FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Iranian languages
Iranian
Geographic
distribution:
Southwest Asia, Central Asia and Pakistan
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Iranian
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-2: ira
Geographic distribution of the modern Iranian languages: Persian (green), Pashto (purple), Balochi (yellow), and Kurdish (turquoise), as well as smaller communities of other Iranian languages (User-created map)

The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. With the Indo-Aryan languages they form the Indo-Iranian languages group. Avestan and Old Persian are the oldest recorded Iranian languages. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... Numerous languages are spoken in Iran, yet all of them originate from the same linguistic roots. ... Northeastern Iranian languages Southeastern Iranian languages See also: List of Iranian languages, Western Iranian languages. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... Image File history File links Moderniranianlanguagesmap. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ...


Today, there are an estimated 150-200 million native speakers of Iranian languages.[1] The 2005 SIL enumerates 87 varieties of Iranian languages, per number of native speakers, the greatest are Persian (ca. 70 million), Kurdish and Pashto (ca. 25 million each), and Balochi (ca. 7 million); to compare these numbers against those for other languages, see list of languages by number of native speakers. SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... This is a list of languages placed in order by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ...

Contents

Name

The 'Iranian' languages branch is so named because its principal member languages, including Persian, have been spoken in the area of the Iranian plateau since ancient times, however, as a linguistic classification, 'Iranian' implies no relation with the country of Iran, for which see Languages of Iran. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Early Iranian languages

Historical distribution in 100 BC: shown is Sarmatia, Scythia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire.
Historical distribution in 100 BC: shown is Sarmatia, Scythia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire.

The Indo-Iranian languages probably originated in Central Asia. The Andronovo culture is the suggested candidate for the common Indo-Iranian culture ca. 2000 BC. Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ...


Together with the other Indo-Iranian languages, the Iranian languages are descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-Iranian. This language split up into: Proto-Indo-Iranian, the Indo-European language spoken by the Indo-Iranians in the late 3rd millennium BC was a Satem language still not removed very far from the Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn only removed by a few centuries from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda. ...

Proto-Iranian thus dates to some time after Proto-Indo-Iranian breakup, or the early second millennium BC, as the Old Iranian languages began to break off and evolve separately as the various Iranian tribes migrated and settled in vast areas of southeastern Europe, the Iranian plateau, and Central Asia. The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages. ... Nuristani languages form a language sub-family of the Indo-Iranian languages localized between the Iranian languages and the Indo-Aryan languages Ashkun language Kamviri language Kati language (Bashgali) Prasuni language (Wasi-Weri) Tregami language Waigali language (Kalasha-Ala) Categories: Language stubs | Indo-Iranian languages ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts...


Linguistically, the Old Iranian languages are divided into two major families and sub classes:

  • The eastern group
  • The western group
    • The southwestern group
    • The northwestern group

The eastern group includes the Sogdian, Khwarezmian, Saka, and Avestan, (also known as Old Bactrian). The northwestern branch includes the Median language. The southwestern group includes Persian. The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Avestan is mainly attested through the Avesta, a collection of sacred texts connected to the Zoroastrian religion. Old Persian is attested through inscriptions in the Old Persian cuneiform script. See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Old Persian cuneiform is the primary script used in Old Persian writings. ...


The Middle Iranian languages

What is known in Iranian linguistic history as the "Middle Iranian" era is thought to begin around the 4th century BCE lasting through the 9th century. Again, geographically, one can classify these into two main families, Western and Eastern. (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Numerous languages are spoken in Iran, yet all of them originate from the same linguistic roots. ... Northeastern Iranian languages Southeastern Iranian languages See also: List of Iranian languages, Western Iranian languages. ...


The former family includes the languages of Parthian (Arsacid Pahlavi) and Middle Persian, while Bactrian, Sogdian, Khwarezmian, Saka, and Old Ossetic (Scytho-Sarmatian) fall under the latter category. The two languages of the western group were linguistically very close to each other, but quite distinct from their eastern counterparts. On the other hand, the Eastern group retained more proximity to Old Iranian. They were inscribed in various Aramaic alphabets, which had evolved from the Achaemenid Imperial Aramaic. The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of the nomadic cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. Sometimes, the Scythian and Sarmatian languages are combined into one name: Scytho-Sarmatian languages. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


Middle Persian (Pahlavi), was the official language of the Sassanids. It was in usage from the 3rd century until the top of the 10th century. Pahlavi was also the language of the Manichaeans, whose texts survive albeit in limited numbers. The Imperial Aramaic script used in this era experienced significant maturation. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ...


