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Encyclopedia > Iranian cuisine
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The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. It includes a wide variety of foods ranging from chelow kabab (barg, koobideh, joojeh, shishleek, soltani, chenjeh), khoresht (stew that is served with white Basmati or Persian rice: ghormeh sabzi, gheimeh, and others), aash (a thick soup), kookoo (vegetable omellettes), pollo (white rice alone or with addition of meat and/or vegetables and herbs, including loobia pollo, albaloo pollo, zereshk pollo, and others), and a diverse variety of salads, pastries, and drinks specific to different parts of Iran. The list of Persian recipes, appetizers and desserts is extensive. Image File history File linksMetadata Persian_art_collage. ... The Iranian Cultural Continent - consisting of the modern nations Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Persian painting has several branches, most famously the classical art of the Persian miniature, and including the modern popular form of Qahveh Khanehei Painting (Tea House style of painting). ... The themes of Persian miniature are mostly related to the Persian mythology and poetry. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... Iran (Persia) possesses an extraordinary treasure of royal jewelry including the mothers-of-pearl caught in the Persian Gulf. ... Persian embroidery is one of the many forms of the multi-faceted Persian arts. ... Persia (Iran) has an ancient tradition of its own design of motifs. ... Pottery Vessel, Fourth Millennium BCE. The Sialk collection of Tehrans National Museum of Iran. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ... The Persian carpet (Pahlavi bōb[1] Persian farÅ¡ فرش, meaning to spread and Arabic qāli, Turkish hali)[2] is an essential part of Persian art and culture. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia, modernday Iran. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ... Chelow kabab is a national dish of Iran. ... Khoresht or Khorosht is the common name of different stews in Persian cuisine which is typically served beside Polow (rice dish). ... Brown basmati rice Basmati (Hindi: , IAST: , Urdu: ‎) is a variety of long grain rice, famous for its fragrance and delicate flavour. ... Ghormeh Sabzi is an Iranian stew. ... Plov (Uzbek: плов, Russian: плов) is the national dish of Uzbekistan. ... This article is about culinary recipes. ... Hors dœuvre (or alternatively appetizer or starter) refer to the food served before or outside of (French: hors) the main dishes of a meal (the œuvre). ... Not to be confused with Desert. ...


Herbs are used a lot, as is fruit from plums and pomegranates to quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. The main Persian cuisines are combinations of rice with meat, chicken or fish and some onion, vegetables, nuts, and herbs. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic Persian spices such as saffron, diced limes, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Plum is also a nickname for British humorist P. G. Wodehouse. ... Species L. Balf. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Prune refers to any of more than 125 varieties of fruit, most grown for drying. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca The scientific name for the apricot is Prunus armeniaca L., which puts it in the same subgenus as the plum (Prunophora). ... Alternate uses: Raisin (disambiguation) A Raisin is a sun-dried or artificially dried grape, used in cooking and baking. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... This article is about the herb. ...

Contents

Traditional Iranian table settings

Typical table setting and elements of a popular Iranian dish.
Typical table setting and elements of a popular Iranian dish.

The traditional Iranian table setting firstly involves the tablecloth, called sofreh, and is spread out over a Persian rug or table. Main dishes are concentrated in the center, surrounded by smaller dishes containing appetizers, condiments, side dishes, as well as bread, all of which are nearest to the diners. These latter dishes are called mokhalafat (accompaniments). When the food has been served, an invitation is made to all those seated at the sofreh to help themselves. Image File history File linksMetadata Kababi_alborz. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kababi_alborz. ... A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. ...

