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Encyclopedia > Iranian revolution
History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia
Pre-modern
Modern
Iranian revolution

Articles The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Farvahar_background. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Persia redirects here. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... BCE redirects here. ... Zayandeh River Civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is supposed to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 5th millennium BC.[1] During the 2006 excavations, the Iranian archaeologists uncovered some artifacts that they linked to those from Sialk and Marvdasht. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... Bowl depicting scorpions. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Linear-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Median Empire, ca. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... BCE redirects here. ... BCE redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... The Kartid Dynasty (Karts, also known as Kurts) was a dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khurasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was founded by Mirwais Khan Hotak, an Afghan of ethnic Tatar[1] [2]and chief of the Ghilzai clan of Kandahar province in modern-day Afghanistan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... This is a timeline of the history of Afghanistan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Anthem بحريننا Bahrainona Our Bahrain Capital (and largest city) Manama Official languages Arabic Government Constitutional Monarchy  -  King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah  -  Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah Independence from UK   -  Date 15 August 1971  Area  -  Total 665 km² (189th) 253 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0 Population  -  2007 estimate 708,573... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile on February 1, 1979. ...


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The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic.[7] It has been called "the third great revolution in history," following the French and Bolshevik revolutions,[8] and an event that "made Islamic fundamentalism a political force ... from Morocco to Malaysia."[9] This article includes events of 1978 until 1981 which relates to Islamic revolution of Iran. ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, University lecturer, and politician. ... Mohammad Beheshti Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Mostafa Chamran Savei (1932 – 21 June 1981) was an Iranian defense minister and member of parliament, as well as commander of paramilitary volunteers in Iran-Iraq war. ... Sadegh Ghotbzadeh (صادق قطب‌زاده;‎ 1936–September 15, 1982) was Iranian Foreign Minister (November 30, 1979–August, 1980) during Iran hostage crisis. ... Ebrahim Yazdi (ابراهیم یزدی; born 1931 in Qazvin) is a Persian politician, the Secretary General of Freedom Movement Party, a party which is considered illegal by some Iranian officials. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... Ayatollah al-Uzma Sayyed Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili (also spelt Ardabili, Persian: ‎ , born January 28, 1926) is an Iranian marja and politician. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر in Persian), (1933 - August 30, 1981), was the second prime minister of Iran following the 1979 revolution, and the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic Party. ... Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani was a senior Shia cleric of Iran. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani (محمدرضا مهدوی Ú©Ù†ÛŒ) is an Iranian cleric and politician. ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Combatant Clergy Association (Jamee-ye Rowhaniyat-e Mobarez) or (جامعه روحانیت مبارز in Persian), is a political party in Iran. ... OIPFG symbol The Organization of Iranian Peoples Fedai Guerrillas emerged as radical Marxist-Leninist movement in Iran in 1971, formed to overthrow the Pahlavi regime. ... IFPG symbol The Iranian Peoples Fedai Guerrillas (in Persian: چريکهای فدايي خلق ايران, translit. ... MKO redirects here. ... Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (سازمان مجاهدین انقلاب اسلامی; sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e enghelāb-e eslāmi), sometimes abbreviated to MIRO, is a reformist Iranian political organization. ... The Islamic Republic Party (حزب جمهوری اسلامی) was a political party in Iran, founded in 1979 by Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili, and included several supporters of the Islamic Republic government of Iran. ... Muslim student followers of the Imams line (fa:دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام) were the students (from science and technology universities) of some of the major universities of Tehran including University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology(polythechnic of Tehran), Iran University of Science and Technology gathered. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ... Assembly of Experts for Constitution was elected in the summer of 1979 to write a new constitution for the Islamic Republic. ... Movement of 15 Khordad ( ‎ ​) which took place on June 5 in protest against arrestment of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Black Friday was a series of protests that occurred on September 8, 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 AP) in Tehran, Iran. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. ...


Although some might argue that the revolution is still ongoing, its time span can be said to have begun in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations to overthrow the Shah,[10] and concluded with the approval of the new theocratic Constitution — whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country — in December 1979. In between, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled Iran in January 1979 after strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, and on February 1, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians.[11] The final collapse of the Pahlavi dynasty occurred shortly after on February 11 when Iran's military declared itself "neutral" after guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting. Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979 when Iranians overwhelmingly approved a national referendum to make it so.[12] Theocracy is a form of government in which a religion and the government are allied. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


The revolution was unique for the surprise it created throughout the world:[13] it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution — defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military;[14] produced profound change at great speed;[15] overthrew a regime thought to be heavily protected by a lavishly financed army and security services;[16][17] and replaced an ancient monarchy with a theocracy based on Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). Its outcome — an Islamic Republic "under the guidance of an 80-year-old exiled religious scholar from Qom" — was, as one scholar put it, "clearly an occurrence that had to be explained.…"[18] For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ...


Not so unique but more intense is the dispute over the revolution's results. For some it was an era of heroism and sacrifice that brought forth nothing less than the nucleus of a world Islamic state — "a perfect model of splendid, humane, and divine life… for all the peoples of the world."[19] At the other extreme, disillusioned Iranians explain the revolution as a time when "for a few years we all lost our minds,"[20] and as a system that, "promised us heaven, but ... created a hell on earth." [21]

Contents

Reasons for the revolution

Part of a series on
Shi'a Islam

Twelver
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...


Islam Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

The Twelve Imams

Ali · Hasan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
al-Kadhim · al-Rida · al-Taqi
al-Hadi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi
The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Imām ˤAlī ibn-Mūsā ar-Riđā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the eighth Shīˤa Imām. ... Imam Muhammad al-Taqi (Arabic: امام محمد التقي)(April 12, 811 - November 27, 835) was the ninth Shia Imam in the Ithna Ashari (Twelver) tradition. ... Imam Ali al-Hadi (September 8, 828 _ July 1, 868) was the tenth Shia Imam. ... Hasan al-Askari (Arabic: الإمام الحسن بن علي العسكري) (December 6, 846 – January 1, 874), was the eleventh Shia Imam. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ...

Schools

Usuli · Shaykhi · Akhbari Usulis are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor fatwas over hadith when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ... Shaykhis, religious movement in Iran. ... Akhbaris are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor hadith over fatwas when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ...

Concepts & Titles

The Fourteen Infallibles
Occultation (Minor · Major)
Akhbar · Usul · Clergy · Ijthad
Ayatollah · Grand Ayatollah
Hojatoleslam · Mujtahid
Taqleed · Marja · Allamah
Ja'fari jurisprudence · Irfan
Mut'ah · Taqiyya · Guardianship According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ... Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... Jihad (ǧihād جهاد) is an Arabic word which comes from the Arabic root word jahada; which means exerting utmost effort or to strive. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. ... Hojatoleslam (or hojatalislam) is an honorific title meaning proof of Islam, given to middle-ranking Shia clerics of the rank of mujtahid. ... ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... An Allamah (Persian: علامه), also spelled Allameh and Allama, is an honorary title carried by only the very highest scholars (marjas) of Islamic thought, jurisprudence, and philosophy. ... Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. ... Irfan (Arabic/Persian: عرفان) literally means knowing. ... Mutah is an Arabic word meaning literally joy. As a term, its main connotation is Temporary Marriage (Arabic: Nikah Mutah). ... Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ... For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ...

Usul al-Din

Monotheism
Judgement Day · Justice
Prophethood · Imamate In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Shia twelver conception of the term. ...

Furu al-Din

Prayer · Fasting · Pilgramage
Charity · Taxes · Jihad
Command Justice · Forbid Evil
Love the family of Muhammad
Dissociate from their Enemies
In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (خمس) is the Arabic word for One Fifth (1/5). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Commanding the Just (Arabic: Amr bil Marūf امر بامعرف) is a part of Shia Islams Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necessary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Forbidding what is Evil (Arabic: ‎, Nahy an al-Munkar), is a part of Islam and means, for example, to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla (Arabic: ‎) - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... Tabarra (Arabic: ‎) - is a Shia Muslim doctrine that refers to the obligation of hating those who hate Allah and cursing those who reject the wilayah of Ahl al-Bayt. ...

Holy Sites

Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem
Karbala · Najaf · Qom
Samarra · Mashhad · Kazamayn
Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are generally recognized as the three most important cities in Islam according to interpretations of scriptures in the Quran and Hadith. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ...

Related Movements

Nimatullahi · Safaviya
Qizilbash · Alevism · Alawism
Bektashi · Ahl-e Haqq
The Nimatullahi order (also spelled Nimatollahi or Nematollahi) is a Sufi Order or Tariqa originating in Persia. ... Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: Qezelbāš, Turkish: Kızılbaş, Azerbaijani: Qızılbaş) - Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Turkish: or Alevilik, Kurdish: ) are an ethnic, religious, and cultural community in Turkey numbering around 20 million, making up approximately 20% of the population of the country and 10% of the world total Shia Muslim population. ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... The Bektashism (Turkish: Bektaşilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... Ahl-e Haqq or Yârsân (Yarsan, Kurdish: Yâresân,[1] Yaresan,[2] Ahl-i Haqq, Ahl-e Hakk, Persian: اهل حق.) is a secret, heterodox shia-islamic order, based on the sufi belief of The Four Stages of Religion (Islam). ...

Hadith Collections // These books include discussions about Theology (Tawhīd, Nubuwwah, Imamah, etc ) of Shia. ...

Peak of Eloquence
The Pslams of Islam
Book of Sulaym ibn Qays
Oceans of Light
Wasael ush-Shia
Reality of Certainty
Keys of Paradise

The Four Books
Book of Fundamentals
The Book in Scholar's Lieu
Civilization of Laws
The Certainty
It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is said to be the oldest prayer manual in Islamic sources and one of the most seminal works of Islamic spirituality of the early period. ... The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays is a Hadith collections, collected by Sulaym ibn Qays who entrusted it to Aban ibn abi-Ayyash. ... Oceans of Light (Arabic: Bihar ul Anwar) is a holy scripture of Shia Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reality of Certainty (Arabic: Haqq al-Yaqeen) is a Shia Twelver hadith collection authoured by Allamah al-Majlisi [1]. It has been criticized by Shia in the words: Haqq al-Yaqeen has many weak narrators, none of the Hadith scholars have graded the narration as Sahih. ... The Four Books (Arabic Al-Kutub Al-Arbah) is a Shia term refering to their four best known Hadith collections. ... The Kitab al-Kafi is a Shia hadith collection compiled by Mohammad Yaqub Kulainy. ... Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih is a hadith collection, by the famous Shia hadith scolar Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi, commonly known as Ibn Babawaih or Shaykh Saduq. ...

