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Encyclopedia > Iranian Kurdistan
This article is part of the
Kurdish history and Culture series
Early ancestors
Ancient history
Medieval history
Modern history
Culture

Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana Îranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3], formerly: Persian Kurdistan) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. It includes the greater parts of West Azerbaijan province, Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, Ilam Province and parts of Lorestan Province[4]. Kurds form the majority of the population of this region with an estimated population of 4 million.[5] The region is the eastern part of the greater cultural-geographical area called Kurdistan and is referred to as Eastern Kurdistan by some. The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Kurdish culture (Kurdish: çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. ... Gutium, Mat Quti, Mat Qurti, (Land of Guti or Qurti people) was an ancient hilly country in upper Mesopotamia, comprised the area between Euphrates on the west and Zagros mountains on the east, streching from Sumerian era to the end of Babylonian era. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Matiene was the name of northwestern Iran from the time of the arrival of Iranians, who overran the Kingdom of Mannae. ... Mede nobility. ... 60 BC Kingdom of Corduene Corduene (also known as Cordyene, Cardyene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk and Girdiyan) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, known today as Kurdistan. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ... The Kayusid or House of Kayus (also Kâvos) or Kâvusakân(226-380) was a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom in central and southern Kurdistan established in 226 CE. The House of Kayus was established after an agreement between Kurdish principalities and kingdoms and the Persian Empire, following a... Sharazor (also: Sharazur, Shahrazor, Shahrazur, Shahrezour, Shehrizor, land of Zor and City of Zor) was name of a historic Wilayet and a city situated to the south and east of Iraqi Kurdistan; // The name of Sharazor is formed of two words: Shar or shahr meaning: land, region, city; and Zor... The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ... Hasanwayhid,(959-1015), was a Kurdish principality centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). ... The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and Nomaniya(in north-eastern Iraq). ... Marwanid, (990-1085), was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia and Armenia, centered around the city of Diyarbakır. ... Bokhtan (also Bohtan, Botan) was a medieval Kurdish principality in Kurdistan centered at Jazira in southeastern Anatolia. ... Hadhabani (also: Hadhbani) was an 11th century Kurdish dynasty centered at Ushnu. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Badlis (1182-1847), was a Kurdish principality originated from the Rojaki tribe. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Badinan, was one of the more powerful and enduring Kurdish principalities. ... Soran Emirate (1399-1883 A.D) was a Kurdish principality in Southern Kurdistan Its Capital was the city of Rawanduz. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Baban, (1649-1850), was a Kurdish principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. ... Simko Shikak also Ismail Agha Shikak (1887-1930), was a Kurdish politician and nationalist. ... Flag Capital Sulaymaniyah Language(s) Kurdish Religion Islam Government Monarchy King Mahmud Barzanji Prime Minister Qadir Hafeed Historical era Interwar Period  - Treaty of Sèvres August 10, 1920  - Proclaimed October 10, 1921  - Treaty of Lausanne July 24, 1923  - Disestablished July, 1924  - British Mandate of Mesopotamia October 3, 1932 Currency Indian... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... Flag Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Approximate extent of the Republic. ... Anthem Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Location of Iraqi Kurdistan (dark green) with respect to Iraq (light green) on a map of the Middle East. ... Turkish Kurdistan (Turkish: Türkiye Kürdistanı or Kuzey Kürdistan (Northern Kurdistan) or Kuzeybatı Kürdistan [1] (Northwestern Kurdistan), Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê [2] or Bakurê Kurdistanê [3]) Northern Kurdistan is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey densely inhabited by Kurds, which references the regions geographical... The Kurds in Turkey (Kurdish: Kurdên li Tirkiye, Turkish: Türkiyedeki Kürtler) who are an Indo-European people and their name first mentioned around 3000 BC by Sumerians [6] are remnants of ancient Iranians who resided in Anatolia before the expansion of the Median Empire, 600 BC... Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... The Kurdistan newspaper Kurdish literature (in Kurdish: Wêjey kurdî) is a literature written in Kurdish language. ... Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) referes to music performed in Kurdish language. ... Kurdish dance (Kurdish: Govend) is a group of traditional hand-holding dances similar to those from the Balkans, Lebanon, and to Iraq. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan. ... Kermanshah (Persian: كرمانشاه; Kurdish: KirmaÅŸan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... // Introduction Ilam province is on the western edges of the Zagros range, bordering Iraq. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ...