Essential accompaniments

There are certain accompaniments (mokhalafat) which are essential to every Iranian meal at lunch (nahar) and dinner (shahm), regardless of the region. These include, first and foremost, a plate of fresh herbs, called sabzi (basil, coriander, cilantro, fenugreek, tarragon, Persian watercress or shaahi), a variety of flat breads, called naan or noon (sangak, lavash, barbari), cheese (called panir, a Persian variant of feta), sliced and peeled cucumbers, sliced tomatoes and onions, yogurt, and lemon juice. Persian pickles (khiyarshur) and relishes (torshi) are also considered essential in most regions. For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Coriandrum sativum Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb commonly used in Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian, Latin American and Southeast Asian cooking. ... Binomial name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species Nasturtium nasturtium-aquaticum L. Nasturtium microphyllum Boenn ex Rchb. ... Barbari Bread (Persian: Nan-e Barbari: نان بربري) is a type of Persian flatbread in Iran. ... Country of origin Greece Region, town N/A Source of milk Goat, sheep or cow Pasteurized Depends on variety Texture Depends on variety Aging time min. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...


Tea (chai) is served at breakfast and immediately before and after each meal at lunch and dinner, and also many times throughout the rest of the day. The traditional methods of tea preparation and drinking differ between regions and peoples.


Varieties of rice

The ubiquitous Persian Kabab is often served with both plain rice and a special (yellow cake) rice called tah-chin.
The ubiquitous Persian Kabab is often served with both plain rice and a special (yellow cake) rice called tah-chin.

It is believed that rice (berenj in Persian) was brought to Iran from southeast Asia or the Indian subcontinent in ancient times. Varieties of rice in Iran include champa, rasmi, anbarbu, mowlai, sadri, khanjari, shekari, doodi, and others. Basmati rice from India is very similar to these Persian varieties and is also readily available in Iran. Traditionally, rice was most prevalent as a major staple item in northern Iran, while in the rest of the country bread was the dominant staple. Image File history File linksMetadata Kababi_alborz2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kababi_alborz2. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Brown basmati rice Basmati (Hindi: , IAST: , Urdu: ‎) is a variety of long grain rice, famous for its fragrance and delicate flavour. ...


Methods of cooking rice

There are four primary methods of cooking rice in Iran:

  • Chelow: rice that is carefully prepared through soaking and parboiling, at which point the water is drained and the rice is steamed. This method results in an exceptionally fluffy rice with the grains separated, and not sticky, and also results in a golden rice crust at the bottom of the pot called tah-deeg (literally "bottom of the pot").
  • Pollo: rice that is cooked exactly the same as chelow, with the exception that after draining the rice, other ingredients are added in layers or sections of the rice, and then steamed together.
  • Kateh: rice that is cooked until the water is absorbed. This is also the traditional dish of Gilan (described in detail below).
  • Damy: cooked almost the same as kateh, except that the heat is reduced just before boiling and a towel is placed between the lid and the pot to prevent steam from escaping. Damy literally means "simmered."

Parboil is an action which refers to partially boiling food in water before finishing cooking it by another method. ...

Varieties of bread

There are four major Iranian flat breads:

  • Nan-e barbari: thick and oval-shaped.
  • Nan-e lavash: thin, crispy and round or oval, and is also the oldest known bread in the Middle East and Central Asia.
  • Nan-e sangak: Triangle-shaped bread that is stone-baked.
  • Nan-e taftoon: Thin, soft and round.

Other breads include: Barbari Bread (Persian: Nan-e Barbari: نان بربري) is a type of Persian flatbread in Iran. ... Lavash (Armenian: լավաշ; Persian: لواش; Turkish: lavaş; Azeri: lavaş; also known as Lahvash or Armenian cracker bread) is a soft, thin flatbread made with flour, water, and salt. ... Sangak, or nan-e sangak, is a plain, rectangular or triangular, blanket-like Persian flatbread. ...

  • Nan-e shirmal: Made like barbari, except with milk instead of water, in addition to a bit of sugar, and is eaten during breakfast or with tea.
  • Nan-e ghandi: Sweet bread made like taftoon, and is eaten during breakfast or with tea.
  • Nan-e gisu: a sweet Armenian bread, and also is eaten in the morning or with tea later in the day.

Fruits and vegetables

Iran has terrific agriculture, so many fruits and vegetables, especially what a lot of countries consider “exotic” are easier to come by. A bowl full of fruit is common on most Persian tables and dishes of vegetables and herbs are standard sides to most meals.