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Explanations advanced for why the revolution happened and took the form it did include actions of the Shah and the mistakes and successes of the different political forces:


Errors of the Shah

  • His strong policy of Westernization and close identification with a Western power (the United States) despite the resulting clash with Iran's Shi'a Muslim identity.[22] This included his original installation by Allied Powers and assistance from the CIA in 1953 to restore him to the throne, the use of large numbers of US military advisers and technicians and the capitulation or granting of diplomatic immunity from prosecution to them, all of which led nationalistic Iranians, both religious and secular[23] to consider him a puppet of the West;[24][25]
  • Extravagance, corruption and elitism (both real and perceived) of the Shah's policies and of his royal court;[26][27]
  • His failure to cultivate supporters in the Shi'a religious leadership to counter Khomeini's campaign against him;[28][29]
  • Focusing of government surveillance and repression on the People's Mujahedin of Iran, the communist Tudeh Party of Iran, and other leftist groups, while the more popular religious opposition organized, grew and gradually undermined the authority of his regime;[30][31][32]
  • Authoritarian tendencies that violated the Iran Constitution of 1906,[33][34] including repression of dissent by security services like the SAVAK,[35] followed by appeasement and appearance of weakness as the revolution gained momentum;[36][37]
  • Failure of his overly ambitious 1974 economic program to meet expectations raised by the oil revenue windfall. Bottlenecks, shortages and inflation were followed by austerity measures, attacks on alleged price gougers and black-markets, that angered both the bazaar and the masses;[38]
  • His antagonizing of formerly apolitical Iranians, especially merchants of the bazaars, with the creation of a single party political monopoly (the Rastakhiz Party), with compulsory membership and dues, and general aggressive interference in the political, economic, and religious concerns of people's lives;[39]
  • His overconfident neglect of governance and preoccupation with playing the world statesman during the oil boom,[40] followed by a loss of self-confidence and resolution[36] and a weakening of his health from cancer[41] as the revolution gained momentum;
  • Underestimation of the strength of the opposition — particularly religious opposition — and the failure to offer either enough carrots or sticks. Efforts to please the opposition were "too little too late,"[42] but no concerted counter-attack was made against the revolutionaries either.[36]
  • Failure to prepare and train security forces for dealing with protest and demonstration, failure to use crowd control without excessive violence[43] (troops used live ammunition, not Plexiglas shields or water cannons),[44] and use of the military officer corps more as a powerbase to be pampered than as a force to control threats to security;[45]
  • The personalised nature of the Shah's government, where prevention of any possible competitor to the monarch trumped efficient and effective government and led to the crown's cultivation of divisions within the army and the political elite,[46] and ultimately to a lack of support for the regime by its natural allies when needed most (thousands of upper and middle class Iranians and their money left Iran during the beginning of the revolution).[47]

This article is about the influence of western culture. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... Royal court (as distinguished from a court of law) may refer to a number of institutions: A noble court - the household or entourage of a monarch or other ruler The Royal Court of Jersey - the main court of justice of Jersey The Royal Court of Guernsey - the main court of... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... MKO redirects here. ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Iran Constitution of 1906 This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... State institutions for the provision of intelligence, primarily of a strategic nature, but also including protective security intelligence. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Rastakhiz (Resurrection) is an Iranian monarchist party that was founded in the late 1960s under the government of Amir Abbas Hoveyda. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Carrot and stick is a term (idiom) used to refer to the act of simultaneously rewarding good behaviour while punishing bad behaviour. ...

Failures and successes of other political forces

  • Overconfidence of the secularists and modernist Muslims, of liberals and leftists in their power and ability to control the revolution;[48]
  • Shrewdness of the Ayatollah Khomeini in winning the support of these liberals and leftists when he needed them to overthrow the Shah by underplaying his hand and avoiding issues (such as rule by clerics or "guardianship of the jurists") he planned to implement but knew would be a deal breaker for his more secular and modernist Muslim allies;[49]
  • Cleverness and energy of Khomeini's organizers in Iran who outwitted the Shah's security forces and won broad support with their tactical ingenuity — amongst other things, convincing Iranians that the Shah's security was more brutal than it was;[45]
  • The Ayatollah Khomeini's self-confidence, charisma, and most importantly his ability to cast himself as following in the footsteps of the beloved Shi'a Imam Husayn ibn Ali, while portraying the Shah as a modern day version of Hussein's foe, the hated tyrant Yazid I;[50] and so to be seen by millions as a savior figure,[51] and inspiring hundreds to feats of martyrdom fighting the regime.
  • Policies of the American government, which helped create an image of the Shah as American "puppet" with their high profile and the 1953 subversion of the government on his behalf, but helped trigger the revolution by pressuring the Shah to liberalize, and then finally may have heightened the radicalism of the revolution by failing to read its nature accurately (particularly the goals of Khomeini), or to clearly respond to it.[52][53][54]

This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ...

Ideology of Iranian revolution

Main article: Ideology of Iranian Revolution

The ideology of the revolution can be summarized as populist, nationalist and most of all Shi'a Islamic. Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...

One of Tehran's major hospitals is named after renowned Iranian sociologist Ali Shariati (located in Amir abad district.)

Contributors to the ideology included Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, who formulated Gharbzadegi -- the idea that Western culture was a plague or an intoxication that alienated Muslims from their roots and identity and must be fought and expelled.[55] Ali Shariati influenced many young Iranians with his interpretation of Islam as the one true way of awakening the oppressed and liberating the Third World from colonialism and neo-colonialism.[56] Image File history File links Shariati_hospital_tehran. ... Image File history File links Shariati_hospital_tehran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. ... A province of Tehran in northern Tehran. ... Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آل احمد)‎ (1923-1969) was an Iranian writer and social/political critic. ... Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Neo Colonialism is the belife that former colonies of European powers have never recieved economic freedom from their former rulers. ...


And most of all Ayatollah Khomeini, the man who dominated the revolution itself. He preached that revolt, and especially martyrdom, against injustice and tyranny was part of Shia Islam,[57] that Muslims should reject the influence of both Soviet and American superpowers in Iran with the slogan "not Eastern, nor Western - Islamic Republican" (Persian: نه شرقی نه غربی جمهوری اسلامی) Farsi redirects here. ...


Even more importantly he developed the ideology of velayat-e faqih, that Muslims, in fact everyone, required "guardianship," in the form of rule or supervision by the leading Islamic jurist or jurists -- such as Khomeini himself.[58] Rule by Islamic jurists would protect Islam from innovation and deviation by following traditional sharia law exclusively, and in so doing would prevent poverty, injustice, and the "plundering" of Muslim land by foreign unbelievers.[59] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Main article: Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih (book by Khomeini)

Establishing and obeying this Islamic government was so important it was "actually an expression of obedience to God," ultimately "more necessary even than prayer and fasting" for Islam because without it true Islam will not survive. [60] It was a universal principle, not one confined to Iran. All the world needed and deserved just government, i.e. true Islamic government. [61]


This revolutionary vision of theocratic government was in stark contrast to that of other revolutionaries - traditionalist Shia clerics, Iran's democratic secularists and Islamic leftists. Consequently, prior to the overthrow of the Shah, the revolution's ideology was known for its "imprecision"[62] or "vague character,"[63] with the specific character of velayat-e faqih/theocratic waiting to be made public when the time was right.[64] Khomeini believed the opposition to velayat-e faqih/theocratic government by the other revolutionaries was the result of propaganda campaign by foreign imperialists eager to prevent Islam from putting a stop to their plundering. This propaganda was so insidious it had penetrated even Islamic seminaries and made it necessary to "observe the principles of taqiyya" (i.e. dissimulation of the truth in defense of Islam), when talking about (or not talking about) Islamic government. [65][66] Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ...


In the end, the revolutionary ideology prevailed. Khoemini and his core supporters worked determinedly to establish a government led by Islamic clerics, and opposition from the different factions was defeated, sometimes violently. (see below: Khomeini takes power, Consolidation of power by Khomeini and Opposition to the revolution) This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


Background of the revolution

Anti-clericalism of the Pahlavi dynasty

Following the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, Iran's first constitution came into effect, approved by the Majlis. The constitution established a special place for Twelver Shi'a Islam. It declared Islam the official religion of Iran, specified that the Shi'a clergy were to determine whether laws passed in the majlis were "comfortable to the principles of Islam", and that of committee of the clergy were to approve all laws, and required the Shah to promote the Twelver Shi'a Islam, and adhere to its principles. [67] (See: Supplementary Fundamental Laws) The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... The Iran Constitution of 1906[1] was Persias and later Irans first constitution that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution after more than 5000 years of recorded history. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Iran Constitution of 1906[1] was Persias and later Irans first constitution that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution after more than 5000 years of recorded history. ...


However, after the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty, Reza Pahlavi, like his contemporary Atatürk, tried to secularize and westernize Iran. He marginalized the Shi'a clergy, and put an end to Islamic laws and tried unveiling women. Reza Pahlavi tried to secularize Iran by ignoring the religious constitution. By the mid-1930s, Reza Shah's style of rule had caused intense dissatisfaction to the Shi'a clergy throughout Iran, thus creating a gap between religious institutions and the government.[68] He banned traditional Iranian dress for both men and women, in favour of western dress.[69] Women who resisted this compulsory unveiling had their chadors forcibly removed and torn. He dealt harshly with opposition: troops were sent to massacre protesters at mosques and nomads who refused to settle. Both liberal and religious newspapers were closed and many imprisoned.[69] The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... A chador (Persian چادر) is an outer garment worn by some Iranian women when they venture out into public; it is one possible way in which a Muslim woman may follow the Islamic ħijāb dress code. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ...


1940s: The Shah comes to power

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi came to power in 1941 after the deposing of his father, Reza Shah, by an invasion of allied British and Soviet troops in 1941. Reza Shah, a military man, had been known for his determination to modernize Iran and his hostility to the clerical class (ulema). Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi held power until the 1979 revolution with a brief interruption in 1953; when he had faced an attempted revolution. In that year he briefly fled the country after a power-struggle had emerged between himself and his Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, who had nationalized the country's oil fields and sought control of the armed forces. Mossadegh had been voted into power through a democratic election. Through a military coup d'etat aided by a CIA and MI6 covert operation, codenamed Operation Ajax, Mossadegh was overthrown and arrested and the Shah returned to the throne. Iranian sentiment has remembered this undermining of Iranian democratic process as a chief complaint against the United States and Britain. Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... From The U.S. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms - Joint Publication JP1-02 dated 05 January 2007: Covert Operation: An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ...


Like his father, Shah Pahlavi vainly sought to modernize and "westernize" a country severely underdeveloped by his own politics. As R. Kapuchinsky has authoritatively stated, these attempts were daunted by the lack of education of Iran's labor force and big gaps in technical and industrial facilities. He retained close relationships with the United States and several other western countries, and was frequently recognized by the American presidential administrations for his policies and steadfast opposition to Communism. Opposition to his government came from leftist, nationalist and religious groups who criticized it for violating the Iranian constitution, political corruption, and the savage political oppression of the SAVAK (secret police). Of ultimate importance to the opposition were the religious figures of the Ulema, or clergy, who had shown themselves to be a vocal political voice in Iran with the 19th century Tobacco Protests against a concession to a foreign interest. The clergy had a significant influence on the majority of Iranians who tended to be the religious, traditional and alienated from any process of Westernization. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Tobacco Protest occurred in Iran in 1891. ...


1960s: Rise of Ayatollah Khomeini

Ayatollah Khomeini
Ayatollah Khomeini
See also: Movement of 15 Khordad

Khomeini, the future leader of the Iranian revolution was declared as a marja, by the Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi. He also came to political prominence that year leading opposition to the Shah and his program of reforms known as the White Revolution. Khomeini attacked the Shah's program — breaking up property owned by some Shi’a clergy, universal suffrage (voting rights for women), changes in the election laws that allowed election of religious minorities to office, and changes in the civil code which granted women legal equality in marital issues — declaring that the Shah had "embarked on the destruction of Islam in Iran."[70] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Movement of 15 Khordad ( ‎ ​) which took place on June 5 in protest against arrestment of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom (جامعه مدرسين حوزه علميه قم ), was founded 1961 by the leading Shia clerics of Qom to organize religious teachings in the seminaries, and expand the religious teachings in Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi (آیت الله العظمی حسین بروجردی in Persian, 1875 – 1962) was a Shia Grand Ayatollah. ... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... This article is about the political process. ... Minority religion is the religion held by a minority of the population of a country, state, or region. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ...