Iranian or Eastern Kurdistan is not to be confused with the Kordestan province in Iran which only encompasses one-eighth of the Kurdish inhabited areas of Iran or Iranian Kurdistan. Map of high density Kurdish populated area. ...

Contents

History

For the origin of Kurds see History of the Kurds and Kurds article.

A very early record of confrontation between the Kurds and the Sassanid Empire appears in a historical text called the Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak. The book explains the life of "Ardashir Papagan" or Ardashir I of Persia, the founder of the Sassanid Dynasty, and is written in the Pahlavi language. In this book, the author explains the battle between Kurdish King Madig and Ardashir [6]. The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Madig was an ancient Iranian king. ...

Persian emperor Ardashir I is believed to be standing here in this relief at Taq-e Bostan. On the left is an Iranian Izad (god), on the right is Kayus of Kermanshah, and below him is Haftanbokht.
Persian emperor Ardashir I is believed to be standing here in this relief at Taq-e Bostan. On the left is an Iranian Izad (god), on the right is Kayus of Kermanshah, and below him is Haftanbokht.

While according to Dehkhoda Dictionary, Ardashir was the son of a Kurdish mother from Shabankareh tribe in the Fars Province [7], others historical documents such as Fars-nama(ca. 1107 CE) and Maslik al-absar of al-Umari do not consider Shabankareh as Kurdish and differentiate between Shabankareh and Kurds and the Kurdish history of Sharafnama (written by Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi in 16th century), does not mention Shabankareh among the Kurdish dynasties [8]. Moreover, modern scholars are of the opinion that the Kurds mentioned in Islamic and Persian sources as living in south and southwest Persia (Fars) were probably not true Kurds, but nomadic tribes speaking southwest Iranian dialects related to modern Luri and Persian[9]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (378x642, 588 KB) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (378x642, 588 KB) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Frontal view of the two arches. ... Kayus or Kâvos was the name of a Kurdish prince who ruled the Kâvusakân Dynasty (House of Kayus) in AD 226. ... Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... Shabankareh (other spellings: Shabankara, Shwankara) was name of an ancient Kurdish tribal federation in southern Zaghros [1]. They were powerful during Sassanid era as well as in middle ages. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ...


Medieval Kurdish Dynasties

From 10th century to 12th century A.D., two Kurdish dynasties were ruling this region, the Hasanwayhid (959-1015) and the Ayyarids (990-1117) (in Kermanshah, Dinawar and Khanaqin). The Ardalan state which was established in early 14th century, controlled the territories of Zardiawa (Karadagh), Khanaqin, Kirkuk, Kifri, and Hawraman. The capital city of the state was first in Sharazour in present-day Iraqi Kurdistan, but was moved to Sinne(Sanandaj) (in present-day Iran) later on. The Ardalan Dynasty continued to rule the region until the Qajar monarch Nasser-al-Din Shah(1848-1896) ended their rule in 1867 CE. Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Hasanwayhid,(959-1015), was a Kurdish principality centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). ... Events October 1 - Edwy, king of England dies and is succeeded by his brother Edgar. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and Nomaniya(in north-eastern Iraq). ... Events Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. ... Events May 3 - Merton Priory (Thomas Becket school) consecrated. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Iraq map with Khanaqin Khanaqin (Arabic خانقين, Kurdish خانه قين Xaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is a city in eastern Iraq, south of Kurdish regions. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Iraq map with Khanaqin Khanaqin (Arabic خانقين, Kurdish خانه قين Xaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is a city in eastern Iraq, south of Kurdish regions. ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, Kirkūk; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... Hewraman (or Hawraman) is a region situated in southern parts of Kurdistan. ... Anthem Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Location of Iraqi Kurdistan (dark green) with respect to Iraq (light green) on a map of the Middle East. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah The Shah, on his European tour, in The Royal Albert Hall, London Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (Persian: ناصرالدین شاه قاجار; also Nassereddin Shah or Nassiruddin Shah) (July 16, 1831 - May 1, 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 17, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Seljukid and Khwarazmid Period