Iran is one of the top date producers in the world; some of the most succulent dates come from there. Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ...


For generations, Iranians have been eating various fruits, vegetables, and herbs for their health benefits that have only recently been discovered in other parts of the world. For example, onions and garlic, pomegranate, and sabsijat (various herbs) are regular ingredients in many Persian foods. For the parody newspaper, see The Onion. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Binomial name L. For the color see: Pomegranate (color) The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ...


Regional cuisines

Northern Iran

Kateh is the traditional dish of Gilan, and is simply Persian rice cooked in water, butter and salt until the water is fully absorbed. This method results in rice that is clumped together and is the predominant style of cooking rice in the Caspian region. In Gilan and Mazandaran, kateh is also eaten as a breakfast meal, either heated with milk and jam, or cold with Persian cheese (panir) and garlic. Kateh is not commonly served in other parts of Iran, but is prescribed widely as a natural remedy for those who are sick with the common cold or flu, and also for those suffering from stomach pains and ulcers. The famous Iranian caviar and Caspian fish roes hails from that region, and is served with eggs, in frittatas (kuku sabzi) or omelettes. Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ... For the band of the same name, see Caviar (band). ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ...


The Gilani variety of rice is considered the best in Iran, where it has been cultivated since the fourth century BCE. See Also Gilan: People and Culture (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Gauls sack Rome Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian people. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ...


Khuzestan

See Khuzestan: People and Culture Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...


esfahan

see beryonni-khoresht mast


Azarbaijan

see Kufteh Tabrizi East Azarbaijan or East Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان شرقی, Āzārbāijān-e Sharqi; Azeri: Şərqi Azərbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ardabil

Yogurt-soup Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ...


Fast food, imported and adapted foods

Popular fast food items in Iran include chelow kabab (literally "rice and kabab"), joojeh kabab (the same, but substituting grilled or broiled chicken), naan o kabab (literally "bread with kabab"), kabab sandwiches, and a number of different derivatives of traditional slow-cooked meals. An increasing preference for American style food amongst a younger generation of Iranians has resulted in the establishment of many pizza, steak, hamburger, and fried chicken establishments, but Western food is sometimes served alongside staples such as those mentioned above, and is often prepared differently (most notably with pizza). Chinese and Japanese cuisine has also become popular in recent years, primarily in Tehran, and Italian and Mediterranean restaurants are also featured. Chelow kabab is a national dish of Iran. ... For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... A steak (from Old Norse steik, roast) is a slice from a larger piece of meat, typically beef. ... This article is about the food item. ... KFCs Fried chicken with french fries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... External links Mediterranean cuisine guide and recipes Categories: Stub | Mediterranean cuisine ...


Breakfast (sobhaneh (صبحانه) or nāshtāyi (ناشتايى))

The basic traditional Iranian breakfast consists of a variety of flat breads (naan-e sangak, naan-e lavash, and others), butter, Tabrizi white cheese (paneer), feta cheese, whipped heavy cream (sarshir, often sweetened), and a variety of fruit jams and spreads. Other popular traditional breakfasts (which require far more preparation) include haleem (wheatmeal served plain or more commonly with shredded lamb or turkey - similar to Western oatmeal in some respects), asheh mohshalah (thick soup). These latter breakfasts are typically regional specialities, and many cities and towns all across Iran feature their own distinct versions of these dishes. Both asheh mohshalah and haleem are typically prepared the night before, to be served the next morning, and haleem is usually only served at certain times of the year (haleem specialty restaurants are only open during those times), except in southern parts of Iran, where haleem is always present. Kaleh pacheh is almost always only served from three in the morning until sometime after dawn, and specialty restaurants (serving only kaleh pacheh) are only open during those hours. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Country of origin Greece Region, town N/A Source of milk Goat, sheep or cow Pasteurized Depends on variety Texture Depends on variety Aging time min. ... Haleem is a thick, soup-like Bangladeshi, Pakistani, and Indian dish, brought to the Indian sub-continent by muslim immigrants from Persia. ...