Following Khomeini's public denunciation of the Shah as a "wretched miserable man" and arrest on June 5, 1963, three days of major riots erupted throughout Iran with police using deadly force to quell it. The Pahlavi government said 86 killed in the rioting; Khomeini supporters stated at least 15,000 killed;[71] while some say that post-revolutionary reports from police files indicate more than 380 were killed.[72] Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and released. He continued to agitate against the Shah on issues including the Shah's close cooperation with Israel and especially the Shah's "capitulations" of extending diplomatic immunity to American military personnel. In November 1964 Khomeini was re-arrested and sent into exile where he remained for 14 years until the revolution. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...


A period of "disaffected calm" followed.[73] Dissent was suppressed by SAVAK security service but the budding Islamic revival began to undermine the idea of Westernization as progress that was the basis of the Shah's secular regime. Jalal Al-e-Ahmad's idea of Gharbzadegi (the plague of Western culture), Ali Shariati's leftist interpretation of Islam, and Morteza Morahhari's popularized retellings of the Shia faith, all spread and gained listeners, readers and supporters.[55] Most importantly, Khomeini developed and propagated his theory that Islam requires an Islamic government by wilayat al-faqih, i.e. rule by the leading Islamic jurist. In a series of lectures in early 1970, later published as a book (Hokumat-e Islami, Velayat-e faqih, or Islamic government, Guardianship of the jurist in English), Khomeini argued that Islam requires obedience to sharia law alone, and this in turn requires that the leading Islamic jurist or jurists must not only guide Muslims but run the government. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آل احمد)‎ (1923-1969) was an Iranian writer and social/political critic. ... Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Main article: Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih (book by Khomeini)

While Khomeini did not talk about this concept in interviews and talks with outsiders, the book was widely distributed in religious circles, especially among Khomeini's students (talabeh), ex-students (clerics), and small business leaders. This group also began to develop what would become a powerful and efficient network of opposition[74] inside Iran, employing mosque sermons, smuggled cassette speeches by Khomeini, and other means. Added to this religious opposition were more modernist students and guerrilla groups[75] who admired Khomeini's leadership though they were to clash with and be suppressed by his movement after the revolution. Mom and pop store redirects here. ...


1970s: Pre-revolutionary conditions and events inside Iran

Several events in the 1970s set the stage for the 1979 revolution:


In October 1971, the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire was held at the site of Persepolis. Only foreign dignitaries were invited to the three-day party whose extravagances included over one ton of caviar, and preparation by some two hundred chefs flown in from Paris. Cost was officially $40 million but estimated to be more in the range of $100–120 million.[76] Meanwhile, the provinces of Baluchistan and Sistan, and even Fars where the celebrations were held, were suffering from drought. "As the foreigners reveled on drink forbidden by Islam, Iranians were not only excluded from the festivities, some were starving."[77] Symbol of 2,500 Year Celebration, Cyrus Cylinder in Center The 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12-16, 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus... This article is about the ancient city. ... For the band of the same name, see Caviar (band). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


By late 1974 the oil boom had begun to produce not "the Great Civilization" promised by the Shah, but an "alarming" increase in inflation and waste and an "accelerating gap" between the rich and poor, the city and the country.[78] Nationalistic Iranians were angered by the tens of thousand of skilled foreign workers who came to Iran, many of them to help operate the already unpopular and expensive American high-tech military equipment that the Shah had spent hundreds of millions of dollars on.


The next year the Rastakhiz party was created. It became not only the only party Iranians could belong to, but one the "whole adult population" was required to belong and pay dues to.[79] Attempts by this party to take a populist stand with "anti-profiteering" campaigns fining and jailing merchants, proved not only economically harmful but also politically counterproductive. Inflation was replaced by a black market and declining business activity. Merchants were angered and alienated.[80] Rastakhiz (Resurrection) is an Iranian monarchist party that was founded in the late 1960s under the government of Amir Abbas Hoveyda. ...


In 1976, the Shah's government angered pious Iranian Muslims by changing the first year of the Iranian solar calendar from the Islamic hijri to the ascension to the throne by Cyrus the Great. "Iran jumped overnight from the Muslim year 1355 to the royalist year 2535."[81] The same year the Shah declared economic austerity measures to dampen inflation and waste. The resulting unemployment disproportionately affected the thousands of recent poor and unskilled migrants to the cities. Culturally and religiously conservative and already disposed to view the Shah's secularism and Westernization as "alien and wicked",[82] many of these same people went on to form the core of revolution's demonstrators and "martyrs".[83] “Cyrus” redirects here. ...


In 1977 a new American President, Jimmy Carter, was inaugurated. In hopes of making post-Vietnam American power and foreign policy more benevolent, he created a special Office of Human Rights which sent the Shah a "polite reminder" of the importance of political rights and freedom. The Shah responded by granting amnesty to 357 political prisoners in February, and allowing Red Cross to visit prisons, beginning what is said to be 'a trend of liberalization by the Shah'. Through the late spring, summer and autumn liberal opposition formed organizations and issued open letters denouncing the regime.[84] Later that year a dissent group (the Writers' Association) gathered without the customary police break-up and arrests, starting a new era of political action by the Shah's opponents.[85] For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


That year also saw the death of the very popular and influential modernist Islamist leader Ali Shariati, allegedly at the hands of SAVAK, removing a potential revolutionary rival to Khomeini. Finally, in October Khomeini's son Mostafa died. Though the cause appeared to be a heart attack, anti-Shah groups blamed SAVAK poisoning and proclaimed him a 'martyr.' A subsequent memorial service for Mostafa in Tehran put Khomeini back in the spotlight and began the process of building Khomeini into the leading opponent of the Shah.[86][87] Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. ...


Opposition groups and organizations

Opposition groups under the Shah tended to fall into three major categories: constitutionalist, Marxist, and Islamist. Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


Constitutionalists, including National Front of Iran, wanted to revive constitutional monarchy including free elections. Without elections or outlets for peaceful political activity though, they had lost their relevance and had little following. The National Front of Iran (Jebhe Melli) is a political opposition party founded by Mohammad Mossadegh and other Iranian nationalist leaders in the late 1940s. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


Marxists groups were illegal and heavily suppressed by SAVAK internal security apparatus. They included the Tudeh Party of Iran; the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (OIPFG) and the breakaway Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (IPFG), two armed organizations; and some minor groups.[88] Their aim was to defeat the Pahlavi regime by assassination and guerilla war. Although they played an important part in the revolution, they never developed a large base of support. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... OIPFG symbol The Organization of Iranian Peoples Fedai Guerrillas emerged as radical Marxist-Leninist movement in Iran in 1971, formed to overthrow the Pahlavi regime. ... IFPG symbol The Iranian Peoples Fedai Guerrillas (in Persian: چريکهای فدايي خلق ايران, translit. ...


Islamists were divided into several groups. The Freedom Movement of Iran was formed by religious members of the National Front of Iran. It also was a constitutional group and wanted to use lawful political methods against the Shah. This movement comprised Bazargan and Taleqani. The People's Mujahedin of Iran was a quasi-Marxist armed organization that opposed the influence of the clergy and later fought the Islamic government. Individual writers and speakers like Ali Shariati and Morteza Morahhari did important work outside of these parties and groups. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The National Front of Iran (Jebhe Melli) is a political opposition party founded by Mohammad Mossadegh and other Iranian nationalist leaders in the late 1940s. ... Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani (1911 - September 9, 1979) was an Iranian theologian, Muslim reformer and a senior Shia cleric of Iran. ... MKO redirects here. ...


Amongst the close followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, there were some minor armed Islamist groups which joined together after the revolution in the Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization. The Coalition of Islamic Societies was founded by religious bazaaris[89] (traditional merchants). The Combatant Clergy Association comprised Motahhari, Beheshti, Bahonar, Rafsanjani and Mofatteh who later became the major governors of Islamic Republic. They used a cultural approach to fight the Shah. Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (سازمان مجاهدین انقلاب اسلامی; sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e enghelāb-e eslāmi), sometimes abbreviated to MIRO, is a reformist Iranian political organization. ... The Combatant Clergy Association (Jamee-ye Rowhaniyat-e Mobarez) or (جامعه روحانیت مبارز in Persian), is a political party in Iran. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, University lecturer, and politician. ... Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Bahonar may refer to either of two Iranian politicians, who are brothers: Mohammad Javad Bahonar, the Prime Minister of Iran assassinated in 1981 Mohammad Reza Bahonar, the present Vice Speaker of Majlis of Iran This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential Iranian politicians, and the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ...


Because of internal repression, opposition groups abroad, like the Confederation of Iranian students, the foreign branch of Freedom Movement of Iran and the Islamic association of students, were important to the revolution. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


1978: Outbreak of the Revolution

The early visible opposition by liberals was based in the urban middle class, a section of the population that was fairly secular and wanted the Shah to adhere to the Iranian Constitution of 1906, not a republic ruled by Islamic clerics.[90] Prominent in it was Mehdi Bazargan and his liberal, moderate Islamic group Freedom Movement of Iran, and the more secular National Front. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The Iran Constitution of 1906[1] was Persias and later Irans first constitution that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution after more than 5000 years of recorded history. ... Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The National Front of Iran (Jebhe Melli) is a political opposition party founded by Mohammad Mossadegh and other Iranian nationalist leaders in the late 1940s. ...


The clergy were divided, some allying with the liberal secularists, and others with the Marxists and Communists. Khomeini, who was in exile in Iraq, worked to unite clerical and secular, liberal and radical opposition under his leadership[91] by avoiding specifics — at least in public — that might divide the factions.[92]


The various anti-Shah groups operated from outside Iran, mostly in London, Paris, Iraq, and Turkey. Speeches by the leaders of these groups were placed on audio cassettes to be smuggled into Iran. This article is about the capital of France. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ...


The first major demonstration

The first of the major demonstrations against the Shah led by Islamic groups came in January 1978. Angry students and religious leaders in the city of Qom demonstrated against a libelous story attacking Khomeini run in the official press. The army was sent in, dispersing the demonstrations and killing several students (two according to the government, 70 according to the opposition).[93] Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ...