Iranian languages after the Arab conquest of Persia

Dark green: Countries where Iranian languages are official. Teal: Regional co-official/de facto status.

Following the Islamic Conquest of Iran, there were important changes in the role of the different dialects of Persian within the Persian empire. The old prestige form of Middle Persian, also known as Pahlavi, was replaced by a new standard dialect called Dari as the official language of the court. The name Dari comes from the word darbar (دربار), which refers to the royal court, where many of the poets, protagonists, and patrons of the literature flourished (See Persian literature). The Saffarid dynasty in particular was the first in a line of many dynasties to officially adopt the new language in 875CE. Dari is believed to have been heavily influenced by regional dialects of eastern Iran, whereas the earlier Pahlavi standard was based more on western dialects. This new prestige dialect became the ancestor of modern Standard Persian. Medieval Iranian scholars such as Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa (8th century) and Ibn al-Nadim (10th century) associated the term "Dari" with the eastern province of Khorasan, while they used the term "Pahlavi" to describe the dialects of the northwestern areas between Isfahan and Azerbaijan (see Ancient Azari language), and "Parsi" ("Persian" proper) to describe the dialects of Fars. They also noted that the unofficial language of the royalty itself was yet another dialect, "Khuzi", associated with the western province of Khuzestan. Image File history File links Iranian_Language_Status. ... Image File history File links Iranian_Language_Status. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ... Ibn al-Nadim (Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq), (died September 17, 995 or 998) was an muslim scholar (of either Arab or Persian origin) and bibliographer and the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Esfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is of Turkic language. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...


The Islamic conquest also brought with it the adoption of Arabic script for writing Persian. It was adapted to the writing of Persian by the addition of a few letters. This development probably occurred some time during the second half of the 8th century, when the old middle Persian script began dwindling in usage. The aforementioned script remains the in use in contemporary modern Persian. Tajik script was first Latinised in the 1920s under the then Soviet nationality policy. The script was however subsequently Cyrillicized in the 1930s under plans by USSR's government in Central Asia. Latin is not an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The geographical area in which Iranian languages were spoken was pushed back in several areas by new neighbouring languages. Arabic spread into some parts of Western Iran (Khuzestan), and Turkic languages spread through much of Central Asia, displacing various Iranian languages such as Sogdian and Bactrian in parts of what is today Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. They also displaced the Persian language spoken in Azerbaijan. Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ...


Classification of the Iranian languages

Iranian languages are divided into Eastern and Western subfamilies, totalling about 84 languages (SIL estimate). Of the most widely-spoken Iranian languages, Kurdish, Persian, and Balochi are all Western Iranian languages, while Pashto is an Eastern Iranian language. The Iranian languages include some 84 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Iranian language family. ... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... task manager disable ---- please help ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ...