Lunch and dinner (naahaar o shaam)

Traditional Persian cooking is done in stages, at times needing hours of preparation and attention. The outcome is a well-balanced mixture of herbs, meat, beans, dairy products, and vegetables. Major staples of Iranian food that are usually eaten with every meal include rice, various herbs (mint, basil, dill, parsley), cheese (feta or Persian panir, derived from goat or sheep's milk, and sometimes cow's milk), a variety of flat breads, and some type of meat (usually poultry, beef, lamb, or fish). Stew over rice is by far the most popular dish, and the constitution of these vary by region. Tea (chai) is the drink of choice on nearly every occasion, and is usually served with dried fruit, pastries, or sweets. Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... For other uses, see Bean (disambiguation). ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... MiNT (MiNT is Now TOS) is an alternative operating system (OS) kernel for the Atari ST computer and its successors which is free software. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... This article is about the herb. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Country of origin Greece Region, town N/A Source of milk Goat, sheep or cow Pasteurized Depends on variety Texture Depends on variety Aging time min. ... Flatbread is a simple, usually unleaved bread made without yeast or sourdough. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... An unweaned lamb Legs of lamb in a supermarket cabinet The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are culinary names for the meat of a domestic sheep. ... Fish as a food describes the edible parts of water-dwelling, cold-blooded vertebrates with gills, as well as certain other water-dwelling animals such as mollusks, crustaceans, and shellfish. ... Beef Stew A stew is a common dish made of vegetables (particularly potatoes or beans), meat, poultry, or seafood cooked in some sort of broth or sauce. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ...


You can usually find tea brewing throughout the day in most Iranian homes. Doogh, a yogurt drink, is also quite popular. One of the oldest recipes, which can trace its existence back to the time of Persian empire, is khoresht-e-fesenjan, consisting of duck or sometimes chicken in a rich pomegranate-and-walnut sauce that yields a distinctive brown color, most often served with white rice. Doogh (Dooqh), also called dugh, abdug, or tahn (the last two mostly by Armenians) is a beverage popular in Iran and other middle-eastern countries and the Caucasus. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Walnut sauce (also known as walnut paste) is a food paste with origins in Iranian cuisine made primarily from walnuts and especially popular in Georgian cuisine. ...


Persian cuisine in the West

One of the main reasons that Persian cuisine is not widely recognized is that it is often confused with Middle Eastern cuisine, a much broader and more general term, and this confusion is further perpetuated by restaurants and markets providing authentic Persian cuisine that label themselves as such. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Many Persian markets and restaurants are labelled as Middle Eastern, International, or Mediterranean in order to broaden their appeal to the Western consumer. In reality, Persian cuisine is one of the oldest and richest cuisines in the world, and is typically vastly different from what is found in the greater Middle East. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


It should be mentioned that Persian cuisine has lots of similarity to Greek cuisines in its Kebabs. Although not widely recognized, Persian cuisine is gaining popularity in multicultural cities, especially in Los Angeles, Vancouver and Toronto, which have a significant Persian population. Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...


Another reason for the relative obscurity of Persian cuisine is the lack of professional restaurant management. Many Persian restaurants (at least in smaller towns or those with smaller Persian populations) are started by immigrants who have little or no experience in the food and restaurant business. This lack of experience often means the proprietors focus most of their energies on preparing and providing good quality food but very little on marketing, ambience and service. Many such businesses die in obscurity despite the high quality and authenticity of the food.


Drinks and dessert

Some traditionally prepared ice cream to top off the meal concludes the Iranian feast.
Some traditionally prepared ice cream to top off the meal concludes the Iranian feast.