According to the Shi'ite customs, memorial services are held forty days after a person's death. In mosques across the nation, calls were made to honour the dead students. Thus on February 18 groups in a number of cities marched to honour the fallen and protest against the rule of the Shah. This time, violence erupted in Tabriz, and over a hundred demonstrators were killed. The cycle repeated itself, and on March 29, a new round of protests began across the nation. Luxury hotels, cinemas, banks, government offices, and other symbols of the Shah regime were destroyed; again security forces intervened, killing many. On May 10 the same occurred. The memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii commemorates American dead from wars in the Pacific. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ayatollah Shariatmadari joins the opposition

In May, government commandos burst into the home of Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari, a leading cleric and political moderate, and shot dead one of his followers right in front of him. Shariatmadari abandoned his quietist stance and joined the opposition to the Shah.[94]


The Shah attempted to appease protestors by dampening inflation, making appeals to the moderate clergy, and by firing his head of SAVAK and promising free elections the next June.[95] But the anti-inflationary cutbacks in spending led to layoffs — particularly among young, unskilled workers living in city slums. By summer 1978, these workers, often from traditional rural backgrounds, joined the street protests in massive numbers. Other workers went on strike and by November the economy was crippled by shutdowns.[96]


The Shah approaches the United States

Facing a revolution, the Shah appealed to the United States for support. Because of its history and strategic location, Iran was important to the United States. It was a pro-American country sharing a long border with America's cold war rival, the Soviet Union, and the largest, most powerful country in the oil-rich Persian Gulf. But the Pahlavi regime had also recently garnered unfavorable publicity in the West for its human rights record.[97] The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Ambassador Atherton, Sullivan, Vance, Carter and Brzezinski, 1979 Alfred Leroy Atherton Jr. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1979. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (Polish: Zbigniew Kazimierz BrzeziÅ„ski, pronounced ) : (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman who served as United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ...


The Carter administration followed "no clear policy" on Iran.[98] The U.S. ambassador to Iran, William H. Sullivan, recalls that the U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski “repeatedly assured Pahlavi that the U.S. backed him fully." President Carter arguably failed at following up on those assurances. On November 4, 1978, Brzezinski called the Shah to tell him that the United States would "back him to the hilt." At the same time, certain high-level officials in the State Department believed the revolution was unstoppable.[99] After visiting the Shah in summer of 1978, Secretary of the Treasury Blumenthal complained of the Shah's emotional collapse, reporting, "You've got a zombie out there."[100] Brzezinski and Energy Secretary James Schlesinger (Secretary of Defense under Ford) were adamant in their assurances that the Shah would receive military support. Brzezinski still advocated a U.S. military intervention to stabilize Iran even when the Shah's position was believed to be untenable. President Carter could not decide how to stabilize the situation; he was certainly against another coup. Initially, there appeared to be support for a peaceful transfer of power, however this option evaporated when Khomeini and his followers swept through the country, taking power on February 12, 1979. The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1979. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (Polish: Zbigniew Kazimierz BrzeziÅ„ski, pronounced ) : (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman who served as United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, concerned as the name suggests, with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Conspiracy theories

Many Iranians believe the lack of intervention and sometime sympathy for the revolution by high-level American officials indicate the U.S. "was responsible for Khomeini's victory."[101] A more extreme position asserts that the Shah's overthrow was the result of a "sinister plot to topple a nationalist, progressive, and independent-minded monarch."[102]


Abadan arson attack

As violence continued, over 400 people died in the Cinema Rex Fire arson attack in August in Abadan. Although movie theaters had been a common target of Islamist demonstrators[103][104] such was the distrust of the regime and effectiveness of its enemies' communication skills that the public believed SAVAK had set the fire in an attempt to frame the opposition.[105] The next day 10,000 relatives and sympathizers gathered for a mass funeral and march shouting, ‘burn the Shah’, and ‘the Shah is the guilty one.’[106] Cinema Rex after the fire On August 20, 1978, Cinema Rex in Abadan, Iran, was set ablaze by Islamist militants killing approximately 430 individuals. ...


Black Friday

By September, the nation was rapidly destabilizing, with major protests becoming a regular occurrence. The Shah introduced martial law, and banned all demonstrations. A massive protest broke out in Tehran, in what became known as Black Friday. Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Black Friday was a series of protests that occurred on September 8, 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 AP) in Tehran, Iran. ...


The clerical leadership spread rumours that "thousands have been massacred by Zionist troops."[107] The troops were actually ethnic Kurds who had been fired on, and the number killed not 15,000 but closer to 700,[108] but in the mean time the appearance of government brutality alienated much of the rest of the Iranian people and the Shah's allies abroad. A general strike in October resulted in the paralysis of the economy, with vital industries being shut down, "sealing the Shah's fate".[109] A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ...


Ayatollah Khomeini in Paris

Ayatollah Khomeini at Neauphle-leChateau surrounded by journalists.

Shah decided to seek the deportation of Ayatollah Khomeini from Iraq and on September 24, 1978, Iraqi regime sieged the house of Khomeini in Najaf. He was informed that his continued residence in Iraq was contingent on his abandoning political activity, a condition he rejected. On October 3, he left Iraq for Kuwait, but was refused entry at the border. Finally October 6 Ayatollah Khomeini embarked for Paris. On October 10 he took up residence in the suburb of Neauphle-le-Château in a house that had been rented for him by Iranian exiles in France. From now on the journalists from across the world made their way to France, and the image and the words of the Ayatollah Khomeini soon became a daily feature in the world's media.[110] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Neauphle-le-Château is a commune of the Yvelines département, in France. ...


Muharram protests

On December 2, during the Islamic month of Muharram, over two million people filled the streets of Tehran's Azadi Square (then Shahyad Square), to demand the removal of the Shah and return of Khomeini.[111] is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Azadi Tower in Azadi Square Azadi (Freedom) Square. ...


Casualties

"60,000 men, women and children were martyred by the Shah's regime," according to the Islamic Republic of Iran. However, a former researcher at the Martyrs Foundation (Bonyad Shahid), Emad al-Din Baghi, believes the number of casualties suffered by the anti-Shah movement between 1963 and 1979 is 3,164, with 2,781 killed in the 1978 and 1979 clashes between demonstrators and the Shah's army and security forces.[112]


Victory of revolution and fall of monarchy

The Shah leaves

Mass demonstration in Tehran.

On January 16, 1979 the Shah and the empress left Iran at the demand of prime minister Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar (a long time opposition leader himself) and to scenes of spontaneous joy and the destruction "within hours of almost every sign of the Pahlavi dynasty."[113] Bakhtiar dissolved SAVAK, freed political prisoners, ordered the army to allow mass demonstrations, promised free elections and invited Khomeinists and other revolutionaries into a government of "national unity".[114] After stalling for a few days he allowed Ayatollah Khomeini to return to Iran, asking him to create a Vatican-like state in Qom and called upon the opposition to help preserve the constitution. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Shapour Bakhtiar (  ) (also Shapur Bakhtiar) (Persian: شاپور بختیار ShāpÅ«r Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and the last Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ...


Khomeini's return and fall of the monarchy

Arrival of Ayatollah Khomeini on Feb 1st.

On February 1, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran to rapturous greeting by several million Iranians. Khomeini had flown back to Iran in a chartered Air France Jumbo Jet.[115] Not only the undisputed leader of the revolution,[116] he had now become what some called a "semi-divine" figure, greeted as he descended from his airplane with cries of ‘Khomeini, O Imam, we salute you, peace be upon you.’[117] Crowds were now known to chant "Islam, Islam, Khomeini, We Will Follow You," and even "Khomeini for King."[118] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile on February 1, 1979. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile on February 1, 1979. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...


On the day of his arrival Khomeini made clear his fierce rejection of Bakhtiar's regime in a speech promising ‘I shall kick their teeth in.’ He appointed his own competing interim prime minister Mehdi Bazargan on February 4, `with the support of the nation’ and demanding ‘since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed.’ It was ‘God's government,’ he warned, disobedience against which was a ‘revolt against God.’[119] As Khomeini's movement gained momentum, soldiers began to defect to his side. On February 9 about 10 P.M. a fight broke out between loyal Immortal Guards and pro-Khomeini rebel Homafaran of Iran Air Force. Khomeini declaring jihad on loyal soldiers who did not surrender.[120] Revolutionaries and rebel soldiers gained the upper hand and began to take over police stations and military installations, distributing arms to the public. The final collapse of the provisional non-Islamist government came at 2 p.m. February 11 when the Supreme Military Council declared itself "neutral in the current political disputes… in order to prevent further disorder and bloodshed."[121][122] TV and Radio stations, palaces of Pahlavi dynasty and government buildings were then occupied by revolutionaries. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... // In 1921 a Persian Royal Guard was in existence comprising 20,000 men. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...


This period, from February 1 to 11, known as the "Decade of Fajr," is celebrated every year in Iran.[123][124] February 11 is "Islamic Revolution's Victory Day", a national holiday with state sponsored demonstrations in every city.[125][126]


Revolutionary organizations

Further information: Organizations of the Iranian Revolution

Revolutionary Council

The "Revolutionary Council" was formed by Khomeini to manage the revolution on 12 January of 1979, shortly before he returned to Iran. Its existence was kept a secret during the early, less secure time of the revolution. Rafsanjani says Ayatollah Khomeini chose Beheshti, Motahhari, Rafsanjani, Bahonar and Musavi Ardabili as members. These invited others to serve: Bazargan, Taleqani, Khamenei, Banisadr, Mahdavi Kani, Yadollah Sahabi, Katirayee, Ahmad Sadr Haj Seyed Javadi, Qarani and Ali Asqr Masoodi.[127] This council suggested Mahdi Bazargan as the prime minister of the temporary government of Khomeini, and he accepted it.[23] is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential Iranian politicians, and the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, University lecturer, and politician. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential Iranian politicians, and the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Bahonar may refer to either of two Iranian politicians, who are brothers: Mohammad Javad Bahonar, the Prime Minister of Iran assassinated in 1981 Mohammad Reza Bahonar, the present Vice Speaker of Majlis of Iran This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Ayatollah al-Uzma Sayyed Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili (also spelt Ardabili, Persian: ‎ , born January 28, 1926) is an Iranian marja and politician. ... Bazargan can refer to: Mehdi Bazargan Bazargan, Afghanistan Bazargan, Iran Category: ... Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani (1911 - September 9, 1979) was an Iranian theologian, Muslim reformer and a senior Shia cleric of Iran. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Abolhassan Banisadr (ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر in Persian) (born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 revolution. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani (محمدرضا مهدوی Ú©Ù†ÛŒ) is an Iranian cleric and politician. ... Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after Iranian Revolution of 1979. ...


After the revolution took power, the council became a legislative body issuing decrees until the formation of first parliament[citation needed] on 12 August 1980.[128] The laws passed by this council were recognized as legitimate in the Islamic republic of Iran.[citation needed] is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Provisional Revolutionary Government

Iranian prime minister Mehdi Bazargan was an advocate of democracy and civil rights. He also opposed the cultural revolution and US embassy takeover.
Iranian prime minister Mehdi Bazargan was an advocate of democracy and civil rights. He also opposed the cultural revolution and US embassy takeover.

The Provisional Revolutionary Government or "Interim Government of Iran" (1979–1980) was the first government established in Iran following the overthrow of the monarchy. It was formed by order of Ayatollah Khomeini on February 4, 1979, while Shapour Bakhtiar (the Shah's last Prime Minister) was still claiming power.[23] The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Shapour Bakhtiar (  ) (also Shapur Bakhtiar) (Persian: شاپور بختیار ShāpÅ«r Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and the last Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September...


Ayatollah Khomeini appointed Bazargan as the prime minister of "The Provisional Revolutionary Government" on February 4, 1979. Bazargan can refer to: Mehdi Bazargan Bazargan, Afghanistan Bazargan, Iran Category: ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Khomeini made it clear Iranians were commanded to obey Bazargan as a religious duty.