In 12th century CE, Sultan Sanjar, created a province called Kurdistan centered at Bahar located to the northeast of Hamadan. This province included Hamadan, Dinawar, Kermanshah , Sanandaj and Sharazur. It was ruled by Sulayman, the nephew of Sanjar. In 1217, Kurds of Zagros defeated the troops of Ala ad-Din Muhammad II, the Khwarazmid King, who were sent from Hamadan[10]. Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Senna, (Cassia acutifolia) is a medicinal herb. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (علاءالدين محمد ʿAlā al-Dīn Muḥammad) was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ...


Safavid Period

According to Encyclopaedia of Islam, the Safavid family hailed from Iranian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azarbaijan. They finally settled in the 11th century C.E. at Ardabil [11]. During Safavid rule, the government tried to extend its control over Kurdish inhabited areas in western Iran. At that time, there were a number of semi-independent Kurdish emirates such as the Mukriyan (Mahabad), Ardalan (Sinne), and Shikak tribes around Lake Urmiye and northwest Iran. Kurds resisted this policy and tried to keep some form of self-rule. This led to a series of bloody confrontations between the Safavids and the Kurds. The Kurds were finally defeated, and as a result the Safavids decided to punish rebellious Kurds by forced relocation and deportation of Kurds in 15-16th century. This policy began under the reign of the Safavid King Tahmasp I (r. 1514-1576). The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iranian Azerbaijan. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ...


Between 1534 and 1535, Tahmasp I began the systematic destruction of the old Kurdish cities and the countryside. Large numbers of Kurds from these areas found themselves deported to the Alborz mountains and Khorasan (Khurasan), as well as the heights in the central Iranian Plateau; the Laks suffered most. At this time the last remnant of the ancient royal Hadhabâni (Adiabene) tribe of central Kurdistan was removed from the heartland of Kurdistan and deported to Khorasan, where they are still found today. See [12] and [13] under the title "Khurasani Kurdish Dances". 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... The Laks are an ethnic group in Dagestan, Iran and other surrounding areas. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ...


Battle of Dimdim

Main article: Battle of DimDim

There is a well documented historical account of a long battle in 1609-1610 between Kurds and the Safavid Empire. The battle took place around a fortress called Dimdim located in Beradost region around Lake Urmia in northwestern Iran. In 1609, the ruined structure was rebuilt by "Emîr Xan Lepzêrîn" (Golden Hand Khan), ruler of Beradost, who sought to maintain the independence of his expanding principality in the face of both Ottoman and Safavid penetration into the region. Rebuilding Dimdim was considered a move toward independence that could threaten Safavid power in the northwest. Many Kurds, including the rulers of Mukriyan (Mahabad), rallied around Amir Khan. After a long and bloody siege led by the Safavid grand vizier Hatem Beg, which lasted from November 1609 to the summer of 1610, Dimdim was captured. All the defenders were massacred. Shah Abbas ordered a general massacre in Beradost and Mukriyan (reported by Eskandar Beg Turkoman, Safavid Historian in the Book "Alam Aray-e Abbasi") and resettled the Turkish Afshar tribe in the region while deporting many Kurdish tribes to [Khorasan]. Although Persian historians (like Eskandar Beg ) depicted the first battle of Dimdim as a result of Kurdish mutiny or treason, in Kurdish oral traditions (Beytî dimdim), literary works (Dzhalilov, pp. 67-72), and histories, it was treated as a struggle of the Kurdish people against foreign domination. In fact, Beytî dimdim is considered a national epic second only to Mem û Zîn by Ehmedê Xanî (Ahmad Khani). The first literary account of Dimdim battle was written by Faqi Tayran [14] [15] [16]. The Battle of DimDim was the name for some battles between the kurds and the Savavid empire between 1609 and 1610. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh) is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ... Ehmedê Xanî, (or Ahmad Khani), (1651-1707) was a Kurdish writer, poet and philosopher. ... Ehmedê Xanî, (or Ahmad Khani), (1651-1707) was a Kurdish writer and poet. ... Faqi Tayran, (or Feqîyê Teyran), (1590-1660) is considered as one of the great classic Kurdish poets and writers. ...


