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Encyclopedia > Iranian calendar
Calendars
v  d  e
Common use Astro · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO · Julian
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected usage Armenian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Chinese · Coptic · Ethiopian · Germanic · Hebrew · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Chuch'e · Korean · Malayalam · Maya · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Turkish · Vietnamese· Yoruba · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Original Julian · Runic

The Iranian calendar (Persian: تقویم هجری شمسی؛ گاهشماری هجری خورشیدی), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. Beginning each year on the vernal equinox as precisely determined by astronomical observations from Tehran (or the 52.5°E meridian, which also defines IRST) and Kabul, this makes it more accurate than Gregorian Calendar in being synchronized with the solar year, but harder to work out when a particular date would occur before the new year before the date occurs. A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura in eastern India. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects The Chuche Idea (also Chuche Sasang or Juche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... Iran Standard Time (IRST) is the time zone used in Iran. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


Some believe that the Jalali calendar, an ancestor of the Iranian calendar, was introduced on 15 March, 1079 by the Seljuk Sultan Jalal al-Din Malik Shah I, based on the recommendations of a committee of astronomers, including Omar Khayyam, at the imperial observatory in his capital city of Isfahan[1]. They mention that the calendar included the most accurate computation of the solar year at the time, and month computations were based on solar transits through the zodiac, a system integrating ideas from the Surya Siddhanta (India, 4th c. CE). Later, some ideas from the Chinese-Uighur calendar (1258) were also incorporated. They also claim that the Jalali calendar remained in use for eight centuries. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Jalāl al-Dawlah Mālikshāh or simply Malik Shah (Persian: , Turkish: Melikşah) (died 1092) was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Tomb of Omar Khayam, Neishapur, Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... This article aims at providing a thorough (but not verse by verse) exposition of most important topics of and problems related to Surya Siddhanta and its comparison with ancient and modern astronomy, together with its use in astrology. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


The official Iranian calendar was last changed in 1925 by a law of the Iranian Majlis to fixed have month lengths for the first eleven months of the year, with only the final month iterating between 29 and 30 days based on the year being leap or not. Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ...


The current Iranian Calendar year is 1386 AP (AP = Anno Persico/Anno Persarum = Persian year).

Contents

Public holidays and anniversaries

Holidays & Anniversaries in 1386 (March 21, 2007-March 20, 2008) in Iran
Date English name Local name Remarks
11th February Revolution Day
10th March Arba’in-e Hosseini (40th day after Ashura) Arba’in-e Hosseini
18th March Martyrdom of Imam Reza
19th March Demise of Muhammad and Martyrdom of Imam Hassan
20th March Nationalization of the oil industries
21st March to 23rd March Persian New Year Norouz of ancient Iranian origin
1st April Iranian National Day/Islamic Republic Day Proclamation of the Islamic Republic in 1979
2nd April Nature Day Sizdah Bedar 13th day after the new year, end of festivities for Norouz
6th April Anniversary of Muhammad and Anniversary of Imam Sadeq
4th June Anniversary of the passing of Imam Khomeini 1989
5th June Anniversary of the uprising against the Shah
18th June Martyrdom of Fatima
28th July Anniversary of Imam Ali
11th August Mission of Muhammad Be'sat
28th August Anniversary of Imam Mahdi
3rd October Martyrdom of Imam Ali
15th October End of Ramadan Eid-e-Fitr
6th November Martyrdom of Imam Sadeq
21st December Shab-e-Yalda
21st December Eid-e-Qorban can vary by 1 day
29th December Eid-e-Ghadeer
There are 22 holidays. Dates for anniversaries are based on the persian calendar, muslim calendar or Zoroastrian calendar; the dates on the Gregorian calendar can vary from year to year.

Holidays in Iran: Iran uses three official calendar systems. ... (Redirected from 11th February) February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... (Redirected from 10th March) March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... Hundreds of Shia Muslims gather around the Husayn Mosque in Karbala after making the Pilgrimage on foot during Arbaeen. ... (Redirected from 18th March) March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... (Redirected from 19th March) March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... (Redirected from 20th March) March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... (Redirected from 21st March) March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... (Redirected from 23rd March) March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... (Redirected from 1st April) April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayn ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mosavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« Arabic: روح الله الموسوي الخميني) (May 17, 1900[1] – June 3, 1989) was a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... (Redirected from 18th June) June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... (Redirected from 28th July) July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... (Redirected from 11th August) August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... (Redirected from 28th August) August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ... 3rd October Organization is also the name of a Marxist terrorist group . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... (Redirected from 15th October) October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īd al-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated as simply Eid, is an Islamic holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayn ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... (Redirected from 21st December) December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Shab-e-Yalda is a Iranian holiday which longest night of the year and marks the begining of winter. ... (Redirected from 21st December) December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ... (Redirected from 29th December) December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... Eid al-Ghadeer is the anniversary of the Event of Ghadeer, an Islamic event on the 18th of the Islamic month of Dhul-Hijjah in which the Prophet Muhammad delivered his last sermon. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is the calendar used to date events in predominately Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...