As a man who, though the guardianship [Velayat] that I have from the holy lawgiver [the Prophet], I hereby pronounce Bazargan as the Ruler, and since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed. The nation must obey him. This is not an ordinary government. It is a government based on the sharia. Opposing this government means opposing the sharia of Islam ... Revolt against God's government is a revolt against God. Revolt against God is blasphemy.[129] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ...

Mehdi Bazargan introduced his 7-member cabinet on February 14, 1979,[citation needed] three days after the victory of the revolution when the army announced its neutrality in conflicts between Khomeini's and Bakhtiar's supporters. Bakhtiar resigned on the same day, February 11. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The PRG is often described as "subordinate" to the Revolutionary Council, and having had difficulties reigning in the numerous komiteh which were competing with its authority.[130]


Prime Minister Bazargan resigned and his government fell after American Embassy officials were taken hostage on November 4, 1979. Power then passed into the hands of the Revolutionary Council. Bazargan had been a supporter of the original revolutionary draft constitution rather than theocracy by Islamic jurist, and his resignation was received by Khomeini without complaint, saying "Mr. Bazargan ... was a little tired and preferred to stay on the sidelines for a while." Khomeini later described his appointment of Bazargan as a "mistake."[131] is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


The Committees of Islamic Revolution

The first committees "sprang up everywhere" as autonomous organizations in late 1978. Organized in mosques, schools and workplaces, they mobilized people, organized strikes and demonstrations, and distributed scarce commodities. After February 12th, many of the 300,000 rifles and sub-machine guns seized from military arsenals[132] ended up with the committees who confiscated property and arrested those they believed to be counter-revolutionaries. In Tehran alone there were 1500 committees. Inevitably there was conflict between the committees and the other sources of authority, particularly the Provisional Government.[133]


To deal with this, on February 12th, the committees of the Islamic revolution were charged with gathering weapons, organizing the armed revolutionaries, and generally fighting anarchy in the wake of the collapse of the police and weakness of the army. Khomeini put Ayatollah Mahdavi Kani in charge of the komiteh.[134] They also served as "the eyes and ears" of the new regime, and are credited by critics with "many arbitrary arrests, executions and confiscations of property".[135] In the summer of 1979, the komitehs were purged to eradicate the influence of the leftist guerilla movements that had infiltrated them.[136] In 1991 they were merged with the conventional police in a new organisation known as the Niruha-ye Entezami (Forces of Order).[137] Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani (محمدرضا مهدوی کنی) is an Iranian cleric and politician. ...


Islamic Republic Party

The Islamic republic party was started by Khomeini lieutenant Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti and the Coalition of Islamic Societies within a few days of the Khomeini's arrival in Iran. It was made up of the Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution (OMIR), merchants of the bazaar and "a large segment of the politically active clergy." It "operated on every level of society, from government offices to almost all city quarters..."[138] and worked to establish theocratic government by velayat-e faqih in Iran outmaneuvering opponents and wielding power on the street through the Hezbollah. The Islamic Republic Party (حزب جمهوری اسلامی) was a political party in Iran, founded in 1979 by Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili, and included several supporters of the Islamic Republic government of Iran. ... Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... In Iran, the Velayat-e faqih refers to the controversial concept of guardianship of the jurist. ...


The party achieved a large majority in the first parliament but clashed with first president, Banisadr, who was not a member of the party. Banisadr supporters were suppressed and Banisadr impeached and removed from office June 21, 1981. A campaign of terror against the IRP followed, mounted by the guerrilla group MEK. On the 28 of June, 1981, a bombing of the office of the Islamic Republic Party by People's Mujahedin of Iran resulted in the death of around 70 high-ranking officials, cabinet members and members of parliament, including Mohammad Beheshti, the secretary-general of the party and head of the Islamic Party's judicial system. Mohammad Javad Bahonar then became the secretary-general of the party, but was in turn assassinated on September 2. Because of these events and other assassinations the Islamic Party was weakened in 1981. It was dissolved in 1987.[139] Abolhassan Banisadr Abolhassan Banisadr (Persian: ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر;born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Islamic Republic Party (حزب جمهوری اسلامی) was a political party in Iran, founded in 1979 by Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili, and included several supporters of the Islamic Republic government of Iran. ... MKO redirects here. ... Mohammad Beheshti Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر in Persian), (1933 - August 30, 1981), was the second prime minister of Iran following the 1979 revolution, and the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic Party. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps

The Revolutionary Guard or Pasdaran-e Enqelab, was established by a decree issued by Khomeini on May 5, 1979 "to protect the revolution from destructive forces and counter-revolutionaries,`[140] i.e. as a counterweight both to the armed groups of the left, and to the Iranian military, which had been part of the Shah's power base. 6,000 persons were initially enlisted and trained,[141] but the guard eventually grew into "a full-scale" military force "with air force and navy branches". Its work involves both conventional military duties, helping Islamic forces abroad, such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, and internal security, such as the suppression of narcotics trafficking, riots by the discontented, and unIslamic behavior by members of the public.[142] It has been described as "without a doubt the strongest institution of the revolution"[143] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Oppressed Mobilization

Main article: Basij

"Oppressed mobilization" or Baseej-e Mostaz'afin was founded at the command of Khomeini in 1980, to be organized by the Revolutionary Guard.[144] Its purpose was to mobilize volunteers of many skills -- doctors, engineers, but primarily to mobilize those too old or young[145] to serve in other bodies. Baseej (also Basij) often provided security, and helped police and the army. Baseej were also used to attack opposition demonstrators and ransack opposition newspaper offices, who were believed to be enemies of the revolution..[146] Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ...


Hezbollah

Main article: Hezbollah of Iran

The Hezbollah or Party of God, were the "strong-arm thugs" who attacked demonstrators and offices of newspapers critical of Khomeini, and later a wider variety of activities found to be undesirable for "moral" or "cultural" reasons.[147] Hezbollah is/was not a tightly structured independent organisation but more a movement of loosely bound groups usually centered around a mosque.[148] Although in the early days of the revolution Khomeinists -- those in the Islamic Republican Party -- denied connection to Hezbollah, maintaining its attacks were the spontaneous will of the people over which the government had no control, in fact Hezbollah was supervised by "a young protegee of Khomeini," Hojjat al-Islam Hadi Ghaffari.[149]


Jihad of Construction

Jihad of construction, or Jahad-e Sazandegi, began as a movement of "volunteers to help with the 1979 harvest", but soon took on a "broader, more official role" in the countryside. It is involved with "road building, piped water, electrification, clinics, schools, and irrigation canals."[150] It also provides "extension services, seeds, loans," etc. to small farmers[151] Finally it was merged with agriculture ministry in 2001 to form the Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.[152]


The Islamic republic

Khomeini takes power

There was great jubilation in Iran at the ousting of the Shah, but the glue that stuck together the dozens of religious, liberal, secularist, Marxist, and Communist, revolutionary factions—opposition to the Shah—was now gone. Each of the many groups vying for influence had different interpretations of the broad goals of the revolution: an end to tyranny, more Islamic and less American and Western influence, more social justice and less inequality. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Khomeini had "overwhelming ideological, political and organizational hegemony,"[153] but this was in large part because his non-theocratic allies believed he had neither the interest in nor ability to rule,[154] and intended to be more a spiritual guide than a power holder. Khomeini was in his mid-70s, had never held public office, been out of Iran for more than a decade, and had told questioners things like "the religious dignitaries do not want to rule,"[155][156]


There is some dispute over whether "what began as an authentic and anti-dictatorial popular revolution based on a broad coalition of all anti-Shah forces was soon transformed into an Islamic fundamentalist power-grab"[157] after the return of Khomeini, or whether the non-theocratic groups played a role in the early days of the revolution, but did not seriously challenge Khomeini's movement in popular support.[158] Whichever was the case, Khomeini's forces prevailed, eliminating with skillful timing both adversaries and unwanted allies from power[159] and implemented his wilayat al-faqih design for an Islamic Republic led by himself as Supreme Leader.[160] Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ...


In the first year of revolution there were two centers of power: the Provisional Revolutionary Government, and the revolutionary organizations. Foundation of revolutionary organizations and councils was begun by leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. These official and popular organizations managed revolutionary situation and established new Islamic state.


Establishment of Islamic republic government

Referendum of 12 Farvardin

On March 30 and 31 (Farvardin 10, 11) Iranians voted on whether Iran should become an "Islamic Republic," . On Farvardin 12 a 98.2% vote in favor was announced, with Khomeini declaring the result a victory of "the oppressed ... over the arrogant."[161] Several secularist and communist groups boycotted the vote but turnout was very high. The opposition claims Islamic Republic not being defined.


Assembly of Experts of Constitution

The seventy-three-member Assembly of Experts for Constitution was elected in the summer of 1979 to write a new constitution for the Islamic Republic. The Assembly was originally conceived of as a way expediting the draft constitution which Khomeini supporters had started working when Khomeini was still in exile, but which leftists found too conservative and wanted to make major changes to. Ironically, it was the Assembly that made major changes, instituting principles of theocracy by velayat-e faqih, adding on a faqih Supreme Leader, and increasing the power and clerical character of the Council of Guardians which could veto un-Islamic legislation. The new constitution was opposed by some clerics, including Ayatollah Shariatmadari, and secularists who urged a boycott. It was approved by referendum on December 2 and 3, 1979, by over 98 percent of the vote.[162] Assembly of Experts for Constitution was elected in the summer of 1979 to write a new constitution for the Islamic Republic. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...


Consolidation of power by Khomeini

The Khomeini-appointed Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan supported the establishment of a reformist, democratic parliamentary government.[163] Operating separately were the Revolutionary Council made up of Khomeini and his clerical supporters, the Revolutionary Guards, revolutionary tribunals, and at the local level revolutionary cells turned local committees (komitehs).[164] While the moderate Bazargan and his Provisional Revolutionary Government (temporarily) reassured the Westernized middle class, it became apparent they did not have power over the "Khomeinist" revolutionary bodies, particularly the Revolutionary Council and later the Islamic Revolutionary Party. Inevitably the overlapping authority of the Revolutionary Council (which had the power to pass laws) and Revolutionary government was a source of conflict,[165] despite the fact that both had been approved by and/or put in place by Khomeini. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In June, the Freedom Movement released its draft constitution; it referred to Iran as an Islamic Republic and included a Guardian Council to veto unIslamic legislation, but had no guardian jurist ruler.[166] The constitution was sent for review to the newly-elected Assembly of Experts for the Constitution which was dominated by allies of Khomeini. Despite the fact that Khomeini had originally declared it ‘correct’,[167][156] Khomeini (and the assembly) rejected the constitution, Khomeini declaring that the new government should be based "100% on Islam." Assembly of Experts for Constitution was elected in the summer of 1979 to write a new constitution for the Islamic Republic. ...


A new constitution drawn up by the Assembly of Experts for the Constitution created a powerful post of Supreme Leader for Khomeini, [3] who was in charge of the military and security services, and appointed several top government and judicial officials. A less powerful president was to be elected every four years. Another theocratic body, the Council of Guardians) was given veto power over candidates for president, parliament, and the body that elected the Supreme Leader (the Assembly of Experts) as well as laws passed by the legislature. Assembly of Experts for Constitution was elected in the summer of 1979 to write a new constitution for the Islamic Republic. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ...