The Khurasani Kurds are a community of nearly 1.7 million people deported from western Kurdistan to North Khorasan, (northeastern Iran) by Persia during the 16th to 18th centuries [17]. For a map of these areas see [18].


Afghan and Afshar Periods

Kurds took advantage of the Afghan invasion of Safavid realm in the early 18th century, and conquered Hamadan and penetrated to the area near Isfahan. Nader Shah sought to suppress a Kurdish rebellion in 1747, but he was assassinated before completing the expedition. After Nadir's death, Kurdish tribes exploited the power vacuum and captured parts of Fars.[19]. Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Nader Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nāder Shāh Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار ; also known as Nader Qoli Beg, نادر قلی بیگ, Tahmasp-Qoli Khan, تهماسپ قلی خان) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


Zand Period

During the mid 18th century, the Kurdish tribe of Bajalan came into conflict with the Zand dynasty. The tribe was based in Qasr-e Shirin and Sar Pol-e Zahab region located in the present-day Kermanshah province in western Iran. When Karim Khan Zand conquered Kermanshah region, the Bajalan chief Abd-Allah Khan, fought against Zand forces. Bajalans were defeated near Khanaqin by Nazar Ali Khan Zand in 1775, and 2,000 of their men were slaughtered [20]. Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Qasr-e Shirin, literally translated from Persian as Palace of Shirin, is a historical city in Kermanshah province which was built during the Sassanid dynastic era (226-651 AD). ... Kermanshah (Persian: كرمانشاه; Kurdish: KirmaÅŸan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Karim Khan Zand (Persian: کریم خان زند) was a king of Persia who reigned from 1760 until 1779. ... Iraq map with Khanaqin Khanaqin (Arabic خانقين, Kurdish خانه قين Xaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is a city in eastern Iraq, south of Kurdish regions. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Qajar Period

In 1880, Shaykh Ubaydullah, a Kurdish leader, engaged in a series of revolts against the Iranian government. These revolts were successfully suppressed by the Qajar Kings, and this was one of the Iran's few victories during the Qajar period (See Amanat, Abbas. Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896. London: I. B. Tauris, 1997, p.408). In early 20th century, Ismail Agha Simko took advantage of the chaotic situation in the aftermath of World War I, and rebelled against the Iranian government. He was finally defeated by Reza Shah Pahlavi [21]. Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ...


Kurds in Modern Iran

Simko Revolts Against Reza Shah

Weakness of the Persian government during World War I, encouraged some Kurdish chiefs to take advantage of the chaotic situation. Simko chief of the Shikak tribe, established his authority in the area west of Lake Urmia from 1918 to 1922. Jaafar Sultan of Hewraman region also took control of the region between Marivan and north of Halabja and remained independent until 1925. In 1922, Reza Khan (who later became the first Pahlavi monarch), took action against Kurdish leaders. Simko was forced to abandon his region in Fall 1922, and spent eight years in hiding. When the Iranian government persuaded him to submit, he was ambushed and killed around Ushno (Oshnaviyeh) in 1930. After this, Reza Shah pursued a crude but effective policy against the Kurds. Hundreds of Kurdish chiefs were deported and forced into exile. Their lands were also confiscated by the government [22][23]. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Simko Shikak also Ismail Agha Shikak (1887-1930), was a Kurdish politician and nationalist. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hewraman (or Hawraman) is a mountaneous region situated in north-western Iran including the city Pawe and north-eastern Iraq including the city Halabja. ... Marivan Countryside Marivan (in Kurdish: Merîwan, in Persian: مریوان) is a city in west of Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Victims of the gas attack by Iraqi forces in 1988 Halabja (Arabic: , Kurdish: Helepçe) is a Kurdish town in Iraq about 150 miles northeast of Baghdad and 8-10 miles from the Iranian border. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Şino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50 000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British...