Comparison table of the Iranian languages

English Zazaki Kurdish Pashto Balochi Mazandarani Persian Middle Persian Parthian Old Persian Avestan
beautiful rind rind/delal/cûwan ṣhkulay, khkulay sharr, soherâ ṣəmxâl/ Xəş-nəmâ zibâ/ xuš-chehreh hučihr, hužihr hužihr naiba vahu-, srîra
blood goni xwîn wina hon xun xūn xōn xōn vohuni
bread nan nan ḍoḍəy/roṭəy (from Indic) nân, nagan nûn nân nân nân
bring ârdena anîn/hênan rāwṛəl âvardan biyârden âvardan âwurdan, āwāy-, āwar-, bar- āwāy-, āwar-, bar- bara- bara, bar-
brother birâ bira wror barādar birâr barādar brād, brâdar brād, brādar brâtar brâtar-
come amaena hatin rātləl áhag, âmadan Biyamona, enen âmadan âmadan, awar awar, čām ây-, âgam âgam-
cry bermayish girîn zhāṛəl, jāṛəl taukh bərmə/ qâ geristan griy-, bram-
dark târî tarî tiārə thár siyo târîk târīg/k târīg, târēn sâmahe, sâma
daughter kena keç/kîj/kenîşk/dot lūr mind kijâ/ dether doxtar duxtar duxt, duxtar duxδar
day roc roj wraż, wraz roshe rez/ reoj rûz rōz raucah-
do kerdena kirin/kirdin kawəl khandagh hâkerden kardan kardan kartan kạrta- kәrәta-
door ber derge/derî war gelo bəli dar dar dar, bar duvara- dvara-
die merdena mirin mṛəl/məṛedəl mireg mərnen murdan murdan mạriya- mar-
donkey her ker xar her xar xar xar
egg hak hêk hagəy heyg merqâna toxm toxmag, xâyag taoxmag, xâyag taoxma-
earth êrd (Arabic) herd/erd (Arabic) zməka/mzəka zemin zemi zamin zamīg zamīg zam- zãm, zam, zem
evening shund êvar/êware māṣhām, mākhām nəmâşun begáh sarshab êbêrag
eye chım çav stərga ch.hem, chem bəj, Çəş chashm chašm chašm čaša- čašman-
father pi bav/bawk plār pyt, abbâ piyer pedar pidar pid pitar pitar
fear ters tirs wera terseg təşəpaş tars tars tars tạrsa- tares-
fiancé washte dezgîran, destgirtî nām zād xasgar nâm-zad - -
fine wesh xweş/baş ṣha, kha hosh xosh dârmag srîra
finger gisht til/qamik gūṭa/gwəṭa lenkwk, mordâneg angoos angošt angust dišti-
fire âdır agir or âch, âs tesh âtaš, âzar âdur, âtaxsh ādur âç- âtre-/aêsma-
fish mâse masî kab/māhī mâhi masi mâhi mâhig mâsyâg masyô, masya
food / eat werdena xwarin khwāṛa/khoṛəl warag, vereg / xəynen xorâk / xordan parwarz / xwâr, xwardīg parwarz / xwâr hareθra / ad-, at-
go shiyaena çûn tləl jwzzegh shunen / burden raftan raftan, shudan ay- ai- ay-, fra-vaz
god homâ xwedê khwdāy hwdâ homa, xəda khodâ bay, abragar baga- baya-
good hol baş, çak ṣha, kha jawáin, šarr xâr xub / nîuū xūb, nêkog vahu- vohu, vaŋhu-
grass vash giya, riwek, şênkatî wāha, wākha rem sabzeh, giyâh giyâ dâlūg urvarâ
great gırd / pil gir, mezin, gewre stər mastar gat, belang, pila bozorg wuzurg, pīl vazạrka- uta-, avañt
hand dest dest/lep lās dast dess dast dast dast dasta- zasta-
head ser ser sar saghar kalə sar, kalleh sar
heart zerri dil zṛə dil, hatyr dil del dil dil aηhuš
horse estoar hesp ās asp istar asp, astar asp, stōr asp, stōr aspa aspa-
house ke(ye) mal kor log səre xâneh xânag demâna-, nmâna-
hunger vêyshan birçîtî/birsiyetî lwaẓha, lwaga shudhagh veyshna gorosnegi gursag, shuy
language ziwan / zun ziman zhəba, jəba zevân ziwân zabân zuwân izβân hazâna- hizvâ-
laugh huyaena kenîn khandəl khendegh, hendeg xandidan xandīdan karta Syaoθnâvareza-
life jewiyaena jiyan/jîn zhwandun/zwandun/jund zendegih zendegi zīndagīh, zīwišnīh žīwahr, žīw- gaêm, gaya-
man merd mêr/piyaw saṛay merd merd mard mard mard martiya- mašîm, mašya
moon ashmê heyv/mang spozməy/spogməy máh mithra mâh māh māh mâh- måŋha-
mother mae dayik mor mât, mâs mâr mâdar mādar mādar mâtar mâtar-
mouth fek dev/dem khwla daf dahân dahân, rumb åŋhânô, âh, åñh
name nâme nav nom num num nâm nâm nâman nãman
night shewe şev shpa shaw, šap sheow shab shab xšap- xšap-
open rakerdena vekirin prānistəl/prānatəl božagh vâ-hekârden bâz-kardan abâz-kardan būxtaka- būxta-
peace kotpy aştî rogha ârâm âshti, ârâmeš, ârâmî âštih, râmīšn râm, râmīšn šiyâti- râma-
pig xoz beraz khug xug xi xūk xūk varâza (wild pig)
place ja cih/şûn żāy, zāy hend jâh/gâh gâh gâh gâθu- gâtu-, gâtav-
read wendena xwendin lwastəl wánagh baxinden xândan xwândan
say vatena gotin/wutin wayəl gushagh baotena goftan, gap(-zadan) guftan, gōw-, wâxtan gōw- gaub- mrû-
sister wae xweşk khor gwhâr xâxer xâhar xwahar
small qıch piçûk ləẓh, ləg/woṛ/kuchnay lekem pətik, bechuk, perushk kuchak, kam, xurd, rîz kam, rangas kam kamna- kamna-
son qıj kur zwǣ, zuy pisar, phusagh pisser pesar, pûr, baça pur, pusar puhr puça pūθra-
soul giyan rūh (Arabic), sā rūh (Arabic) ravân rūwân, gyân rūwân, gyân urvan-
spring wusar bihar psarlay wehâr bahâr wahâr vâhara- θūravâhara-
tall berz bilind/berz lwaṛ bwrz boland / bârez buland, borz bârež barez-
three hire dre se se se hrē çi- θri-
village dew gund, dê kəlay helk deh deh, wis wiž dahyu- vîs-, dahyu-
want wastena xwestin/wîstin ghwāṛəl lotagh bexanen xâstan xwâstan
water awe av obə âf ab âb/aw âb âb âpi avô-
when key kengê kəla, chi ked kay kay ka čim-
wind va ba bād gwáth bâd wâd vâta-
wolf verg gur līwə gurkh varg gorg gurg varka- vehrka
woman jeniye jin/afret ṣhəża, khəza jan zhənya zan zan žan hâīrīšī-, nâirikâ-
year serre sal kāl sâl sâl sâl θard ýâre, sarәd
yes / no ya / ne erê / na ho; āho/na ere / na hâ (âre) / na hâ / ney hâ / ney yâ / nay, mâ yâ / noit, mâ
yesterday vizêr duh/dwênê pərun direz diruz dêrûž

