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Encyclopedia > Iranian Foreign Affairs
Contents

Introduction

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Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli; The main gates to Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tehran, Iran.

In Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini's revolutionary regime initiated sharp changes from the foreign policy pursued by the Shah, particularly in reversing the country's orientation toward the West. Following Iran's initial post revolutionary idealistic and hard line foreign policy and the Iran-Iraq war, the country has begun to settle down into a more objective and rational foreign policy. However, this is still occasionally overshadowed by rhetoric. Tehran (also spelled Teheran) (تهران in Persian), population 8,000,000 (metropolitan: 10,000,000), is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ...


In recent years Iran has made great strides in improving relations with its neighbours, particularly Saudi Arabia. Iran's regional goals are dominated by wanting to establish a leadership role, curtail the presence of the United States and other outside powers, and build trade ties. In broad terms, Iran's foreign policy emphasizes: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ...

  • Anti-U.S. and anti-Israel stances: The former as a military power that threatens it in the Persian Gulf, and the latter as part of its continuing post revolutionary Islamic Propaganda.

See article on U.S.-Iran relations. A satellite image showing the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, Arabic: الخليج الفارسي) is an extension of the Gulf of Oman in between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ... In 1953, Irans nationalist Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh began a period of rapid power consolidation, which eventually led to his exiling of Irans constitutional monarch, the Shah. ...

  • Eliminating outside influence in the region: Iran sees itself as a regional power, when it is not superseded by global powers such as the United States or Britain. It seeks to reduce their presence in the Persian Gulf where possible.
  • A great increase in diplomatic contacts with developing countries: As part of an effort to build trade and political support, now that it has lost its pre-revolutionary US backing.

Despite these guidelines, however, bilateral relations are frequently confused and contradictory due to Iran's oscillation between pragmatic and ideological concerns.


Post Revolution Period (1979-1980)

The country's foreign relations since the revolution have been tumultuous. A number of varying factors account for this, the most important among them is Iran's significant anti-western backlash after its revolution (the roots of this were in the west's support for the Shah).


At this time, Iran found itself very isolated due to its hardline and aggressive Islamic foreign policy, which wanted to see its revolutionary ideals spread across the Persian Gulf. A satellite image showing the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, Arabic: الخليج الفارسي) is an extension of the Gulf of Oman in between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ...


This resulted in confrontation with the U.S. in the hostage crisis. The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day period during which the new government of Iran after the Iranian Revolution held hostage 66 diplomats and citizens of the United States. ...


Iran-Iraq War Period (1980-1988)

Iran's relations with many of its Arab neighbors were also strained by Iranian attempts to spread its Islamic revolution. In 1981, Iran supported a plot to overthrow the Bahraini government. In 1983, Iran expressed political support for Shi'ites who bombed Western embassies in Kuwait, and in 1987, Iranian pilgrims rioted at poor living conditions and treatment and were consequently massacred during the Hajj (pilgrimage) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Nations with strong fundamentalist movements, such as Egypt and Algeria, also began to mistrust Iran. Iran created Hizballah with the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Furthermore, Iran went on to oppose the Arab-Israeli peace process, due to it seeing Israel as an illegal country. Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ...


Iran also concerned European nations, particularly France and Germany, after its secret service executed several radical Iranian dissidents in Europe.


Tensions with Iraq had never been good historically; however, they took a turn for the worse in 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, in the Iran-Iraq War. Much of the dispute centered around sovereignty over the waterway between the two countries, the Arvandrud (Shatt al-Arab), although underlying causes included each nation's overt desire for the overthrow of the other's government. The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in southern Iraq. ...


Iran demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Arvandrud as established under the 1975 Algiers Agreement signed by Iraq and Iran. This period saw Iran become even more isolated—with virtually no allies, Iran was forced to sign UN Security Council Resolution 598 in July 1988 after the United States and Germany began supplying Iraq with chemical weapons. The cease-fire, resulting from the UN Resolution, was implemented on August 20, 1988; neither nation had made any real gains in the war. It left 1 million Iranians dead and had a dramatic effect on the country's foreign policy. From this point on, the until then radical Islamist government recognised that it had no choice but to moderate and rationalise its objectives. The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia. ...


Post War Period (1988-present)

Since the end of the war, Iran's new foreign policy (see introduction) has had a dramatic effect on its global standing.


Relations with the European Union have dramatically improved to the point where Iran is a major oil exporter and trading partner for countries such as Italy, France, and Germany. The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ...


China and India have also emerged as friends for Iran. Together, the three of them face similar challenges in the global economy as they industrialize and consequently find themselves aligned on a number of issues. The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ...