The traditional drink accompanying Iranian dishes is called doogh. Doogh is a combination of yogurt, water (or soda) and dried mint. However many domestic soda beverages such as Zam Zam Cola and its competition Parsi Cola are widely consumed with meals. Both Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola have officially licensed bottling plants in Mashad, with their products surprisingly not subject to U.S. sanctions against Iran. Other drinks are several types of especially prepared sherbets called Sharbat and khak sheer. One favorite is Aab-e Havij, alternately called havij bastani, carrot juice made into an ice cream float and garnished with cinnamon, nutmeg or other spices. There are also drinks that aren't served with meals. These are Sheer Moz (banana milk shake), Aab Talebi (cantelope juice), and Aab Hendevaneh (watermelon juice). These drinks are commonly made in stands or kiosks in streets on summer days and on hiking trails. Aab Anaar (pomegranate juice) is also popular and has recently (2007) become popular in North America, specifically for its extraordinary health benefits including its high anti-oxidant levels (much higher than green tea). Image File history File linksMetadata Bastani. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bastani. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Doogh (Dooqh), also called dugh, abdug, or tahn (the last two mostly by Armenians) is a beverage popular in Iran and other middle-eastern countries and the Caucasus. ... Zam Zam Cola is a cola-flavoured soft drink produced in Iran. ... Parsi Cola is a cola-flavoured soft drink produced in Iran. ... Coca-Cola is a cola (a type of carbonated soft drink) sold in stores, restaurants and vending machines in more than 200 countries. ... Pepsi-Cola, most commonly called Pepsi, is a soft drink produced by PepsiCo which is sold worldwide in stores, restaurants and vending machines. ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... This article is about the current international crisis related to Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Sherbet (Etymology: Turkish & Persian; Turkish serbet, from Persian & Urdu sharbat, from Arabic sharba drink) (British and American English) or Sherbert (Australian English and New Zealand English, also a variant used in American English) historically was a cool effervescent or iced fruit soft drink. ... Carrot juice is juice produced from carrots, often marketed as a health drink. ... A lime spider The ice cream soda is a treat made, typically, by mixing ice cream with either a soft drink (commonly root beer) or flavored syrup and carbonated water, often with some special technique to encourage the partial slushing of the ice cream itself. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... It has been suggested that Legal drugs#Nutmeg be merged into this article or section. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ...


There are many dessert dishes, ranging from Bastani-e Zafarani (Persian Ice Cream, also called Bastani-e Gol-e Bolbol) to the faludeh. Persian Ice Cream is flavoured with saffron, rosewater, and chunks of heavy cream. There are also many types of sweets. The sweets divide into two categories: "Shirini Tar" (lit. wet sweets) and "Shirini Khoshk" (lit. dry sweets). The first category consists of French-inspired pastries with heavy whipped cream, glazed fruit toppings, tarts, custard-filled eclairs, and a variety of cakes. Some have an Iranian twist such as the addition of pistachio, saffron, and walnuts. The second category consists of more traditional sweets: Shirini Berenji (a type of rice cookie), Shirini Nokhodchi (clover shaped, chickpea cookies), Kouloucheh (a large cookie usually with a walnut or fig filling), Shirini Kishmishi (raisin and saffron cookies), Shirini Yazdi (muffins or cupcakes from the city of Yazd), and more. Faloodeh or faludeh is a Persian sorbet made of thin vermicelli noodles frozen with corn starch, rose water, lime juice, and often ground pistachios. ...


Three others-Zulbia, Bamieh and Gush-e Fil, are very popular. Bamiehs are oval-shaped dough pieces, deep fried and then covered with a syrup. Zulbia is also deep-fried dough, but it is poured into the oil so that it twirls. It is then covered with the same syrup. It has become popular in other parts of the world, known as funnel cake in North America, and Jalebi in India. Goosh-e Fil (lit. Elephant ear) are also deep-fried dough, fried in the shape of flat elephant ears and then covered with sugar powder. Of course, no discussion of Persian desserts would be complete without one of the classics, Halvardeh. Halva comes in various qualities and varieties, from mainly sugar, to sesame seed with pestach and Iran produces some of the best. Funnel Cake with powdered sugar Young girl with Funnel Cake, 2007 Columbus Arts Festival Funnel cake or funnelcake is a regional specialty food originally associated with the Pennsylvania Dutch region of the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word halva (alternatively halwa, halvah, halava, helva, halawa etc. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a crop grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ...