History of calendars in Persia

Throughout recorded history, Persians have been keen on the idea and importance of having a calendar. They were among the first cultures to use a solar calendar, and have long favored a solar over lunar and lunisolar approaches. The Sun was always a symbol in Iranian culture. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ...


Ancient calendars

Old Persian inscriptions and tablets indicate that early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based on the Babylonian system and modified for their beliefs and named days. Months had two or three divisions depending on the phase of the moon. Twelve months of 30 days were named for festivals or activities of the pastoral year. A 13th month was added every six years to keep the calendar synchronized with the seasons. Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ...


Zoroastrian calendar

The first calendars based on Zoroastrian cosmology appeared in the later Achaemenian period (650 to 330 BCE). They evolved over the centuries, but month names changed little until now. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Missing image Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing some parts of today...


The unified Achaemenian empire required a distinctive Iranian calendar, and one was devised in Egyptian tradition, with 12 months of 30 days, each dedicated to a yazata (Eyzad), and four divisions resembling the Semitic week. Four days per month were dedicated to Ahura Mazda and seven were named after the six Amesha Spentas. Thirteen days were named after Fire, Water, Sun, Moon, Tiri and Geush Urvan (the soul of all animals), Mithra, Sraosha (Soroush, yazata of prayer), Rashnu (the Judge), Fravashi, Bahram (yazata of victory), Raman (Ramesh meaning peace), and Vata, the divinity of the wind. Three were dedicated to the female divinities, Daena (yazata of religion and personified conscious), Ashi (yazata of fortune) and Arshtat (justice). The remaining four were dedicated to Asman (lord of sky or Heaven), Zam (earth), Manthra Spenta (the Bounteous Sacred Word) and Anaghra Raocha (the 'Endless Light' of paradise). Missing image Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing some parts of today... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... Sarosh Yazata is a holy being in Zoroastrian lore, in the service of the Zoroastrian supreme being, Ahura Mazda. ... Rashnu is a Zoroastrian yazata of justice. ... Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... Vahrām or Bahrām (modern Persian, var: Behrām; middle Persian: Warahran) is the Zoroastrian concept of victory over resistance and, as the hypostasis of victory, is one of the principal figures in the Zoroastrian pantheon of yazatas. ... Raman may refer to Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Indian physicist, discoverer of Raman scattering. ... Daena is a Zoroastrian deity or angel representing insight and revelation. ... Ashi, known as Rav Ashi (Rabbi Ashi), (352–427) was a celebrated Jewish religious scholar, a Babylonian amora, who reestablished the academy at Sura and was first editor of the Babylonian Talmud. ... Original Artwork of Arshtat Falenas from Suikoden V Arshtat Falenas (アルシュタート・ファレナス, Arushutāto Farenasu) is a character in the Genso Suikoden series of roleplaying games. ... Asman is a Zoroastrian deity or angel representing the firmament. ... For the anti-commercial interest group, see Zero artistic movement. ...


The calendar had a significant impact on religious observance. It fixed the pantheon of major divinities, and also ensured that their names were uttered often, since at every Zoroastrian act of worship the yazatas of both day and month were invoked. It also clarified the pattern of festivities; for example, Mitrakanna or Mehregan was celebrated on Mithra day of Mithra month, and the Tiri festival (Tiragan) was celebrated on Tiri day of the Tiri month. Mehregān (Persian:مهرگان) or Jashn-e-Mehregān is an ancient Iranian autumn festival, observed on the ninth or tenth of October, and dedicated in honor of Mehr, also known as Mithra, the Persian god of Light and Love. ...


After the conquests by Alexander the Great and his death, the Persian territories fell to one of his generals, Seleucus (312 BCE), starting the Seleucid dynasty of Iran. Based on the Greek tradition, Seuclids introduced the practice of dating by era rather than by the reign of individual kings. Their era became known as that of Alexander, or later the Seleucid era. Since the new rulers were not Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian priests lost their function at the royal courts, and so resented the Seleucids. Although they began dating by eras, they established their own era of Zoroaster. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Seleucus was the name of several Macedonian kings of the Seleucid dynasty ruling in the area of Syria. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC Years: 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC _ 312 BC _ 311 BC... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Coin of Philip V of Macedon (ruled 221–179 BC). ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...