Iran maintains regular diplomatic and commercial relations with Russia and the former Soviet Republics . Both Iran and Russia believe they have important national interests at stake in developments in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus, particularly on energy resources from the Caspian Sea. Russian and other sales of military equipment and technology concern Iran's neighbors and the United States. In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


Disputes:

  • Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway.
  • Iran occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran).
  • Iran jointly administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (called Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran) - over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since 1992, including access restrictions.
  • The Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Although this problem is set to be resolved peacefully in the coming years through slow negotiations.

Illicit drugs: Despite substantial interdiction efforts, Iran remains a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; domestic consumption of narcotics remains a persistent problem and Iranian press reports estimate that there are at least 1.2 million drug users in the country. Iran has been trying to increase the profile of its anti-drugs campaign abroad, but it is having little success. Most countries support it politically, but refuse Iran the critical equipment and training it needs. The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in southern Iraq. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe ( European Russia). ... Heroin or diamorphine (INN) (colloquially referred to as junk, babania, horse, golden brown, smack, black tar, big H, lady H, dope, skag, juice, diesel, etc. ...


Current policies of The Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran accords priority to its relations with the states of the region and with the Islamic world. This includes a strong commitment to the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and the Non-Aligned Movement. Relations with the states of the (Persian) Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), especially with Saudi Arabia, have improved in recent years. An unresolved territorial dispute with the United Arab Emirates concerning three islands in the Persian Gulf continues to mar its relations with these states, however. Tehran supports the interim Governing Council in Iraq but strongly advocates a prompt and full transfer of state authority to the Iraqi people. Iran hopes for stabilization in Afghanistan and supports the reconstruction effort so that the Afghan refugees in Iran (approximately 2.5 million) can return to their homeland and the flow of drugs from Afghanistan can be stemmed. Iran is also pursuing a policy of stabilization and cooperation with the countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia, whereby it is seeking to capitalize on its central location to establish itself as the political and economic hub of the region. The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... Tehran (also spelled Teheran) (تهران in Persian), population 8,000,000 (metropolitan: 10,000,000), is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Dari-Persian: Afğānistān افغانستان) is a country in Central Asia. ... The Caucasus is a region in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


Relations with the United States of America and the Member States of the European Union

Main article: U.S.-Iran relations In 1953, Irans nationalist Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh began a period of rapid power consolidation, which eventually led to his exiling of Irans constitutional monarch, the Shah. ...


Relations between Iran and the United States have been disrupted since the revolution in Iran. Iran does not maintain diplomatic relations with either the United States or Israel. It views the Middle East peace process with skepticism. Relations between Iran on the one hand and the European Union and its Member States on the other hand are slowly but surely increasing in importance, a fact underscored by President Seyed Mohammad Khatami's visits to Italy, France and Germany in July 2000 and to Austria and Greece in March 2002 as well as by reciprocal visits of European heads of state and government to Tehran and a lively exchange at ministerial levels. In 2002 the European Union launched negotiations on a Trade and Co-operation Agreement (TCA) with Iran. Parallel to these negotiations, the EU voiced its expectation that the political dialogue with Iran must lead to concrete results in the areas of human rights, efforts to counter terrorism, Iran’s stance on the Middle East peace process and issues associated with the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. During a joint visit to Tehran in October 2003, the foreign ministers of France, Germany and the United Kingdom successfully prompted the Iranian government to sign an additional protocol to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and commit itself to fully cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and voluntarily suspend its uranium enrichment and processing activities. The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit. ... The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... President Khatami Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: حجت‌الاسلام سید محمد خاتمی; born October, 1943 in Ardakan) is the fifth and current President of Iran. ... The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Kamal Kharrazi is the current Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran. Kamal Kharrazi (Persian: کمال خرازی) (born December 1, 1944 in Tehran), is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving since August 20, 1997. ... The first Minister of Foreign Affairs (or Foreign Minister) of Iran was Mirza Abdolvahhab Khan Motamed od-Dowleh Neshat who served between 1819 and 1824. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Foreign relations of Iran - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1794 words)
Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli: The main gates to Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tehran.
Iran demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Arvandrud, as established under the 1975 Algiers Agreement signed by Iraq and Iran.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran is selected by the President of Iran.
Iranian Visa : Your Key to Iran :: (Visa | Hotels | Tours | Transports | ...) (804 words)
Tourist visa is issued for foreign nationals who are interested to travel to Iran individually or with a group for the purpose of visiting Iran or their relatives.
Foreign nationals who intend to travel to other parts of the country, should submit their application to representative office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the area and the application will be reviewed and visa will be issued if approved, within 48 hour.
Press visa is issued for journalists and representatives of foreign media and press who intend to travel to Iran for purposes relating to their profession for a specific period.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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