebadi who became the first Muslim woman to win the prize, or young Ivy League professors such as Maryam Mirzakhani, have "achieved greatly in areas like education, political participation, and social mobilization, and have made great strides in terms of entering different fields of academia".[26] The gallery below is only a random sampling: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shirin Ebadi at a press conference in November 2005. ... For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ... Maryam Mirzakhani (2005) Maryam Mirzakhani (Born 1977 Tehran) is an Iranian mathematician. ...

Iranian women's movement

The Iranian women's movement involves the Iranian woman's experience of modernism[citation needed]. The concept of the "Modern Iranian woman" and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures has been evolving since the 19th century[citation needed]. Iranian women account for a remarkable fraction of intellectual circles in Iran and consequently have played roles in forming Iranian identity in modern time[citation needed]. This article is mainly about the history of women in modern day Iran. ... Dariush Shayegan. ...


During last few decades, Iranian women have had significant presence in Iran's scientific movement, art movement, literary new wave and the new wave of Iranian cinema. According to the research ministry of Iran, about 6% of full professors, 8% of associate professors, and 14% of assistant professors were women in the 1998-99 academic year. However, women accounted for 56% of all students in the natural sciences, including one in five Ph.D. students.[5] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A cursory glance at the history of art reveals the social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Persian women's day

The official womans day in Iran is on the birthday of Prophet's daughter Fatimah. In ancient times, the 29th of Bahman (18 February) was considered Persian women's day [citation needed] and many people still celebrate this day. History of the celebration dates back to Zoroastrian tradition[citation needed]. International Women's Day is also celebrated by Iranians specially by people involved in Persian women's movement[citation needed]. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Bahman is the name of 11th month in Iranian calendar. ... Sepandar Mazgan (in Persian: سپندارمذگان) (also Persian womans day, Persian valentine and Iranian womans day) is the celebration day of love and earth in ancient Iranian culture. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... This article is mainly about the womens movement in modern day Iran. ...


Women in Persian culture

In Persian literature one can find references to women as far back as Pre-Islamic times.[27] In some cases, women are mentioned as the potential force behind the failure or success of men[citation needed][original research?]. For example Dehkhoda states that "women are the taste of life" (زن نمک زندگیست), but then warns that some Men may find this taste too strong to bear (کام مرد از این جهت شور است). In verse, Sa'di rephrases[original research?] this as: Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Ali Akbar Dekhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Tomb of Sadi, Shiraz, Iran. ...


زن بد در سرای مرد نکو
A bad wife in a man's home,
هم درین عالم است دوزخ او
can bring hell down to this Earth.
زن خوب فرمانبر پارسا
The honorable, obedient and noble woman,
کند مرد درویش را پادشا
can turn the vagabond into a king.


But many texts elevate the status of women in their writings by using the word lady (بانو) instead of woman (زن) in their verses[original research?], whether narratives or anecdotes. For example in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh one reads: Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...


ببوسید پیشش زمین پهلوان
Kissed the earth at her feet he did, the great hero.
بدو گفت کای مهتر بانوان
Called onto her he did: "oh highest of all the ladies".



Numerous examples from other poets can be seen as well:


عادت بود که هدیه نوروزی آورید
It is a tradition of the free to bring Norouz gifts
آزادگان به خدمت بانوی شهریار
for the lady of our royalty.
---Khaqani Persepolis all nations stair case. ... Sclupture of Khaqani in Tabriz. ...


نشنیدستی که خاک زر گردد
Have you not heard that dust turns into gold
از ساخته کدخدا و کدبانو
by the work of the Man and the Lady of the House?
---Naser Khosrow ÉÀ ...


And many creators of classical verse and prose were women themselves as well. One can mention Qatran Tabrizi, Rabia Balkhi, Táhirih, Simin Behbahani, Simin Daneshvar, Parvin E'tesami, Forough Farrokhzad, and Mahsati in this group. Abu Mansur Qatran Adudi ( 1009 - 1072) was a royal Persian poet. ... Rabea Balkhi (Persian: ), also called as Rabiah bint Kaab Quzdari or Ghozdary (in Persian: رابعه قزداري) , or just as Rabeah was most likely the first poetess in the History of Persian Poetry. ... Táhirih (Arabic: ‎ The Pure One) or Qurratul-`Ayn (Arabic: ‎ Comfort of the Eyes) are both titles of Fátimih Baraghání (b. ... Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Simin Daneshvar ( سیمین دانشور ;in Persian) ( 1921) was an Iranian novelist and translator . ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Forooghs tomb is located in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Mahsati Ganjavi was a 12th century Persian-language poetess. ...