That was the first serious attempt to determine the dates associated with the prophet Zoroaster's life. Priests had no Zoroastrian historical sources, and so turned to Babylonian archives famous in the ancient world. From these they learned that a great event in Persian history took place 228 years before the era of Alexander. In fact, this was the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. But the priests misinterpreted this date to be the time the "true faith" was revealed to their prophet, and since Avestan literature indicates that revelation happened when Zoroaster was 30 years old, 568 BCE was taken as his year of birth. The date entered written records as the beginning of the era of Zoroaster, and indeed, the Persian Empire. This incorrect date is still mentioned in many current encyclopedias as Zoroaster’s birth date. For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Cyrus the Great 537 BC - Jews transported to Babylon... Yasna 28. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC Events and trends 568 BC - Amtalqa succeeds his brother Aspelta as king of Kush 562 BC - Amel... Persia redirects here. ...


Modifications by Parthians, Ardashir I, Hormizd I, Yazdgerd III

The Parthians (Arsacid dynasty) adopted the same calendar system with minor modifications, and dated their era from 248 BCE, the date they succeeded the Seleucids. Their names for the months and days are Parthian equivalents of the Avestan ones used previously, differing slightly from the Middle Persian names used by the Sassanians. For example in Achaemenian times the modern Persian month ‘Day’ was called Dadvah (Creator), in Parthian it was Datush and the Sassanians named it Dadv/Dai (Dadar in Pahlavi). Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... (Redirected from 248 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC - 248 BC... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


In 224 CE, Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid dynasty, added five days at the end of the year, and named them ‘Gatha’ or ‘Gah’ days after the ancient Zoroastrian hymns of the same name. This was a modification of the 365-day calendar adopted by Julius Caesar in 46 BCE, based on the Egyptian solar calendar. Iranians had known about the Egyptian system for centuries but never used it. The new system created confusion and met resistance. Many rites were practiced over many days to make sure no holy days were missed. To this day many Zoroastrian feasts have two dates. Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC...


To simplify the situation, Ardeshir’s grandson, Hormizd I, linked the new and old holy days into continual six-day feasts. No Ruz was an exception, as the first and the sixth day of the month were celebrated separately, and the sixth became more significant as Zoroasters’ birthday. But the reform did not solve all the problems, and Yazdgerd III, the last ruler, introduced the final changes. The year 631 was chosen as the beginning of a new era, and this last imperial Persian calendar is known as the Yazdgerdi calendar. Hormizd I, king of Persia, (272-273) was the son of Shapur I, under whom he was governor of Khorasan, and appears in his wars against Rome (Trebellius Pollio, 2, where Noldeke has corrected the name Odomastes into Oromastes, i. ... ... Yazdgerd III (Persian: یزدگرد سوم, made by God), last king of Sassanid dynasty, a grandson of Khosrau II (590–628), who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II of Persia in 628, and was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ...


Islamic calendar

But before the Yazdgerdi calendar was completed, Muslim Arabs overthrew the dynasty in the 7th century and established the Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar. It was outlined in the Qu'ran, and in the last sermon of Muhammad during his farewell pilgrimage to Mecca. Umar, the second caliph of Islam, began numbering years in AH 17 (638 CE), regarding the first year as the year of Muhammad's Hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina, in September 622 CE. The first day of the year continued to be the first day of Muharram. Years of the Islamic calendar are designated AH from the Latin Anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra). The Islamic lunar calendar was widely used until the end of the 19th century. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jalali calendar: 1079

The Jalali calendar was introduced in the 11th century by a panel of astronomers (including Omar Khayyám) at the imperial observatory in the Seljuk capital of Isfahan. It was a solar calendar, and was designed in response to the seasonal drift in the 360 day Islamic calendar. The work was commissioned in 1073 by the Sultan Jalal al-Din Malik Shah I, one of the Seljuk sultans, and were subject to the turbulent history of the times. Fortunately, the calendar work was completed well before the Sultan's death in 1092, after which the observatory would be abandoned. The calendar was adopted on March 15, 1079, and the calendar era was named Jalali in honor of the Sultan[1]. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Jalāl al-Dawlah Mālikshāh or simply Malik Shah (Persian: , Turkish: MelikÅŸah) (died 1092) was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The year was computed from the vernal equinox, and each month was determined by the transit of the sun into the corresponding zodiac region, a system that incorporated improvements on the ancient Indian system of the Surya Siddhanta(Surya=solar, Siddhanta=analysis, 4th c. CE), also the basis of most Hindu calendars. Since the solar transit times can have 24-hour variations, the length of the months vary slightly in different years (each month can be between 29 and 32 days). For example, the months in two last years of the Jalali calendar had: Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... This article aims at providing a thorough (but not verse by verse) exposition of most important topics of and problems related to Surya Siddhanta and its comparison with ancient and modern astronomy, together with its use in astrology. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ...