Hostage Crisis

Main article: Iran hostage crisis

In October 1979 the United States admitted the exiled and ailing Shah into the country for cancer treatment. In Iran there was an immediate outcry in Iran with both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution. Revolutionaries were reminded of Operation Ajax, 26 years earlier when the Shah fled abroad while American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent. Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Coup redirects here. ...


Youthful supporters of Khomeini, calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line invaded the embassy compound. Although the students later said they did not expect to occupy the embassy for long, their action received official support and triggered the Iran hostage crisis where 52 American diplomats were held hostage for 444 days. Khomeini supported the hostage-taking not only out of his enmity for the ex-Shah but to advance the cause of theocratic government and outflank his opponents, or as he told his future President, "This action has many benefits. ... This has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections."[168] The anti-theocratic liberals who opposed keeping the hostages split from anti-theocratic leftist guerilla organizations who supported it. Muslim student followers of the Imams line (fa:دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام) were the students (from science and technology universities) of some of the major universities of Tehran including University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology(polythechnic of Tehran), Iran University of Science and Technology gathered. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ...


Attempts to extradite the Shah for execution were unsuccessful. The Shah left America for Egypt, where he had been given exile by Pres. Anwar Sadat, and where he died less than a year after the hostage taking. This did not end the crisis, however, which switched focus to allegations that the American embassy was a "nest of spies". Embassy documents were released by Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line showing moderates had met with U.S. officials, although similar evidence of high ranking Islamists having also done so did not see the light of day.[169] Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Muslim student followers of the Imams line (fa:دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام) were the students (from science and technology universities) of some of the major universities of Tehran including University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology(polythechnic of Tehran), Iran University of Science and Technology gathered. ...


After over a year of captivity (444 days) the hostages were released in a settlement that "did not meet any of Iran's original demands" and was considered "almost wholly favorable to the United States."[170] The crisis did succeed in radicalizing the revolution and further weakening Iranian moderates. Among the moderate causualties of the hostage crisis was Prime Minister Bazargan who resigned in November unable to enforce the government's order to release the hostages.[171] Another legacy was the weakening of the Iranian economy from economic sanctions placed on Iran by America which are still in place.[172][173] This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ...


Opposition to the revolution

Iranian dissent and its suppression

The first to be executed by revolutionary leadership were members of the old regime: senior generals, and a couple of months later over 200 of the Shah's senior civilian officials[174] as punishment and to eliminate the danger of coup d’État. Brief trials lacking defense attorneys, juries, transparency or opportunity for the accused to defend themselves[175] were held by revolutionary judges such as Sadegh Khalkhali, the Sharia judge. Among those executed was Amir Abbas Hoveida, former Prime Minister of Iran. Those who escaped Iran were not immune. A decade later, another former Prime Minister, Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar, was assassinated in Paris, one of at least 63 Iranians abroad killed or wounded since the Shah was overthrown,[176] although these attacks are thought to have stopped after the early 1990s.[177] Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali (صادق خلخالی in Persian) (1927? - November 26, 2003) was a hardline Shia cleric of the early years of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Amir Abbas Hoveida, BA (Persian: ‎ AmÄ«r `Abbās Hoveyda) February 18, 1919 – April 7, 1979), also spelled Hoveyda, was an Iranian politician. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Shapour Bakhtiar (  ) (also Shapur Bakhtiar) (Persian: شاپور بختیار ShāpÅ«r Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and the last Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ...


Communist guerrillas and federalist parties revolted in some regions comprising Khuzistan, Kurdistan and Gonbad-e Qabus which resulted in fighting among them and revolutionary forces. These revolts began in April and lasted for several months or years depending on the region. External links Official website of Khuzestan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... The tower as it stands today. ...


By early March revolutionaries hoping for a government based on liberal democracy were given a taste of disappointments to come when Khomeini announced "Do not use this term, ‘democratic.’ That is the Western style."[178] In mid August several dozen newspapers and magazines opposing Khomeini's idea of Islamic government — theocratic rule by jurists or velayat-e faqih — were shut down.[179][180] Khomeini angrily denounced protests against the press closings, saying "we thought we were dealing with human beings. It is evident we are not."[181] Half a year later the moderate opposition Muslim People's Republican Party was suppressed with many of the aides of its elderly figurehead, the Grand Ayatollah Shari'atmadari, put under house arrest.[182] In March 1980 the "Cultural Revolution" began. Universities, a leftist bastion, were closed for two years to purge them of opponents to theocratic rule. In July the state bureaucracy began the dismissal of 20,000 teachers and nearly 8,000 military officers deemed too "Westernized"[183] Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Khomeini sometimes used takfir (declaring someone guilty of apostasy, a capital crime) to deal with his opponents. When leaders of the National Front party called for a demonstration in mid-1981 against a new law on qesas, or traditional Islamic retaliation for a crime, Khomeini threatened its leaders with the death penalty for apostasy "if they did not repent."[184] Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ...


One of the last organized opponents of theocratic rule was the People's Mujahedin of Iran, a guerrilla group that unlike most of the opposition was armed and accustomed to using violence. In February 1980 concentrated attacks by hezbollahi toughs began on the meeting places, bookstores, newsstands of Mujahideen and other leftists[185] driving the left underground. People's Mujahideen retaliated with a campaign of bombing assassination including the killing of 72 at the Islamic Republican Party headquarters on June 28, 1981[186] President Mohammad Ali Rajai and Prime Minister Mohammad Javad Bahonar were also assassinated that year.[187] MKO redirects here. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Mohammad Ali Rajai Mohammad Ali Rajai (محمد علی رجائی in Persian) (1933 – August 30, 1981) was the second elected President of Iran, after serving as Prime Minister under Abolhassan Banisadr. ... Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر in Persian), (1933 - August 30, 1981), was the second prime minister of Iran following the 1979 revolution, and the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic Party. ...


Western/U.S.-Iranian relations

Main article: United States-Iran relations

Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Political relations between Iran (Persia) and the United States began when the Shah...

Neighboring regimes and the Iran-Iraq War

The Islamic Republic positioned itself as a revolutionary beacon under the slogan "neither East nor West" (i.e. follow neither Soviet nor American/West European models), and called for the overthrow of capitalism, American influence, and social injustice in the Middle East and the rest of the world. Revolutionary leaders in Iran gave and sought support from non-Islamic as well as Islamic Third World causes — e.g. the PLO, Sandinistas in Nicaragua, Irish IRA and anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa — even to the point of favoring non-Muslim revolutionaries over more conservative Islamic causes such as the neighboring Afghan Mujahideen.[188] The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


In its region, Iranian Islamic revolutionaries called specifically for the overthrow of monarchies and their replacement with Islamic republics, much to the alarm of its smaller Sunni-run Arab neighbors Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf States. Most of these countries were monarchies and all had sizable Shi'a populations - including a majority population in Iraq and Bahrain. In 1980, Iraq whose government was Sunni Muslim and Arab nationalist, invaded Iran in an attempt to seize the oil-rich predominantly Arab province of Khuzistan and destroy the revolution in its infancy. Thus began the eight year Iran-Iraq War, one of the most destructive and bloody wars of the 20th century. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ...


A combination of fierce patriot resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, and past differences were largely abandoned in the face of the external threat. The war also became an opportunity for the regime to crush its remaining opponents, mostly the Soviet-backed leftist groups, dishing out harsh treatment, including torture and imprisonment. CCCP redirects here. ...


Realizing its mistake, the Iraqis offered Iran a truce. Khomeini rejected it, announcing the only condition for peace was that "the regime in Baghdad must fall and must be replaced by an Islamic Republic."[189] The war continued for another six years with hundreds of thousands of lives lost and great destruction from air attacks. While in the end the revolutionaries failed to expand the Islamic revolution into Iraq, they did solidify their control of Iran.[190]


Post-revolutionary impact

Further information: History of the Islamic Republic of Iran

edit The Islamic republic of Iran originated from Islamic revolution of Iran which resulted in transforming Iran from a monarchy under the Shah (king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic. ...

International

Internationally, the initial impact of the Islamic revolution was immense. In the non-Muslim world it has changed the image of Islam, generating much interest in the politics and spirituality of Islam.[191] In the Mideast and Muslim world, particularly in its early years, it triggered enormous enthusiasm and redoubled opposition to western intervention and influence. Islamist insurgents rose in Saudi Arabia (the 1979 week-long takeover of the Grand Mosque), Egypt (the 1981 machine-gunning of the Egyptian President Sadat), Syria (the Muslim Brotherhood rebellion in Hama), and Lebanon (the 1983 bombing of the American Embassy and French and American peace-keeping troops).[192] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The April 1983 U.S. Embassy bombing was the April 18, 1983, suicide bombing of the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon. ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ...


Although ultimately these rebellions did not succeed, other activities have had more long term impact. The Ayatollah Khomeini's 1989 fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie for his allegedly blasphemous book The Satanic Verses, demonstrated that even citizens of a foreign country living in that country were not safe from the long arm of the Islamic revolution. The Islamic revolutionary government itself is credited with financing and helping create such groups as the powerful Hezbollah in Lebanon, the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq and the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan. In Lebanon, Iran's generous financing of Hezbollah helped establish that group as a major political and military power which fought against Israeli occupation and its proxy South Lebanon Army, and expanded Shia Islam's influence.[193] Hezbollah's dependence on Iran for military and financial aid is heavily debated, and the Israel-Hezbollah 2006 War provided an eye-opening for the world of Hezbollah weapons said to be Iranian imports.[194][195] Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... This article is about the controversy over the novel by Salman Rushdie. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) (Arabic: المجلس الأعلى للثورة الإسلامية في العراق ) is an Iraqi political party. ... Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance). ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: ; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-Janūbi. ...


The revolution has won praise from some Muslim leaders. Hamas Palestinian Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh: Ismail Haniyeh (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية; sometimes transliterated as Ismail Haniya or Ismail Haniyah); born January 1963) is a senior political leader of Hamas and former Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ...

You are also continuing the same path that was initiated by Imam Khomeini, since you have always supported the Palestinian people, and I hope that we will meet each other at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the near future.[196] For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ...

Others have been less complementary. Scholars have argued the devastating Iran-Iraq "mortally wounded ... the ideal of spreading the Islamic revolution,"[197] or that Iran has lost "its place as a great regional power,"[198] because the ideology of the revolution prevents Iran from following a "nationalist, pragmatic" foreign policy. Others say the only country outside Iran the revolution has had a "measure of lasting influence" is in Lebanon.[199]


Iranians have also complained of the international impact on indivdual citizens. As one complained to an Iranian-American journalist: "What has come of us. Our currency is worthless. Those backward Arabs go to Europe with rials, and we can barely visit Turkey with our worthless tomans!" [200]


Energy Crisis

Graph of Top Oil Producing Counties, showing drop in Iran's Production .
Graph of Top Oil Producing Counties, showing drop in Iran's Production [201].

The revolution shattered the Iranian oil sector and the loss of output led to the 1979 international energy crisis. Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ...