References

  1. ^ As defined and discussed by literature such as:
    • Persian Women & Their Ways Clara Colliver Rice. 1923. Seeley, Service & Co.
    • Voices from Iran: The Changing Lives of Iranian Women. Mahnaz Kousha. Syracuse University Press. 2002.
    • Veils and Words: The Emerging Voices of Iranian Women Writers. Farzaneh Milani. Published 1992 by I.B.Tauris
  2. ^ For a reference on Persian dress through the ages see: [1]
  3. ^ For a reference on Iran ethnic costumes see[2]
  4. ^ For a reference on how Persian women were modernized see:
    • Women and the Political Process in Twentieth-Century Iran. Parvin Paidar. 1995 p.7
    • Veils and Words: The Emerging Voices of Iranian Women Writers. Farzaneh Milani. 1992. p.234
  5. ^ *Veils and Words: The Emerging Voices of Iranian Women Writers. Farzaneh Milani. 1992. p.193
  6. ^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica: a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Hugh Chisholm 1911. p.194
  7. ^ a b CHN Press. Women Held Power In Burnt City. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  8. ^ CHN Press. Female population predominant in 5000-year-old Burnt City. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  9. ^ Williams Jackson, A. V. (1896). "The Moral and Ethical Teachings of the Ancient Zoroastrian Religion". International Journal of Ethics 7 (1): 55-62.  p. 59.
  10. ^ a b c Price, Massoume. Women's Lives in Ancient Persia.
  11. ^ Harrison, Frances. Polo comes back home to Iran. BBC News.
  12. ^ Cotterell, Arthur (1998). From Aristotle to Zoroaster. ISBN 0-684-85596-8. 
  13. ^ Mackey, Sandra & Harrop, Scott (1996). The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. Penguin. 
  14. ^ Dodgeon M. H. and Lieu, S. N. C. (1991). The Roman Eastern Frontiers and the Persian Wars (AD 226-363); A Documentary History. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10317-7.  pp. 24, 67, 184, 197 and 307.
  15. ^ Toward an aesthetic of Persian painting. Early Islamic Art, 650-1100. Oleg Grabar. p.213-214
  16. ^ Women's Costume of the Near and Middle East. Jennifer M. Scarce. 2003, p.134
  17. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6596933.stm
  18. ^ Graham Iran (1980) p. 227.
  19. ^ Adult education offers new opportunities and options to Iranian women
  20. ^ Women Police in Iran
  21. ^ Iran's thin black line
  22. ^ [3]
  23. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution (2000), p. 136.
  24. ^ http://www.alertnet.org/db/cp/iran.htm
  25. ^ Lorentz، J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995. ISBN 0-8108-2994-0
  26. ^ Speech by Iran's Vice-President Masoumeh Ebtekar. Link: [4]
  27. ^ Brosius, Maria. Women in Ancient Persia, 559-331 B.C. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford Oxford University Press (UK), 1998.

Syracuse University (SU) is a private nonsectarian research university located in Syracuse, New York. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Masoumeh Ebtekar (Persian: معصومه ابتکار; born 1960) is an Iranian scientist and politician. ...

Further reading

  • Piyrnia, Mansoureh. Salar Zanana Iran. 1995. Maryland: Mehran Iran Publishing.
  • Brosius, Maria. Women in Ancient Persia, 559-331 B.C. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford Oxford University Press (UK), 1998.
  • Farman Farmaian, Sattareh. 1992. Daughter of Persia: A Woman's Journey from Her Father's Harem Through the Islamic Revolution. New York: Three Rivers Press.

See also

YumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumvYum, Iranians were not only open to other cultures, but freely adopted all they found useful for them. ... The womens movement in modern Iran is nearly 150 years old. ... The womens movement in modern Iran is nearly 150 years old. ... Kurdish women have traditionally played important roles in Kurdish history, society and politics. ...

External links

Gathering of Persian women in Dushanbeh (in Persian)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iranian women - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1603 words)
Iranian women (or Persian women) are women of or from traditional Persian or modern Iranian culture.
When Khomeini called for women to attend public demonstration and ignore the night curfew, millions of women who would otherwise not have dreamt of leaving their homes without their husbands' and fathers' permission or presence, took to the streets.
In May 1997, a large number of women participated in presidential elections and overwhelmingly voted for Hojatolislam Mohammad Khatami, a reformist cleric who had promised reduction of repression and toleration of civil society institutions.
Shadi Sadr Describes Iranian Women's Movement (823 words)
In fact, the Iranian woman's current demand, which I call it "the demand to change her lifestyle," is in complete contradiction with her historical "self" and the traditional society expectations from her.
The Iranian women's movement attempts to make the society and the government realize that the only solution to the women's social crises is to recognize their equal rights and to apply human rights principles to their lives.
And finally, today the Iranian women continue their struggle to eradicate the compulsory hijab, to establish an independent life and to participate in the highest echelons of the society.
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