  • 1303 AP: 30, 31, 32, 31, 32, 30, 31, 30, 29, 30, 29, and 30 days,
  • 1302 AP: 30, 31, 32, 31, 31, 31, 31, 29, 30, 29, 30, and 30 days.

Because months were computed based on precise times of solar transit between zodiacal regions, seasonal drift never exceeded one day, and also there was no need for a leap year in the Jalali calendar. However, this calendar was very difficult to compute; it required the full ephemeris computations / actual observations to determine solar motion trajectories. Some claim that simplifications introduced in the intervening years may have introduced a system with 8 leap days in every cycle of 33 years. (Different rules, such as the 2820-year cycle, have also been accredited to Khayyam). However, the original Jalali calendar based on observations (or predictions) of solar transit would not have needed either leap years or seasonal adjustments. An ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) (from the Greek word ephemeros = daily) is a device giving the positions of astronomical objects in the sky. ...


The team also came up with the computation of the length of a solar year as 365.24219858156 days. The number of decimal digits reflects their high confidence in this computation. Though it may not have been known at the time, the length of the year is changing in the sixth decimal place over a person's lifetime. Nonetheless, the result is astoundingly accurate: the length of the year at various points are:

  • 365.2421986 days: Isfahan team, 1079
  • 365.242196 days: end of the 19th century
  • 365.242190 days: end of 20th c. (today)[1]

However, owing to the variations in month lengths, and also the difficulty in computing the calendar itself, the Iranian calendar was modified to simplify these aspects in 1925 (1304 AP). Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Iranian Calendar Reform: 1925

On February 21, 1911, the second Persian parliament mandated government use of a simplified calendric computation system based on the solar calendar. The present Iranian calendar was legally adopted on March 31, 1925, under the early Pahlavi dynasty. The law said that the first day of the year should be the first day of spring in "the true solar year", "as it has been" (کماکان). It also fixed the number of days in each month, which previously varied by year with the tropical zodiac. It revived the ancient Persian names, which are still used. It specified the origin of the calendar (Hegira of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE). It also deprecated the 12-year cycles of the Chinese-Uighur calendar which were not officially sanctioned but were commonly used. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... For other uses, see Spring. ... The tropical zodiac is a zodiac based upon tropical time, or the apparent motion of the Sun across the sky over the course of a year. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Events Hegira - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - starting year of the Islamic calendar. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ...


The first six months (Farvardin–Shahrivar) have 31 days, the next five (Mehr–Bahman) have 30 days, and the last month (Esfand) has 29 days or 30 days in leap years. The reason the first six months have 31 days and the rest 30 may have to do with the fact that the sun moves slightly more slowly along the ecliptic in the northern spring and summer than in the northern autumn and winter.[citation needed]


Afghanistan legally adopted this calendar in 1957,[citation needed] but with different month names. The Dari dialect of Persian language in Afghanistan uses the Arabic names of the zodiac signs; these names were also used in Iran before 1925. Afghan Pashto language uses the Pashto names of the zodiac signs. Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Dari (Persian: ) is the official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan, popularly and locally known as Farsi. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ...


The Persian calendar produces a five-year leap year interval after about every seven four-year leap year intervals. It usually follows a 33-year cycle with occasional interruptions by single 29-year or 37-year subcycles. By contrast, some less accurate predictive algorithms are suggestion based on confusion between average tropical year (365.2422 days, approximated with near 128-year cycles or 2820-year great cycles) and the mean interval between spring equinoxes (365.2424 days, approximated with a near 33-year cycle).


Details

The Iranian calendar year begins at the start of Spring in the northern hemisphere: on the midnight between the two consecutive solar noons which include the instant of the Northern spring equinox, when the sun enters the northern hemisphere. If between two consecutive noons the sun's altitude rises through its equinoctial altitude, then the first noon is on the last day of one calendar year and the second noon is on the first day (Norouz) of the next year. The calendar has 12 months with Persian names. Noon is the time exactly halfway through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 pm in the 12-hour clock. ... In astronomy, the vernal equinox (spring equinox, March equinox, or northward equinox) is the equinox at the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere: the moment when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading northward. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ...