Domestic

Internally, some goals of the revolutionary — broadening education and health care for the poor, and particularly governmental promotion of Islam, and the elimination of secularism and American influence in government — have met with unqualified successes; others — such as greater political freedom, governmental honesty and efficiency, economic equality and self-sufficiency, and even popular religious devotion[202] — have not.[203] Overall, however, dissatisfaction is widespread. Islamic Cultural Revolution was when the universities were shut down after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 in Iran for about two years to purge them of Western influences and bring them in line with Islam. ... This article is about secularism. ... The word can also mean the assimilation of American media and ideas into foreign cultures, superceding the native media and ideas, for that see Americanization. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. ... Economic egalitarianism is a term used to define a state of affairs in which the members of a society are of equal standing in terms of economic power or wealth. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...


Human development

One of the highlights of the revolution has been an increase in literacy. Although the Shah's regime had created a popular and successful Literacy Corps and also worked to raise literacy rates,[204] the Islamic Republic based its educational reforms on Islamic principles. A few months after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, a decree was issued by Ayatollah Khomeini to establish the Literacy Movement Organization (LMO), with the primary objective of providing literacy courses for the illiterate population through a vast mobilization program.[205] Designed especially for those who never learned to read and write, the program is credited with much of the country's success in reducing illiteracy from 52.5 per cent in 1976 to just 24 per cent, at the last count in 2002.[206] The movement has established over 2,000 community learning centers across the country, employed some 55,000 instructors, distributed 300 easy-to-read books and manuals, and provided literacy classes to a million people, men as well as women.[207][208]


In the field of health, maternal and infant mortality rates have been slashed.[209] Population growth was encouraged for the first nine years of the revolution, but in 1988 youth unemployment concerns prompted the government to do "an amazing U-turn" and Iran now has "one of the world's most effective" family planning programs.[210] Overall, Iran's Human development Index rating has climbed significantly from 0.569 in 1980 to 0.732 in 2002, on par with neighbour Turkey. [211] [212]


Political freedom

Iran has elected governmental bodies at the national, provincial and local levels for which all males and females from the age of 15 on up may vote. (See Politics and Government of Iran) Although these bodies are subordinate to theocracy — which has veto power over who can run for parliament (or Islamic Consultative Assembly) and whether its bills can become law — they have more power than equivalent organs under the Shah's regime. Four of the 290 parliamentary seats are allocated for the minority Christian (3 seats), Jewish (1 seat) and Zoroastrian (1 seat) communities in rough proportion with their population[213] — giving at least token acknowledgment of individual or minority rights.[214] Khomeini met with the Jewish community upon his return from exile in Paris and issued a fatwa decreeing that the Jews were to be protected. Similar edicts also protect Iran's tiny Christian minority.[215] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran Politics and Government of Iran takes place in the framework of an Islamic theocratic republic. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament The Majlis (مجلس), which means parliament or assembly in the Arabic language, was the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979. ... Language(s) Persian languages, Hebrew, Judeo-Aramaic language Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Bukharan Jews, Kurdish Jews ,Mountain Jews ,Mizrahi Jews,Persians,Jews A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ...


Religious minorities

On the other hand, religious minorities in Iran complain of discrimination, particularly the members of the Bahá'í Faith, which has been declared heretical. More than 200 Bahá'ís have been executed or killed, hundreds more have been imprisoned, and tens of thousands have been deprived of jobs, pensions, businesses, and educational opportunities. All national Bahá'í administrative structures have been banned by the government, and holy places, shrines and cemeteries have been confiscated, vandalized, or destroyed. In March 2006, a United Nations report informed the world that Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamene’i has instructed a number of government agencies, including the revolutionary guard and the police force, to 'collect any and all information about members of the Bahá'í Faith'.[216] This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ...


Political repression

Political repression has been a major complaint against the Islamic Republic. Grumbling once done about the tyranny and corruption of the Shah and his court is now directed against "the Mullahs."[217] Fear of SAVAK has been replaced by fear of Revolutionary Guards, and other religious revolutionary enforcers.[218] Violations of human rights by the theocratic regime is said by some to be worse than during the monarchy,[219] and in any case extremely grave.[187] Torture, the imprisoning of dissidents, and the murder of prominent critics is commonplace. Censorship is handled by the Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance, without whose official permission, "no books or magazines are published, no audiotapes are distributed, no movies are shown and no cultural organization is established."[220] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Women

The impact on women of the revolution has been particularly mixed. One of the striking features of the revolution was the large scale participation of women — from traditional backgrounds — in demonstrations.[221] Some of this liberating effect has continued. Female university enrollment has risen steadily, reaching 66% in 2003.[222] There are large numbers of women in the civil service and higher education, one example being the 14 women who were elected to the Islamic Consultative Assembly in 1996. On the other hand, the Islamic revolution is ideologically committed to inequality for women in inheritance and other areas of the the civil code; and especially committed to segregation of the sexes. Many places, from "schoolrooms to ski slopes to public buses", are strictly segregated. Females caught by revolutionary officials in a mixed-sex situation can be subject to virginity tests.[223] "Bad hijab" ― exposure of any part of the body other than hands and face — is subject to punishment of up to 70 lashes or 60 days imprisonment.[224][225] مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament The Majlis (مجلس), which means parliament or assembly in the Arabic language, was the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979. ... Human rights in Iran face the issues of governmental impunity, restricted freedom of speech, torture, and other excesses. ...


Economy

Iran's economy has not prospered. Dependence on petroleum exports is still strong. [226] Per capita income, which fluctuates with the price of oil, has fallen by one estimate to as low as 1/4 of what it was during the Shah's era [227][228] and is still less than it was before the revolution. Unemployment among Iran's population of young has steadily risen as job creation has failed to keep up,[229] a high level of corruption being blamed in part.[230][229]


Gharbzadegi ("westoxification") or western cultural influence stubbornly remains, brought by music recordings, videos, and satellite dishes.[231] One post-revolutionary opinion poll found 61% of students in Tehran chose "Western artists" as their role models with only 17% choosing "Iran's officials."[232]


See also

Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... This article addresses the roots and the developmental history of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran. ... edit The Islamic republic of Iran originated from Islamic revolution of Iran which resulted in transforming Iran from a monarchy under the Shah (king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic. ... Today, the state of human rights in Iran continues to be generally considered a source of significant concern. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... MKO redirects here. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... This article includes events of 1978 until 1981 which relates to Islamic revolution of Iran. ... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... For the doctrine, see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine) For the book by Khomeini, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Khomeini) For the book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same...

References and notes

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  104. ^ In a recent book by Hossein Boroojerdi, called "Islamic Revolution and its roots", he claims that Cinema Rex was set on fire using chemical material provided by his team operating under the supervision of "Hey'at-haye Mo'talefe (هیأتهای مؤتلفه)", an influential alliance of religious groups who were among the first and most powerful supporters of Ayatollah Khomeini.
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  117. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 200.
  118. ^ What Are the Iranians Dreaming About? by Michel Foucault, Chicago: University Press.
  119. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 204.
  120. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), pp. 205–6.
  121. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 206.
  122. ^ Abrahamian, Iran (1982), p. 529.
  123. ^ Adnki.
  124. ^ Iran 20th, 1999-01-31, CNN World.
  125. ^ RFERL.
  126. ^ Iran Anniversary, 2004-02-11, CBC World.
  127. ^ http://www.npc-rt.ir/eventlist-fa-1385-10-22.html
  128. ^ Iran, World Statesmen.
  129. ^ Khomeini, Sahifeh-ye Nur, vol.5, p.31, translated by Baqer Moin in Khomeini (2000), p.204
  130. ^ Arjomand, Turban for the Crown, (1988) p.135)
  131. ^ Moin, Khomeini,(2000), p.222
  132. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.56
  133. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.57
  134. ^ Arjomand, Turban for the Crown (1988) p.135
  135. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) p.211
  136. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) p.211
  137. ^ Schirazi The Constitution of Iran (1997), p.152
  138. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.210-1
  139. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.210-1
  140. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2003), p.211-2
  141. ^ Baskhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p.63
  142. ^ Mackey, Iranians (1996), p.371
  143. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1997) p.151
  144. ^ Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij - Mobilisation Resistance Force
  145. ^ Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij - Mobilisation Resistance Force
  146. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran, (2003) p.275
  147. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1987)p.153
  148. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1987)p.153
  149. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.211
  150. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), p.286
  151. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p.202
  152. ^ The Minstry of Jihad-e Agriculture
  153. ^ Azar Tabari, ‘Mystifications of the Past and Illusions of the Future,’ in The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic: Proceedings of a Conference, ed. Nikki R. Keddie and Eric Hooglund (Washington DC: Middle East Institute, 1982) pp. 101–24.
  154. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran (1997), p.93-4
  155. ^ "Democracy? I meant theocracy", by Dr. Jalal Matini, translation & introduction by Farhad Mafie, August 5, 2003, The Iranian.
  156. ^ a b Islamic Clerics, Khomeini Promises Kept, Gems of Islamism.
  157. ^ Zabih, Sepehr Iran Since the Revolution Johns Hopkins Press, 1982, p.2
  158. ^ For example, Islamic Republic Party and allied forces controlled approximately 80% of the seats on the Assembly of Experts of Constitution. (see: Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs (1983) p.78-82) An impressive margin even allowing for electral manipulation
  159. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 203.
  160. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran (1997), pp. 24–32.
  161. ^ [1]
  162. ^ History of Iran: Iran after the victory of 1979's Revolution
  163. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 203
  164. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), pp. 241–2.
  165. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003) p.245
  166. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 217.
  167. ^ Schirazi, The Constitution of Iran, 1997, p. 22–3.
  168. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.228
  169. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.248-9
  170. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran, (2003), p.252
  171. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), p.249
  172. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.236
  173. ^ Brumberg, Daniel Reinventing Khomeini, university of Chicago Press, (2001), p.118
  174. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 208.
  175. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p. 61.
  176. ^ Mackay, Iranians, 1996, p. 373.
  177. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran, (2003), p.268
  178. ^ Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, p. 73.
  179. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran (1997) p. 51.
  180. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, pp. 219–20.
  181. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 219.
  182. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 232.
  183. ^ Arjomand, Said Amir, Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran, Oxford University Press, 1988 p. 144.
  184. ^ Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran, Tauris 1997, p. 127.
  185. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984) p. 123.
  186. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) pp. 241–2.
  187. ^ a b Iran Backgrounder, HRW.
  188. ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam (1994), p. 175.
  189. ^ Wright, In the Name of God (1989), p. 126.
  190. ^ Expansion of the Islamic Revolution and the War with Iraq, Gems of Islamism.
  191. ^ Shawcross, William, The Shah's Last Ride (1988), p. 110.
  192. ^ Fundamentalist Power, Martin Kramer.
  193. ^ Harik, Judith Palmer, Hezbollah, the Changing Face of Terrorism (2004), 40
  194. ^ Military and economic aid in the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict#Military aid from Iran Military Aid from Iran, 2006 Israel-Lebanon Conflict, Wikipedia.
  195. ^ Hizballah, Global Security.
  196. ^ Khamenei.
  197. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003) p.241
  198. ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam (1994), p. 193.
  199. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival Norton, (2006), p.141
  200. ^ Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton, (2005), p.18
  201. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec11_10.pdf
  202. ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam (1994), p. 199.
  203. ^ Khomeini Promises Kept, Gems of Islamism.
  204. ^ Iran, the Essential Guide to a Country on the Brink, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006, p.212
  205. ^ Iran, the UNESCO EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports.
  206. ^ National Literacy Policies, Islamic Republic of Iran
  207. ^ Adult education offers new opportunities and options to Iranian women, UNGEI.
  208. ^ Adult education offers new opportunities and options to Iranian women, UNFPA.
  209. ^ Howard, Jane. Inside Iran: Women's Lives, Mage publishers, 2002, p.89
  210. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003) p.287-8
  211. ^ Iran: Human Development Index
  212. ^ Turkey: Human Development Index
  213. ^ Constitution, Iran Online.
  214. ^ WRIGHT, The Last Great Revolution, NY Times Books.
  215. ^ IRAN: Life of Jews Living in Iran
  216. ^ ADL Says Iranian Attempt to Monitor Bahais Sets 'Dangerous Precedent', ADL.
  217. ^ Shirley, Know Thine Enemy (1997)
  218. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, 1997, p. 153.
  219. ^ "Ganji: Iran's Boris YELTSIN," by Amir Taheri, Arab News July 25, 2005
  220. ^ Naghmeh Zarbafian in My Sister, Guard Your Veil, My Brother, Guard Your Eyes (2006), (p.63)
  221. ^ Graham Iran (1980) p. 227.
  222. ^ Keddie,Modern Iran (2003) p.286
  223. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.136.
  224. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution (2000), p.136.
  225. ^ [2] Video: `Iranian Police Enforces "Islamic Dress Code" on Women in the Streets of Tehran,` April 15, 2007
  226. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran, (2003), p.271.
  227. ^ Low reached in 1995, from: Mackey, Iranians, 1996, p. 366.
  228. ^ "According to World Bank figures, which take 1974 as 100, per capita GDP went from a high of 115 in 1976 to a low of 60 in 1988, the year war with Iraq ended ..." (Keddie, Modern Iran, 2003, p.274)
  229. ^ a b "Still failing, still defiant", Economist, December 9, 2004.
  230. ^ "Iran: Bribery and Kickbacks Persists Despite Anti-Corruption Drive." Global Information Network, July 15, 2004 p. 1.
  231. ^ Culture, Khomeini Promises Kept, Gems of Islamism.
  232. ^ ‘Political Inclinations of the Youth and Students,’ Asr-e Ma, n.13, 19 April 1995 in Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini (2001), pp. 189–90.