World War II

When Allied troops entered Iran in September 1941, the Persian Army was quickly dissolved and their ammunition was seized by the Kurds. Sons of Kurdish chiefs seized the opportunity and escaped from their exile in Tehran. A Kurdish chief from Baneh, named Hama Rashid took control of Sardasht, Baneh and Mariwan in western Iran. He was finally driven out of the region by the Persian Army in the Fall of 1944 [24]. For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Baneh (in kurdish: Bane, in persian: بانه) is a city in northwstern Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Sardasht (in Kurdish: Serdeşt, also Zerdeşt) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50,000 inhabitants, [1] southwest of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Baneh (in kurdish: Bane, in persian: بانه) is a city in northwstern Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Marivan Countryside. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Republic of Kurdistan in Mahabad

Main article: Republic of Mahabad

Although Iran had declared its neutrality in the Second World War, it was occupied by Allied forces. With support from the Soviet Union, a Kurdish state was created in the city of Mahabad in 1946 by the Kurdish Movement Komeley Jiyanewey Kurd under the leadership of Qazi Muhammad. Since the minuscule entity extended no further than the small cities of Mahabad, Bukan, Naqada, and Oshnaviyeh in Iran, not even all of Iranian Kurdistan supported the experiment, let alone the Kurds in other states [25]. The Republic of Mahabad, as it is often called, lasted less than a year, as the end of the war and the withdrawal of the occupying Soviet forces allowed the central government to defeat the separatists and return Kurdistan to Iran. Flag Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Approximate extent of the Republic. ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Komeley Jiyanewey Kurd, is the kurdish name for the Kurdish Renaissance League. It is the name of a Kurdish political group which was instrumental in creation of Republic of Mahabad in 1946 under the leadership of Qazi Muhammad. ... Qazi Mohammad Qazi Muhammad (1893-1947) was the Nationalist and Religious Kurdish leader and the Head of Republic of Mahabad the second modern Kurdish state in the Middle East (after Republic of Ararat). ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Bukan (in Kurdish also called: Bokan) is a city south of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Naqada or Naquada is a district and town about 30km north of Luxor on the west bank of the Nile in southern Egypt, (Upper Egypt),includes some villages such as Toukh,khatara ,Danfiq and zawayda. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Şino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50 000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Flag Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Approximate extent of the Republic. ...


The Islamic Revolution and The Kurds

Another wave of nationalism engulfed eastern Kurdistan after the fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty in the winter of 1979, and as a result Ayatollah Khomeini, the new religious leader of Iran, declared a jihad (holy war) against separatism in Iranian Kurdistan[26]. The crisis deepened after Kurds were denied seats in the assembly of experts gathering in 1979, which were responsible for writing the new constitution. Ayatollah Khomeini prevented Dr. Ghassemlou, the elected representative of the region to participate in the assembly of experts’ first meeting [27]. Kurds were therefore deprived of their political rights under the new Iranian constitution, since the majority of them belonged to the Sunni branch of Islam. In the spring of 1980, government forces under the command of President Abolhassan Banisadr conquered most of the Kurdish cities through a huge military campaign, sending in mechanized military divisions to Kurdish cities including Mahabad, Sinne, Pawe, and Marivan [28]. The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Abdul Rahman Qasimlo in Kurdish Ebdul Rehman Qasimlû (22 December 1930 – 13 July 1989) was an Iranian Kurdish politician. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Abolhassan Banisadr Abolhassan Banisadr (Persian: ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر;born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... .PÂVEH The City of Thousand Mausoleums [www. ... Marivan Countryside Marivan (in Kurdish: Merîwan, in Persian: مریوان) is a city in west of Kurdistan Province of Iran. ...