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Zazaki (Zazaish) is a language spoken by Zazas in eastern Anatolia (Turkey). ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... Mazandarani or Tabari (Also known as: Mazeniki, Taperki) is an Iranian language of the northwestern branch. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Middle Persian or Pahlavi is the Iranian language spoken during Sassanian times. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ...

See also

The Iranian languages include some 84 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Iranian language family. ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ...

Bibliography

  1. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Report for Iranian languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 
  • Schmidt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6. 
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas (1996). "Iranian languages". Encyclopedia Iranica 7. Cosa Mesa: Mazda. 238-245. 
  • Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.) (1996). "Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica 7. Cosa Mesa: Mazda. 
  • Frye, Richard N. (1996). "Peoples of Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica 7. Cosa Mesa: Mazda. 
  • Windfuhr, Gernot L. (1995). "Cases in Iranian languages and dialects". Encyclopedia Iranica 5. Cosa Mesa: Mazda. 
  • Lazard, Gilbert (1996). "Dari". Encyclopedia Iranica 7. Cosa Mesa: Mazda. 
  • Henning, Walter B. (1954). "The Ancient language of Azarbaijan". Transactions of the Philological Society. 
  • Rezakhani, Khodadad (2001). The Iranian Language Family.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iranian languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1052 words)
Some Iranian authors use the term "Iranian languages" in a looser, non-linguistic sense, including all languages spoken by people who regard themselves as part of the Iranian nation, or by ancient peoples whose cultures Iranians today regard as part of their national heritage.
The Old Iranian languages began to break off and evolve separately as the various Iranian tribes migrated and settled in vast areas of southeastern Europe, the Iranian plateau, and Central Asia.
Pahlavi, was the official language of the Sasanids.
Languages & Writing Systems (2993 words)
Language is a system of conventional spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate.
Languages of the Finno-Ugric family, such as languages of the Sami (Lapp) and Baltic-Finno groups (e.g., Sami, Finnish, and Livonian), are spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia.
The languages of North Asia are those spoken from the Arctic Ocean on the north to South Asia and China on the south and from the Caspian Sea and Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m