Alcoholic beverages

Though strictly banned sometime after the Islamic Revolution of 1979, alcoholic beverages may be readily available in Iran, but they are not openly available. The most common beverage is called aragh-e keshmesh, which is domestically produced, with the best variety available in the province of Qazvin. Vodka is the second most commonly available alcohol, with most quantities imported directly from Russia. Some domestic varieties of vodka are available, but cannot be easily obtained (the brand "55"). Beer is the third most common alcoholic beverage, with much of it imported from northern Europe via Turkey. As with vodka, domestic beer is available, but not easily obtained. Other imported liquors such as Scotch whisky, gin, and higher quality vodkas from Poland are available in some major cities, but at a much higher cost (typically even more expensive than the Western average) and as such are considered luxury items. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arak Rayan. ... For other uses, see Qazvin (disambiguation). ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Spirits redirects here. ... An independent bottling of Royal Brackla Single Malt Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Gin and tonic. ...


Wine has been a major part of Iranian culture since ancient times, and this tradition has continued despite current governmental restrictions. The major wine-producing centers of Iran are Qazvin, Orumiyeh, Shiraz, and to a lesser extent, Isfahan. Red wine is the most common variety and also the most popular, with white wine also enjoying a strong position in the north. Wine-producers are often, but not always, either of Armenian or Zoroastrian background, as non-Muslim minority groups are entitled the right to produce wine (and other alcoholic beverages) for their own use. Though it is illegal for them to sell wine to other Iranians (and to foreign visitors), this rule may not be followed and their wine may be obtained in those parts of the country where it is produced or distributed. The Armenian producers of Orumiyeh and Isfahan are, in particular, renowned for their sweet, sparkling red wines. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh) is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Esfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Vegetarianism in Iran

The concept of vegetarianism is uncommon in Iran, though many vegetarian dishes are featured and in recent decades there has been growing interest in this area (and in fruitarianism) since the 1960s, particularly amongst the youth. A small number of vegetarian restaurants and coffee shops are featured in the major urban centers. Some of the most popular vegetarian dishes are listed below, but the kookoo varieties contain egg and thus may be rejected by some stricter vegetarians: For plant-eating animals, see Herbivore. ... A fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...

  • Kashk-e baademjan
  • Kookoo-e baademjan
  • Kookoo-e gol-e kalam
  • Kookoo-e sabzi which usually accompanies Sabzi-polo ba Mahi
  • Mirza ghasemi
  • Naaz khatoon
  • Nargesi esfenaaj
  • Borani esfenaaj

Kashk is a thick whitish liquid whey (a dairy product) similar to sour cream, used in traditional Persian/Iranian cooking. ... Binomial name L. The aubergine, eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a solanaceous plant bearing a fruit of the same name, commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...

Bibliography

  • New Food of Life by Najmieh Batmanglij (ISBN 0-934211-34-5)
  • H.E. Chehabi, "The Westernization of Iranian Culinary Culture", Iranian Studies

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Iranian cuisine

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Zam Zam Cola is a cola-flavoured soft drink produced in Iran. ... YumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumvYum, Iranians were not only open to other cultures, but freely adopted all they found useful for them. ... Persian woman, in Qajari dress seen here smoking the traditional Qalyan. ... Zereshk is a type of fruit cultivated in Iran. ... Persian ground beef (usually sirloin), often mixed with parsley and chopped onions. ... Kabab Barg is a Persian style barbecued lamb or beef. ... Chicken Tikka Jalfrezi, pulao rice, and cucumber raita Pilaf, (Turkish pilav, Azeri plov, Bosnian pilav, Serbian pilav, Armenian pilav, Romanian pilaf, Persian polow, Greek πιλάφι, India/Afghanistan/Pakistan pulav/ pulao, Uzbek and Russian plov, Kazakh palaw) also spelled pilau, perloo, perlau, plaw, pilaw, and pilaff is a Middle Eastern and Central... Khoresht or Khorosht is the common name of different stews in Persian cuisine which is typically served beside Polow (rice dish). ...

References

External links


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