Kurdish political organizations were enthusiastic supporters of the revolution against the Shah, which brought Ayatollah Khomeini to power in 1979. The Shah had shown himself to be no friend of Kurdish aspirations for greater autonomy and a loosening of Tehran's control over their affairs. From the early days of the revolution, relations between the central government and Kurdish organizations have been fraught with difficulties. The Kurds, with their different language and traditions and their cross-border alliances, were seen as vulnerable to exploitation by foreign powers who wished to destabilize the young republic. Sunni Kurds, unlike the overwhelming majority of their countrymen, abstained from voting to endorse the creation of an Islamic republic in April 1979. That referendum institutionalized Shia primacy and made no provision for regional autonomy. As early as 1979 armed conflict broke out between armed Kurdish factions and the Iranian government's security forces. The Kurdish forces included primarily the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI) and the leftist Komala (Revolutionary Organization of Kurdish Toilers)[29]. In a speech, Ayatollah Khomeini called the concept of ethnic minority contrary to Islamic doctrines. He also accused those who do not wish Muslim countries to be united in creating the issue of nationalism among minorities. His views were shared by many in the clerical leadership [30]. Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran is a Kurdish opposition group in Iranian Kurdistan which seeks the attainment of Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran. ... Komalah (Komele in Kurdish) is a Marxist Kurdish opposition group. ...


The new leadership had little patience for Kurdish demands and opted for crushing unrest through military means. On August 17th 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini declared holy war against the Kurds. Entire villages and towns were destroyed to force Kurds into submission [31]. Ayatollah Khalkhali, sentenced thousands of men to execution after summary trials without regard for the rights of the accused. The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps fought to reestablish government control in the Kurdish regions. As a result more than 10,000 Kurds were killed [32]. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Holy war may refer to: Jihad, war fought to spread the religion of Islam. ... Ayatollah Sadeq Khalkhali Ayatollah Sadeq Ahmadi Givi aka Sadegh Khalkhali (Persian: ‎ ) (1927–November 26, 2003) was a much maligned, hardline Shia cleric of the early years of the Islamic Republic of Iran who became notorious for his cavalier attitude in passing on death sentences, and became known as Irans... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


1996 Demonstrations

On December 2, 1996, the death of a prominent Sunni clergy, Mulla Mohammed Rabiei in Kermanshah led to violent clashes between Sunni Kurds and the security forces. Mulla Rabiei was the prayer leader in the Al-Shafe'i mosque in Kermanshah. The protests continued for three days and spread to neighboring towns in the region [33]. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Khatami Period

a view of Sanandaj the second major city in Persian Kurdistan.

In 1997, Sunni Kurds like many other Iranians took part in the presidential election. Both civilian and military Kurdish opposition groups requested Kurds not to be indifferent toward the election. President Khatami praised the glory of Kurdish culture and history. From Kurdish side, the demands were mainly related to the Kurdish language and top-level officials. In his first term, Khatami appointed Abdollah Ramezanzadeh to be the first Kurdish governor of the Iranian province of Kurdistan. He also appointed several Sunni and Shia Kurds as his own or cabinet member’s advisors. In his second term, Khatami had two Kurdish cabinet members; both of them were Shia. The increased presence of Kurdish representatives in the sixth parliament led to expectations that some of the voters’ demands would be met. After the first round, in which 18 Kurds were elected, one candidate said that he expected there would be more Kurdish instruction at the university in Sanandaj, and he called on the Khatami government to have more Kurdish officials. Subsequently, a 40-member parliamentary faction representing the predominantly Kurdish provinces of Kurdistan, and Kermanshah was formed[34]. However, there were many other civilian Kurdish activists who did not join the reform movement. Mohammad Sadiq Kaboudvand was among the latter who started an independent human right association to defend the right of Kurdish people. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3011 KB) By: Ebrahim Badakhshan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3011 KB) By: Ebrahim Badakhshan. ... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ... President Khatami Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: حجت‌الاسلام سید محمد خاتمی; born October, 1943 in Ardakan) is the fifth and current President of Iran. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Abdollah Ramezanzadeh (عبدالله رمضان‌زاده in Persian), also spelled Ramazanzadeh, is the spokesman and secretary of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Mohammad Sadiq Kaboudvand is an Iranian Kurdish activist and journalist. ...