Month names

Order Days Persian Kurdish Dari
(Variety of Persian in Afghanistan)
Afghan Pashto
Romanized Native Script Romanized Native Script Romanized Native Script IPA Native Script
1 31 Farvardin فروردین Xakelêwe خاكه ليوه Hamal حمل wray وری
2 31 Ordibehesht اردیبهشت Golan گولا ن Sawr ثور ʁwayay غویی
3 31 Khordād خرداد Jozerdan جوزه ردان Jawzā جوزا ʁbargolay غبرګولی
4 31 Tir تیر Poshper پووش په ر Saratān سرطان tʃungaʂ چنګاښ
5 31 Mordād/Amordād مرداد/امرداد Gelawêj گلاويژ Asad اسد zmaray زمری
6 31 Shahrivar شهریور Xermanan خه رمانان Sunbula سنبله wagay وږی
7 30 Mehr مهر Rezber ره زه به ر Mīzān میزان Təla تله
8 30 Ābān آبان Gelarêzan گه لا ريژان 'Aqrab عقرب Laɻam لړم
9 30 Āzar آذر Sermawez سه ر ما وه ز Qaws قوس lindəy لیندۍ
10 30 Dey دی Befranbar به فرانبار Jaddī جدی marʁumay مرغومی
11 30 Bahman بهمن Rêbendan ريبه ندان Dalwa دلو salwɑʁə سلواغه
12 29/30 Esfand اسفند Resheme ره شه مه Hout حوت kab کب

The first day of the calendar year is also the day of the greatest festival of the year in Iran, Afghanistan and surrounding regions, called Norouz (a single word made up of two parts, no (new) and rouz (day), meaning "new day"). Persepolis all nations stair case. ...


Days of the week

In the Iranian calendar, every week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. The days of the week are called: Shanbeh (شنبه in Persian), Yekshanbeh (یکشنبه), Doshanbeh (دوشنبه), Seshanbeh (سه شنبه), Chaharshanbeh (چهارشنبه), Panjshanbeh (پنجشنبه), and Jom'eh (جمعه in Persian, originally Arabic) or Adineh (آدینه in Persian). In most Islamic countries, Jom'eh is the holiday.


Calculating the day of the week is easy, using an anchor date. One good such date is Sunday, 1 Farvardin 1372, which equals 21 March 1993. Assuming the 33-year cycle approximation, move back by one weekday to jump ahead by one 33-year cycle. Similarly, to jump back by one 33-year cycle, move ahead by one weekday.


As in the Gregorian calendar, dates move forward exactly one day of the week with each passing year, except if there is an intervening leap day when they move two days. The anchor date 1 Farvardin 1372 is chosen so that its 4th, 8th, ..., 32nd anniversaries come immediately after leap days, yet the anchor date itself does not immediately follow a leap day. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


Seasonal error

The image below shows the difference between the Iranian calendar (using the 33-year arithmetic approximation) and the seasons. The Y axis is "days error" and the X axis is Gregorian calendar years. Each point represents a single date on a given year. The error shifts by about 1/4 day per year, and is corrected by a leap year every 4th year regularly, and one 5 year leap period to complete a 33-year cycle. One can notice a gradual shift upwards over the 500 years shown.


Image:Jalaalileap.gif Jalaali calendar error Originally created by Tom Ruen, 2003, using MSExcel graph, labeled with MSPaint File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


By comparison, the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582, is almost as accurate in the long term, but has larger swings of seasonal errors over centuries. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Omar Khayyam. The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran Chamber Society: Iranian Calendar Converter (167 words)
The Iranian calendar (also known as Persian calendar or the Jalaali Calendar) is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan.
The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world.
The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called "Hijri calendar") is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days.
CalendarHome.com - Iranian calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia (2147 words)
However, before work on the new calendar was completed, Muslim Arabs overthrew the dynasty in the 7th century and with their victory, a new lunar calendar based on Islamic principles replaced the old solar calendar of the Sassanid period.
The Iranian calendar was revised in the 11th century by a panel of scientists, allegedly including Omar Khayyám.
The Iranian calendar year begins on the midnight between the two consecutive solar noons which include the instant of the Northern spring equinox, when the sun enters the northern hemisphere; in other words, the start of Spring in the northern hemisphere.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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