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Amir Abbas Hoveida (in Persian: امیر عباس هویدا; February 18, 1919–April 7, 1979), also spelled Hoveyda, was a significant Iranian politician. ... Ruhollah Khomeini Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih (Arabic: ‎), (also known as Hokumat-e Islami or Islamic Government in English), is a book by the Iranian Shia Muslim cleric and revolutionary Ayatollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of... Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski   (March 4, 1932 - January 23, 2007) was a popular Polish journalist, author, publicist and poet both at home and abroad. ... Shah of Shahs, published in 1982, is Polish journalist Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„skis analysis of the decline and fall of of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Main article: 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict The supply of military aid to combatants during the course of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict has been an important aspect of both the hostilities and the diplomatic wrangling surrounding them, including figuring prominently into UN Security Council resolutions on the topic. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Amuzgar, Jahangir (1991). The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: The Pahlavis' Triumph and Tragedy: 31.. SUNY Press. 
  • Arjomand, Said Amir (1988). Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. Oxford University Press. 
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran between two revolutions. Princeton University Press. 
  • Benard, Cheryl and Khalilzad, Zalmay (1984). "The Government of God" — Iran's Islamic Republic. Columbia University Press. 
  • Graham, Robert (1980). Iran, the Illusion of Power. St. Martin's Press. 
  • Harney, Desmond (1998). The priest and the king: an eyewitness account of the Iranian revolution. I.B. Tauris. 
  • Harris, David (2004). The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah — 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam. Little, Brown. 
  • Hoveyda, Fereydoun (2003). The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian mythology and Islamic revolution. Praeger. 
  • Kapuscinski, Ryszard (1985). Shah of Shahs. Harcourt Brace, Jovanovich. 
  • Keddie, Nikki (2003). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. Yale University Press. 
  • Kepel, Gilles (2002). The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. 
  • Mackey, Sandra (1996). The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. Dutton. 
  • Miller, Judith (1996). God Has Ninety Nine Names. Simon & Schuster. 
  • Moin, Baqer (2000). Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. Thomas Dunne Books. 
  • Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. 
  • Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World. Oxford University Press. 
  • Schirazi, Asghar (1997). The Constitution of Iran. Tauris. 
  • Shirley, Edward (1997). Know Thine Enemy. Farra. 
  • Taheri, Amir (1985). The Spirit of Allah. Adler & Adler. 
  • Wright, Robin (2000). The Last Great Revolution: Turmoil And Transformation In Iran. Alfred A. Knopf: Distributed by Random House. 
  • Zabih, Sepehr (1982). Iran Since the Revolution. Johns Hopkins Press. 
  • Zanganeh, Lila Azam (editor) (2006). My Sister, Guard Your Veil, My Brother, Guard Your Eyes : Uncensored Iranian Voices. Beacon Press. 

Further reading

  • Afshar, Haleh, ed. (1985). Iran: A Revolution in Turmoil. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-333-36947-5. 
  • Barthel, Günter, ed. (1983). Iran: From Monarchy to Republic. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. <!— ISBN ?? —>. 
  • Daniel, Elton L. (2000). The History of Iran. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30731-8. 
  • Esposito, John L., ed. (1990). The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact. Miami: Florida International University Press. ISBN 0-8130-0998-7. 
  • Harris, David (2004). The Crisis: The President, the Prophet, and the Shah — 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam. New York & Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-32394-2. 
  • Hiro, Dilip (1989). Holy Wars: The Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90208-8.  (Chapter 6: Iran: Revolutionary Fundamentalism in Power.)
  • Kapuściński, Ryszard. Shah of Shahs. Translated from Polish by William R. Brand and Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand. New York: Vintage International, 1992.
  • Kurzman, Charles. The Unthinkable Revolution. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2004.
  • Ladjevardi, Habib (editor), Memoirs of Shapour Bakhtiar, Harvard University Press, 1996.
  • Legum, Colin, et al., eds. Middle East Contemporary Survey: Volume III, 1978–79. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1980. + *Legum, Colin, et al., eds. Middle East Conte
  • Milani, Abbas, The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the Riddle of the Iranian Revolution, Mage Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0-934211-61-2.
  • Munson, Henry, Jr. Islam and Revolution in the Middle East. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Nafisi, Azar. "Reading Lolita in Tehran." New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Nobari, Ali Reza, ed. Iran Erupts: Independence: News and Analysis of the Iranian National Movement. Stanford: Iran-America Documentation Group, 1978.
  • Nomani, Farhad & Sohrab Behdad, Class and Labor in Iran; Did the Revolution Matter? Syracuse University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8156-3094-8
  • Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza, Response to History, Stein & Day Pub, 1980, ISBN 0-8128-2755-4.
  • Rahnema, Saeed & Sohrab Behdad, eds. Iran After the Revolution: Crisis of an Islamic State. London: I.B. Tauris, 1995.
  • Sick, Gary. All Fall Down: America's Tragic Encounter with Iran. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.
  • Shawcross, William, The Shah's last ride: The death of an ally, Touchstone, 1989, ISBN 0-671-68745-X.
  • Smith, Frank E. The Iranian Revolution. 1998.
  • Society for Iranian Studies, Iranian Revolution in Perspective. Special volume of Iranian Studies, 1980. Volume 13, nos. 1–4.
  • Time magazine, January 7, 1980. Man of the Year (Ayatollah Khomeini).
  • U.S. Department of State, American Foreign Policy Basic Documents, 1977–1980. Washington, DC: GPO, 1983. JX 1417 A56 1977–80 REF - 67 pages on Iran.
  • Yapp, M.E. The Near East Since the First World War: A History to 1995. London: Longman, 1996. Chapter 13: Iran, 1960–1989.
  • Freddy Eytan " France and the Iranian Revolution" [4]

Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski   (March 4, 1932 - January 23, 2007) was a popular Polish journalist, author, publicist and poet both at home and abroad. ... Shah of Shahs, published in 1982, is Polish journalist Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„skis analysis of the decline and fall of of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Charles Kurzman is a Professor of Sociology at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. ... Abbas Milani on C-SPAN 2 Abbas Malek-Z Milani (born 1949) is an Iranian-American historian, Iranologist, and author. ... Ali Reza Nobari (born October 25, 1947, Tehran, Iran) is the former Governor of the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Bank Markazi). ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ... William Shawcross (born 28 May 1946, Sussex) is a British writer, broadcaster and commentator. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Islamic Revolution
  • Islamic Revolution of Iran, Encarta
  • The Iranian revolution, Britannica
  • The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: The Pahlavis' Triumph and Tragedy

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Historical articles

  • The Story of the Revolution — a detailed web resource from the BBC World Service Persian Branch, devoted to the Iranian Revolution (audio recordings in Persian, transcripts in English).
  • The Reunion — The Shah of Iran's Court — BBC Radio 4 presents an audio program featuring reminiscences of the Iranian Revolution by key members of the pre-Revolutionary elite.
  • Brzezinski's role in the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Payvand News, March 10, 2006.
  • The Iranian Revolution.
  • The Iranian revolution, Cyber Essays.
  • The Islamic revolution, Internews.

The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Analytical articles

  • The Last Great Revolution Turmoil and Transformation in Iran by Robin Wright.
  • Islamic Revolution by Bernard Lewis
  • Islamic Revolution: An Exchange by Abbas Milani, Tomis Kapitan, Reply by Bernard Lewis
  • What Are the Iranians Dreaming About? by Michel Foucault
  • The Seductions of Islamism, Revisiting Foucault and the Iranian Revolution by Janet Afary and Kevin B. Anderson
  • The Religious Background of the 1979 Revolution in Iran
  • What Happens When Islamists Take Power? The Case of Iran
  • Power? The Case of Iran The, Iranian Revolution by Ted Grant
  • Class Analysis of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 by Satya J. Gabriel
  • The Cause of The Iranian Revolution by Jon Curme
  • History of Undefeated, A few words in commemoration of the 1979 Revolution By Mansoor Hekmat, Communist Thinker and Revolutionary

For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Abbas Milani on C-SPAN 2 Abbas Malek-Z Milani (born 1949) is an Iranian-American historian, Iranologist, and author. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (15 October 1926–25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. ...

Revolution in pictures

  • iranrevolution.com by Akbar Nazemi
  • Iranian Revolution, Photos by Kaveh Golestan
  • Photos from Kave Kazemi
  • The Iranian Revolution in Pictures
  • Iranian revolution in pictures, BBC World

Kaveh Golestan was an internationally renowned Iranian photojournalist. ...

Revolution in Videos

  • Video Archive of Iranian Revolution


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Iranian Revolution (1491 words)
Because the Iranian Revolution was the biggest defeat for U.S. imperialism in the years after the Vietnam War.
It is a myth perpetuated by Iranian rulers today, who want to erase all traces of the role of the workers’ movement and the left in the revolution and justify their own authority.
Although the 1979 revolution brought an Islamic republic to power, headed by the clergy and Ayatollah Khomeini, it was the urban poor that sparked the revolution--and the left that played a crucial part in organizing the protests.
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