1999 Demonstrations

In February 1999, Kurdish nationalists took to the streets in several cities such as Mahabad, Sanandaj and Urmia and staged mass protests against the government and in support of Abdullah Ocalan. This was viewed as trans-nationalization of the Kurdish movement [35]. These protests were violently suppressed by the government forces. According to Human rights groups, at least 20 people were killed [36]. This article is about the year. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ... Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh) is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Abdullah Öcalan Abdullah Öcalan (pronounced euh-ja-lán) born 1948 is the leader of the terrorist organization of Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). ...


Discrimination against Sunni Muslims

In present-day Iran, while Shi'a religious institutions are encouraged, Sunni institutions are blocked. In 1993 a newly constructed Sunni mosque in Sanandaj was destroyed by a mob of Shi'a zealots. Despite the fact that more than one million Sunnis live in Tehran, many of them Kurds, no Sunni mosque exists to serve their religious needs[37]. In a rare public protest, eighteen Sunni parliamentarians wrote to the authorities in July 2003 to criticize the treatment of the Sunni Muslim community and the refusal to allow construction of a mosque in Tehran that would serve that community[38]. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Shivan Qaderi incident

On July 9, 2005, a Kurdish opposition activist, Shivan Qaderi [39] (also known as Shwane Qadri or Sayed Kamal Asfaram) and two other Kurdish men were shot by Iranian security forces in Mahabad. According to witnesses, the security forces then tied Qaderi's body to a Toyata jeep and dragged it through the streets. Iranian authorities confirmed that Qaderi, "who was on the run and wanted by the judiciary", was shot and killed while allegedly evading arrest[citation needed]. is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shivan Qaderi [1] (a. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ...


For the next six weeks, riots and protests erupted in Kurdish towns and villages throughout Eastern Kurdistan such as Mahabad, Sinne (Sanandaj), Sardasht, Piranshahr (Xanê), Oshnavieh (Şino), Baneh, Bokan and Saqiz [40] (and even inspiring protests in southwestern Iran and in Baluchistan in eastern Iran) with scores killed and injured, and an untold number arrested without charge[citation needed]. The Iranian authorities also shut down several major Kurdish newspapers arresting reporters and editors[citation needed]. View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ... Sardasht (in Kurdish: SerdeÅŸt, also ZerdeÅŸt) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50,000 inhabitants, [1] southwest of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ... A city on the border between Iran and Iraq, and the high mountains of Siyah Kooh and Shiphan lie respectively to the northwest and south. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Åžino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 53,000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Åžino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 100,000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Baneh (in kurdish: Bane, in persian: بانه) is a city in northwstern Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Bukan (in kurdish also called: Bokan) is a city in northwestern Iran with 213,331 inhabitants [1] (the second populous city of the province), south of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Saqqez or Saghez (in kurdish: Seqiz, in persian: سقز) is a city in northern Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Sistān and BalÅ«chestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


In 13 March 2006, Saleh Nikbakht, a well-known Iranian human right lawyer who is Mr Qaderi's lawyer announced that Qaderi's murderer was a member of Police who shot the victim illegally. He also added that the murderer and the one who ordered the act are under investigations and the judiciary system has been cooperative up to now[citation needed]. Previously government authorities accused Qaderi of "moral and financial violations." Saleh Nikbakht rejected all these allegations. is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran is a Kurdish opposition group in Iranian Kurdistan which seeks the attainment of Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran. ...


Major cities

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh) is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ... Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Saqqez or Saghez (سقز) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Sardasht (in Kurdish: Serdeşt, also Zerdeşt) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50,000 inhabitants, [1] southwest of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Kamyaran (in Kurdish: Kamyaran, in Persian: کامیاران) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Bukan (in Kurdish also called: Bokan) is a city south of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Marivan Countryside Marivan (in Kurdish: Merîwan, in Persian: مریوان) is a city in west of Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Şino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 53,000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Diwandarreh (in kurdish: Dîwandere, in persian: دیواندره) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Paveh (in Kurdish Pawe) is a city in Iranian province of Kermanshah (Kirmaşan). ... Baneh (in kurdish: Bane, in persian: بانه) is a city in northwstern Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Location of Ilam in Irans map Ilam is the capital of Ilam Province in Iran. ... Bijar (in kurdish: Bîcar, in persian: بیجار) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... The township of Qorveh (in Persian: قروه) is located to the east of the Iranian Kurdistan Province. ...

Famous People from Iranian Kurdistan

‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Khana Qubadi or (Xana Qubadî in Kurdish), (1700-1759), was a Kurdish poet. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mah Sharaf Khanom Mastoureh Ardalan or Mastura Ardalan ( Mestûrey Erdelan in Kurdish ) (1805 -1848) was an Iranian Kurdish poet and writer. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wafaei or Wefayî, (1844-1902), was a Kurdish poet. ... Jan. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Qazi Mohammad Qazi Muhammad (1893-1947) was the Nationalist and Religious Kurdish leader and the Head of Republic of Mahabad the second modern Kurdish state in the Middle East (after Republic of Ararat). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Approximate extent of the Republic. ... ... Hejar or Abdurrahman Sharafkandi or Hazhar, (1920-1990), was a renowned Kurdish writer, poet, linguist and translator. ... Hejar or Abdurrahman Sharafkandi or Hazhar, (1920-1990), was a renowned Kurdish writer, poet, linguist and translator. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Hemin Mukriyani ( Hêmin Mukriyanî), (1921-1986) is the pen name of Seyed Mohammad Amini Shaik-ol-eslam Mokri, Kurdish poet and journalist. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Hesen Zîrek or Hasan Zirak (1921–1972) was born in Hermêle (also Harmila), a small village in Bukan region in North-Western Iran (Eastern Kurdistan). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... ... Karim Hisami or Kerîmî Hisamî, (1926-2001) was a Kurdish writer. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... ... Amir Hassanpour, (1943- ), is a prominent Iranian Kurdish scholar and researcher. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roya Toloui, (1966- ), is a prominent Kurdish journalist, human rights activist and feminist. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Abdollah Ramezanzadeh (عبدالله رمضان‌زاده in Persian), also spelled Ramazanzadeh, is the spokesman and secretary of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Bahman Ghobadi (born February 1, 1969) is a Kurdish film director. ... Omid Kordestani (Kurdish: Umîd Kurdistanî; Persian: امید کردستانی) is the Senior Vice President for Worldwide Sales and Field Operations of Google. ... This article is about the corporation. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The Azadi Stadium is Irans national and largest stadium. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Mohammad Ghazi (August 3, 1913 - January 14, 1998) or Muhammad Qazi was a renowned Kurdish Iranian writer and translator. ... Ali Ashraf Darvishian (born in 1941 in Kermanshah) is a Kurdish ethnic Iranian story writer and scholar. ... Jamil RostamiIn 2002 he made his first short film titled The Trouble of Being a Boy which was screened in 24 domestic and international Festivals and was awarded several prizes. ... Abdol-Hamid Heyrat Sajjadi (in Persian: سيدعبدالحميد حيرت سجادي) is a notable Iranian scholar, researcher, literary figure and historian. ...

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  29. ^ D. and in khorasan [Cultural & Civil society of Khorasani Kurds, www.cskk.org]. McDowall,A Modern History of the Kurds, 1996, Chapter 13, "Subjects of the Shi'i Republic," pp. 261-287. -
  30. ^ Ayatollah Khomeini's Speech, Radio Tehran, December 17, 1979. Quoted in David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996, p. 271
  31. ^ [20]
  32. ^ [21]
  33. ^ [22]
  34. ^ [23]
  35. ^ Natali, D., Manufacturing Identity and Managing Kurds in Iraq, Turkey and Iran: A Study in Evolution of Nationalism, PhD Dissertation in Political Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2000, p.238
  36. ^ Iran : Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 1999, Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, February 23, 2000.
  37. ^ [24]
  38. ^ [25]
  39. ^ [26]
  40. ^ [27]

Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... Ali Akbar Dekhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ...

See also

The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Map showing areas with significant Kurdish population: Kurdistan: (the largest red section) Kurdish diaspora: (smaller red sections) in Middle East. ... Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) referes to music performed in Kurdish language. ... KurdishMedia. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ...

External links

Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran is a Kurdish opposition group in Iranian Kurdistan which seeks the attainment of Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran. ...


 
 

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